This research paper analyzes two sci- entific policies implemented between 2004-2015 from the main agencies oftheArgentinian sector and their impact within the framework ofnationaluniversities. It explores the reach and outcome ofthe policy inthe making of doctorates (Phd’s) and their influence on therecent configu- ration of postgraduate activity and that of teaching inthe university. This research also, investigates the influence the policy of prioritization andscientific research as well as the strategies and orientations of univer- sity apparatus. The research is made through a qualitative approach, a documentary survey was carried out, supplemented by interviews with gov- ernmental and university authorities.
The work by Alejandro Mungaray, Jorge Ramos, Ismael Plascencia and Pa- tricia Moctezuma explores the possibilities for institutional change in univer- sities, in response to strengthening their capacity to contribute to economic development through knowledge generation. It also emphasizes the essen- tial character that their interactions with other actors in innovation networ- ks have inthe process. In fact, the role ofuniversitiesand research centers not only changes according to the dynamic of knowledge production, but also changes course on the basis ofthe demands made by other social stake- holders. The response to these demands requires authorities to have the capability to rethink the mission and vision of their institutions. While this paper applies the concepts to the context of Baja California, it is clear that universitiesin all regions of Mexico need to start changing their orientation, speech and deed, in this direction. These authors give their article a regional perspective focus, which its importance is internationally recognized, only at a regional level may and should the role of various stakeholders in innova- tion systems be reconfigured, to adapt its performance to the needs ofthe re- gion, as federal policies tend to lose sensitivity to local needs, while they aim to address the main national medians. A significant portion ofthe value ofthe perspective presented by these authors arises from the vision that put the role ofuniversities among all the activities of knowledge generation which are becoming increasingly diversified, forming a coherent and coordinated set of efforts for achieving regional competitiveness.
The training of high qualified human resources is a critical issue for theNational System of Science and Technology (SNCyT). In particular, for theNational Council ofScientificand Technical Research (CONICET) doctoral training is mandatory for the application to the Career ofScientificand Technological Research (CICyT). Previous studies on thenational postgraduate system have described a hasty evolution of supply and demand since the late eighties. The aim of this paper is to update and expand the analysis ofthe evolution of supply and demand for postgraduate training, especially on the PhD level, as well as a first analysis ofthe relationship between CONICET fellowships anduniversities. Although much ofthe information is of difficult access and sometimes that which is available is incomplete and fragmentary, our results show differences inthe growth of supply and demand according to disciplines and geographic areas. Moreover, our evidence shows that there were qualitative and quantitative impacts ofthe CONICET fellowship program inthenational postgraduate system since 2003. This paper concludes with a discussion about the postgraduate system in Argentina and its interaction with the SNCyT.
Abstract: In a society in which knowledge plays an increasing role, European universities have become essential actors. This has been reflected in demands to redefine their traditional missions and open the door to a «third mission». Links with external partners become a central part of its mission and priority of science policy and higher education. This set oftrends is presented in this paper based on the analysis of one ofthe contemporary university components: the doctoral education. We have been seeing a renewed debate about the doctoral education that trigger changesin terms of their characteristics, functions and values. To this end, we developed a review ofthescientific literature produced on the subject andthe use of secondary sources regarding the development ofscientificand educational systems in Europe. We also use the Portuguese case as an illustrative example ofthe analysis. We consider the agents operating in higher education within its borders and outside the sector, at global andnational levels. What we see analyzing the doctoral education in Europe is the creation of new institutions, openness to more student groups, other teaching methods and more collaboration with industry. The development of doctoral programs is seen today to prepare researchers for careers in academia, but also for other sectors. Changesinthe nature of research and knowledge produced by doctoral students, as in their own training paths, are important aspects.
Nonimaging SOEs increase CAP (as n increases) and improve irradiance uniformity. Two current nonimaging solutions present inthe market are shown in Fig. 2. A hollow inverted trun- cated pyramid reflector (XTP) improves the spectral homogeneity of non-SOEs systems. Company Amonix 28 uses this solution. To date, the highest concentrator module efficiency is claimed by Amonix, the Californian CPV specialist, after theNational Renewable Energy Laboratory measured its 35.9% module efficiency. 29 The solid dielectric version of XTP, refrac- tive truncated pyramid (RTP), by using total internal reflection (TIR), improves both the homo- geneity andthe CAP. Homogenization is obtained through multiple TIRs on the prism walls. Several companies use this kind of SOE, as Daido Steel, 27 Suntrix, 30 and recently bankrupted pioneer CPV firm Solfocus used it as well. For instance, with SOG Fresnel lenses and 39.0% efficient MJ cells, Suntrix module shows 28.0% efficiency. 30 Performance of several different SOEs was the subject of our previous studies. 31
All these actions fostered an interest to establish common guidelines, objectives and procedures in order to devise a common language policy in different Spanish universities. As a result, in 2017 the CRUE published a document for the implementation of a language policy in Spain (Bazo et al., 2017), in which the main objective was to organize shared initiatives and to apply homogeneous criteria in order to promote linguistic internationalization. The document is divided in three separate sections: accreditation, training and incentives, which at the same time cover each ofthe three important groups of stakeholders (students, teachers and administrative staff). In accreditation, the document presents the importance of possessing adequate linguistic levels for students and teachers inthe case of mobility programmes or for the participation of both groups in bilingual studies, as well as the linguistic requirements for administration staff to contribute to the internationalization profile ofthe university. The second dimension addressed, describes thechallengesofthe three groups of stakeholders with respect to the training actions that would be needed in order to equip them with the necessary competences to manipulate complex academic contents, to participate in mobility programmes, and to effectively function in different professional and multicultural contexts. This section also includes a proposal of courses and training activities specific for each one ofthe stakeholders. The third area proposes a series of suggestions for the creation of a global programme of incentives for students, teachers and administrative staff in order to encourage their participation inthe actions towards the process of internationalization andin order to reward their efforts. Although the document emanates from the CRUE and has been developed with the objective of establishing a series of uniform guidelines for all Spanish universities, the authors clearly state that it has to be used as a framework of reference and not as a checklist, and, most importantly, it should be supported and applied by the different universities according to their characteristics and contexts: “The recommendations proposed here would need the overt backing andthe coordination from those more directly involved in decision-making at theuniversities” (2017: 21).
As potential prey species of all sizes were generally abundant, there was unlikely to be any significant difference in locating preferred versus non-preferred prey. We suggest that male Goshawks, which take on the bulk ofthe nestling provisioning during the breeding season (Newton 1979), provide fewer small birds (<100 g) because they incur relatively higher capture and transportation costs in comparison to larger prey species (Andersson & Norberg 1981, Korpimäki et al. 1994). Another explanation is that male Goshawks may have consumed small prey at the capture site (Sonerud 1992, Rutz 2003). The avoidance of very large avian prey, such as crows and gulls weighing over 400 g, may also be associated with higher costs of capture; large, social and aggressive prey could be difficult to hunt for small southern Goshawks weighing on average only 670 g (Pérez- Camacho et al. 2015). Moreover, gulls and crows exhibit mobbing behaviour and adopt a group defence strategy against raptors, which probably protects nestlings and fledglings against Goshawk attacks, possibly explaining why they rarely appeared inthe diet. The short wings and long tail ofthe Goshawk make it an extremely manoeuvrable hunter that is well adapted to hunting within forest habitats. Nestlings and fledglings of forest birds found immediately near the Goshawk’s nest are profitable prey. Feral Pigeons, as open habitat dwellers, however, formed an exception. Preference for them is likely due to their optimal
Luengas, L., Guevara, J., & Sánchez, G. (2009). ¿Cómo desarrollar un laboratorio virtual? Metodología de diseño. Nuevas Ideas E Informática Educativa, 5, 165-170. Malkawi, A., Srinivasan, R., Jackson, B., Yun Yi, Kin Chan, & Angelov, S. (2004). Interactive, immersive visualization for indoor environments: Use of augmented reality, human-computer interaction and building simulation. In Eighth International Conference on Information Visualisation, 2004. IV 2004. Proceedings. (pp. 833-838). Mitchell, P., Parsons, S., & Leonard, A. (2006). Using Virtual Environments for
Bibliometric analysis ofscientific research co authorship network from Spanish universities. Using the docu- ments referred inthe Science and Social Citation Index from 2000 to 2004, the more important output data is analyzed applying social network analysis, and devel- oping a bibliometric map that allows its visualization. The Spanish intrasectorial university network it´s com- pound by the interconnection of subnetwork of regional scope. The research collaboration network between the Spanish universities constitutes a great component with absence of alternative components and/or isolated nodes. Spanish university research networks are geo- graphically localized.
An optimal perioperative pain management is essen- tial to enhance recovery after surgery. However, peri- operative pain management continues to be a challenge and very often with suboptimal results. Among the explanations is the variability in percep- tion of pain, the scarcity of procedural specific pain treatment guidelines, the extrapolation from adult data andthe lack of tools to efficiently predict which patient is at risk of moderate-to-severe postoperative pain and CPSP. Considering the opioid epidemic andthe impact of chronic pain in this susceptible popu- lation, the progress in these research fields will hope- fully help healthcare providers to build a tailored pain treatment with a focus on a reduction of opioid use and risk of developing CPSP.
IRE is published in partnership between the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning and Springer. IRE provides a forum for compar- ative research on lifelong learning. It was created in 1955 and is published every six months. IRE’s languages of publication are English and French (as well as German until 2013). It is published in print and electronic version by subscription (authors who wish to publish open access must cover the cost, which is contrary to UNESCO policy on publications, but this is due to the partnership with Springer). The journal is included in several indexes and bibliographic services such as Scopus and ERIC. IRE’s budget comes from subscriptions (75%) andthe Institute (25%). The journal has seen its budget affected with the decrease in subscriptions andthe UNESCO’s budgetary limitations.
Pero la curiosidad del caso no acaba aquí. Estos núcleos, relativamente pequeños, con "sólo" algunos miles de casas, están construidos con un diseño temático para atraer a los primeros residentes, mientras que el resto de la ciudad está construida en el estilo convencional de las ciudades chinas de hoy. ¿Cuáles son los temas? Básicamente estilos historicistas europeos, de todos los tipos y épocas (figura 10): Gaoqiao (holandés), Feng Cheng (español), Pu Jiang (italiano), Anting (alemán), Song Jiang (inglés), Luodian (norte de Europa), Feng Jing (norteamericano), and Zhoujiajiao (ciudad tradicional china vinculada al agua); una última ciudad, Zhoupu (mezcla de estilos occidentales), fue cancelada.
Recent assessments ofthe lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with increased production of liquid biofuels inthe U.S. have found that a relatively large share of these emissions is related to land-use change in other countries, with Brazil playing a prominent role. However, most ofthe existing analyses including EPA’s RFS assumptions about indirect land-use change (ILUC) do not reflect recent data on deforestation rates in Brazil, which have been declining. There seems to be evidence that agricultural producers in Brazil are intensifying crop and livestock production and incorporating new land at lower rates than intherecent past. Additionally, the competition for forestry areas, andin particular between agriculture, pastures, and planted forests is poorly understood, and not explicitly taken into account in previous assessments in several modeling exercises. This paper provides a review of several ofthe major factors that will determine the need to incorporate additional land to production in response to a demand increase, for example as a result of biofuel policies. This additional land that may need to be brought into production is critical as it will affect significantly the environmental credentials andin particular carbon footprints of different biofuels. Among the factors reviewed are the potential for yield intensification in response to higher returns (intensification effects), andthe limited existing evidence in yield drags as areas are incorporate to crop production (extensification effects). Scenario analysis using an augmented version ofthe CARD/FAPRI agricultural modeling system (augmented to include planted forests in Brazil) seem to provide evidence, that intensification of crops and livestock production in countries like Brazil, andof competition with planted forests reduces the pressure for deforestation of natural areas. We also highlight that the explicit modeling of planted forests as a user of land, allows for the inclusion ofthe competition of this activity (and its resistance to give away area) with the more traditionally modeled crops and pastures
Despite fulfilling the promise ofthe Presidential General Staff disappearing, the reality is that the armed forces have become a disciplined instrument at the service ofthe President of Mexico, and that this follows a policy of continuity with the Mexican tradition of military au- tonomy (Arteta, 2018; Notimex, 2019). The approval of a National Guard, under military com- mand, and composed of elements ofthe army, navy and federal police; and its missions focused on combating organized crime (as a national police), as well as neutralizing the passage of migrants through Mexican territory confirms this hypothesis. Officially presented, with all the legal instruments approved, at Campo Marte on June 30, 2019, theNational Guard will depend on the Secretary of Security and Citizen Prevention, and will have General Luis Rodríguez Bu- cio as the first commander. There is no doubt in pointing out that this institution will become the central pivot of López Obrador’s security strategy, and that it will directly manage a good part ofthe missions related to thenational security agenda inthe Mexican territory (Damian, 2019).
ever, the priority has been put on reforestation of green urban areas and on the recovery of agricultural soil. It was not until the mid 1990’s that an integral vision of restoration was included. For example, regarding reforestation, compact rural areas were pri- oritized through the introduction of native species. Although this was an important step, production and planting is still empha- sized and not enough attention has been put on survival rates ofthe plants or the consolidation of reforested areas. Other impor- tant programs are the recovery of threatened priority species, the elimination of exotic species, andthe recovery of degraded lands in priority regions such as the humid tropics, among others. There is significant progress inthe programmatic platform, alloca- tion of economic resources, and institutional strengthening. However, there is a need to consolidate and harmonize an adequate legal framework, increase efforts to build technical andscientific workgroups with a long term, interdisciplinary and integral vision that influence and promote innovative public policy for environmental restoration.
As mentioned above, SNP has many surrounding communities which depend on the forest for livelihoods – hunting, fishing, farming, mining, chain-sawing etc. This research gathered that there are limited alternative livelihood options around the Park and at such there are many cases of illegal activities within the SNP. According to information received, communities received benefits from illegal miners thus allowing them entry into the SNP. However, when these illegal occupants are caught by rangers and forwarded to the judicial authority at the local level, the prosecution process is weak compounded by weak judicial system especially at the FDA to follow up wildlife cases. Thus, the local authorities at the county lack the basic understanding on SNP management; they need to help FDA manage the park for current and future generations.
The lack of an integrated information policy for scientific activity evaluation has led to a wide range of information products and services that are used for such purposes, although they were not originally designed for that. While it is true that these tools have limitations and deficiencies, andin several cases are technologically and methodologically obsolete, possibly the biggest problem is sustainability inthe present times of economic crisis, especially if they do not take on new strategic tasks, such as assessment, which is a priority today. Various products are reviewed in this critical essay: scientific journal portals, with the rec- ommendation to implement value added systems like SciELO instead of simple database management; current databases on offer, with questions about having national products without metrics; institutional repositories, with the observation that they have forgotten to serve authors, their real end users; and institutional ranking systems, suggesting that some have not learned from the successes of those based on composite indicators. Recommendations include institutional coordination of services; professionalism versus incompetence; and an end to the economic drain caused both by licensing underused databases and by maintaining outdated policies based on criteria that have been abandoned at the international level.