La familia Chamidae ha sido poco estudiada en el Perú por su notable variación morfológica de las especies y los escasos estudios taxonómicos en la región. Dall (1909), reportó dos especies, Chama echinata y Chama pellucida; Olsson (1961), adicionó Pseudochama corrugata; Keen (1971), sólo menciona a esta última especie como presente en el mar peruano; Alamo y Valdivieso (1987, 1997) sólo reportan las tres especies mencio- nadas; Paredes et al. (1999), incluyen Chama venosa, mientras que Mogollón et al. (2000), adicionan Arcinella californica y
Abstract: The objective of this work was to determine the parasitic helminth fauna ofthe phylostomid bats of Junin, Peru, as well as to prepare an updated checklist ofrecords made inPeru. Thirty bats of 6 different species belonging to thefamily Phyllostomidae were captured inthe locality of Chanchamayo, Junin, Peru. Of these species, Artibeus lituratus Olfers, 1818, A. planirostris (Spix, 1823) and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) were parasitized by trematodes and nematodes; Phyllostomus discolor (Wagner, 1843) by cestodes and nemato- des; Carollia benkeithi Solari & Baker, 2006 and Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766) by nematodes. A total of 175 trematode specimens, 115 nematode specimens and 8 cestode specimens were collected. All parasites found inthe survey are newrecords for the department of Junin. The checklist developed in this study found 26 parasite species inthe literature. Litomosoides brasiliensis Almeida, 1936, was the endoparasite withthe largest number of hosts. The number of hosts with at least one species of parasite recorded was 22 bat species on the checklist. Key words: Bats, Host, Litomosoides, parasites, Phyllostomidae
species inthe country. This situation reflects that the study inthe taxonomy ofthe odonates in Colombia is still emerging, since it is a low number when compared with other countries ofthe re- gion such as Peru (481 spp.), Venezuela (487 spp.) and Brazil (660 spp.) (Hoff-
The aim of this work is to present three new shallow water (4 - >50 m) recordsof asteroids (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) for the Peruvian fauna: Astropecten regalis Gray, 1840, Paulia horrida Gray 1840 and Meyenaster gelatinosus (Meyen, 1834). Astropecten regalis geographical distribution is known that ranges from Gulf of California to Panama, this discovery extends its distribution to Mancora, Peru. Paulia horrida is known from Baja California to Isla Cocos, Costa Rica, and this record extends its southern distribution limit to Punta Sal, Peru. Meyenaster gelatinosus was considered endemic to Chilean waters, however, this record confirm its presence inPeru extending its northern distribution limit to San Juan de Marcona, Peru. Morphological and habitat information on this four species is provided, together with live pictures.
The current distribution map of Monocirrhus polyacanthus in South America, allows us to identify three large “distribution areas” ofthe species. The most obvious corresponds to the Orinoco basin in Colombia and Venezuela. Secondly, the main stem ofthe Amazon from upper Peru to the east coast of Brazil (in which two secondary areas can be differentiated upstream and downstream). Thirdly the most marginal area that includes the southern isolated localities ofthe upper Madeira River in Bolivia (Figs. 2 & 4). The Monocirrhus polyacanthus record inthe Toromonas stream basin is the southernmost ofthe species for the Madeira River basin (Table 1).
P ALABRAS CLAVES : Adesmia, Carex, Luzula, Oxychloë, taxonomía, fitogeografía.
Fivenewrecords for the vascular flora of continental Chile are reported, corresponding to Adesmia hemisphaerica Hauman (Fabaceae), Carex argentina Barros (Cyperaceae), Luzula parvula Barros (Juncaceae), Oxychloë bisexualis Kuntze and Oxychloë haumaniana (Barros) Barros (Juncaceae). Main iconography, geographical - environmental distribution and taxonomic commentaries are referred for each taxon. Some phytogeographical aspects are discussed based upon these floristical novelties.
The sample that we used in this study was made up of non-finance companies listed on the Spanish stock market from 2012 to 2016 and present inthe Iberian Balance Sheet Analysis System database (SABI, by its Spanish initials). The sample originally included 102 companies but was later reduced when we removed companies that did not have the data necessary for study during all ofthe years considered. We also removed all companies that showed negative equity capital in any year, as we considered these to be atypical situations that could distort the results ofthe study. Finally, we removed companies that, during the period considered, underwent ownership changes that affected their classification (family or non-family) as well as those that changed the classification of CEO (family CEO or non-family CEO). After applying these filters, we were left with a final sample of 78 businesses.
tions from El Agrado municipality in Huila between 08:00 and 15:00, hours of highest activity of these organisms (Figure 1). All localities were previously used for intensive farming and are currently part ofthe ecological restoration area ofthe El Quimbo hydroelectric project. The first locality is an area of about 300 m 2 at a water well located on the property of Comejenes, inthe rural area called El Pedernal (2 ◦ 17 0 22.62 00 N 75 ◦ 40 0 43.27 00 W), with a maximal elevation of 730 masl. The second loca-
Lienhard and Smithers (2002) listed 19 species of Psocoptera from Paraguay (http://www.ville-ge.ch/mhng/ psocoptera/page/ps05par.htm). Twelve of these species were collected by K. Fiebrig in June and August, 1906; July, 1906; and July, 1907 in San Bernardino, on the east margin of Ypacaraí Lake. The specimens collected were made available to Günther Enderlein, leading authority inthe taxonomy ofthe Psocoptera at that time who, in 1910 (a and b), described the genera Pelmatocoria (now Steleops), Steleops, Lichenomima, Phlotodes (now Myopsocus), Rhaptoneura (now Myopsocus), Euplocania, Labocoria (now Mesopsocus), Colposeopsis (now Syllysis), Notolepium, and Trigonosceliscus (now Embidopsocus), and described 12 species inthe above genera, excluding Phlotodes and Labocoria, and inthe genera Amphigerontia (the species described was later transferred to Metylophorus), Clematostigma, Caecilius (now Valenzuela), and Echmepteryx. Since 1906, almost no psocid collecting was done inthe country, and only seven species were added to those described by Enderlein; so the
Female (MACN-Ar 17993, PBI_OON 14893, Figs. 3, 5-6). Total length 1.83. As in male except as noted. CEPHALOTHORAX: Carapace yellow- brown; non-marginal pars cephalica setae dark, needle-like, present, scattered; non-marginal pars thoracica setae dark, needle-like. Clypeus setae present, dark, needle-like. Eyes PLE cir- cular. Labium broad, transversely elongated hexagon. Palp claw absent; tarsus unmodified. ABDOMEN: dorsum soft portions without the dorsal sclerotized stripe ofthe males. Colulus represented only by setae. LEGS: pale orange. Leg spination (only surfaces bearing spines listed, all spines longer than segment width): femora: I d1-0-0, pv0-0-1-1-0; II d1-0-0, pv0-0-0-1-0; III, IV d1-0-0; tibiae: I v2-2-2-2-0, II v2-2-2-2-0, III v0- 0-1, r0-0-1, p1-1; IV d0-1-0; p1-0-1; v1-0-2; meta- tarsi: I, v2-2-2, II v2-2-2; III v0-0-2; r0-1-0, p1-1; IV d0-1-0; p1-0-1; v1-0-2; r1-0-0.
Hypoxylon Bull. is the largest and most com- plex genus ofthefamily Hypoxylaceae (Wendt et al., 2018). The genus includes species with unipartite hemispherical to effused-pulvinate stromata with colored surface and homogeneous waxy to fibrous tissue bellow perithecial layer; and a nodulisporium-like anamorph, but with variations inthe branching patterns ofthe conid- iophores (Daranagama et al., 2018; Ju & Rogers, 1996; Wendt et al., 2018). Their stromata release diverse pigments in contact with KOH solution. These pigments are secondary metabolites de- posited as colored granules below the stromatal surface and surrounding the perithecia, which frequently can possess species-specific chemical entities useful to discriminate Hypoxylon spe- cies (Hellwig et al., 2005; Kuhnert et al., 2014ab; Stadler et al., 2008).
Lo que se conoce en la literatura como los costos intangibles de la violencia doméstica, estos costos mientras mayores sean más perjudicial será para el niño y su desenvolvimiento en la sociedad, Aizer (2014) encuentra que para Estados Unidos, la violencia doméstica reduce el tamaño del peso del nacimiento del niño y que más grande es el efecto si recurre en los primeros períodos del embarazo. Marthur y Slavov (2013) realizaron una investigación para la India sobre la violencia doméstica en donde encontraron que es más probable que una mujer busque empleo cuando mayor abuso ha soportado y también que la promoción de leyes que aumentan la autonomía de la mujer reduce la probabilidad de violencia hacía la ella. Gigi El-Bayoumi y otros(1998) muestra que los niños cuyas madres han sufrido violencia doméstica son más propensos a tener dificultades de aprendizaje y que al mismo tiempo son más probables de convertirse en personas violentas. Otros estudios como Levendovsky y Graham-Bermann (2001, p. 22) encuentran: “the children are affected by
En conclusión, las diversas in- vestigaciones y experiencias mues- tran cómo la psicoeducación se con- vierte en un factor protector contra la carga familiar y disminuye el agotamiento del cuidador; esto se debe, según consideramos, a que una mayor información del cuidador sobre la psicopatología de su familiar le permite estar más atento ante la aparición de la crisis, solicitar una consulta médica inmediata, estar pendiente del suministro de los me- dicamentos, mayor sensibilización ante el padecimiento de su familiar y más compasión frente al que sufre el peso de la enfermedad.
Hi, my name is Mia, and I am 12 years-old. My ………. name is Ana. She is 40 years-old. My father’s name is Alexander and he is a ……….. He is 45 years-old. We live in a big ………. close to the beach. We have a dog, and her name is Terra. My mother’s favourite ……….. are cats and that is why we have two cats. The cats’ names are Tiny and Bella. I also have an older ………. who doesn’t live with us. My brother’s hamster Danny does, and he is my best ………..
tween 0.034 and 0.056 AU, where encounters between the test particle and OGLE-TR-111b would occur. For all the other or- bits, we calculate TTVs ofthe transiting body withthe hy- pothetical coplanar perturber using a wide range of masses (0.1 M ⊕ M per 5000 M ⊕ ), variable density (from Earth to Jupiter density depending on the mass), and semimajor axes (0.02 AU a 0.13 AU in steps of 0.005 AU) with ∼ 4500 simulations over seven years. All the initial relative angles were fixed to zero. Near resonances, the steps inthe variables were reduced to increase precision. Only the last five years were used for the timing analysis, since that is about the same time span covered by the observations, and also to minimize any effects introduced by the choice of initial parameters. Then we cal- culated the central time of each transit during all the simu- lations. Similarly to what was done in Section 4, we did a linear fit of these central times and we defined the TTV of each simulation as the standard deviation ofthe central times
Camponotus (31 species, 12%), Pseudomyrmex (26 species, 10%), and Pachycondyla (20 species, 8%) are the three most represented genera. Fifty-nine percent ofthe species are shared withthe North Andean Province (PN), 40% withthe Amazon Province (PA), while 35% are shared withthe Orinoquia Province (PO). Less than 25% ofthe species are shared with a belt of arid lands inthe Caribbean coast of Colombia, Guyana province, and the island territories. Sixty-three percent ofthe species of Antioquia are shared with Costa Rica, which is a country in close vicinity and the most consistently ant-surveyed country in Latin American (Longino 2011). Close to 900 species are recorded for Costa Rica and 255 species are herein recorded for Antioquia. Despite the fact that 63% ofthe ants from Antioquia are shared with Costa Rica, there exists a high likelihood that this shared percentage will be considerably reduced when more ants are identified and sampling in Antioquia is in- tensified. The current wide distribution of several genera considered herein is recorded as the result ofthe Great American Biotic Interchange of species, after the closing ofthe Isthmus of Panama inthe late Pliocene Period (Kimsey, 1992). Brown (1973) recorded the following genera moving through the Isthmus as a result ofthe interchange: Atta, Azteca, Cylindromyrmex, Ectatomma, Acanthoponera, Paraponera, and Thaumatomyrmex.
F represents the non conservative disturbing forces as the atmospheric friction, the radiation pressure, the solar wind, etc. The most important motion inthe solar system can be described in its first approximation without considering the disturbing forces, as a two-body problem: Sun-planet, Earth-satellite, etc. The two-body problem is a well-known integrable problem and its solution is given by a set ofthe orbital elements !σ , , . The most common set of elements is the third set of Brower and Clemence !σ = (a, e, i, Ω, ω, M ) , M = n(t − t 0 ) + M 0 , where n = µ 1/2 a − 3/2 is the mean motion and M 0 is the