Another interesting issue is the effect of commuting over the budget of local governments. According to the model in section II, opening the possibility of commuting implies that the population of region 1 grows and the population of region 2 decreases (see the description of the transition scenario). To appreciate the potential quantitative significance of this kind of phenomenon we undertake the following thought experiment. Assume that the possibilities of commuting are (exogenously) reduced, such that one of every two agents that live in the SBA and work in the CBA decides to move to the CBA. Also assume that each of the moving workers has a standard family (a partner and two children), and that the (moving) families originally had access to local public goods in the SBA and pay taxes there, at the average level. Under this scenario, the resulting migration would cause a decrease in government expenditures in the SBA of 1,040 million pesos and a decrease of 566 million pesos in total tax receipts; this would derive in 474 million pesos of net savings for the sub-national (i.e., provincial and municipal) governments of the SBA.
In Spain, since the establishment of Foundation for the Training of Employees (Fundación para la Formación Continua) in 1993, a spectacular growth of training plans and training agencies has taken place. The efforts have been focused on the quantitative development of employee training systems and on the consolidation of training habits throughout working life and in organizations. But the impact of these efforts is unknown, because training evaluation has been a deficient practice (Pineda-Herrero, Moreno-Andrés & Durán-Belloch, 2014). In an context of economic crisis, there is a need for measures aimed at reducing expenditures that has driven the government and the companies to question the cost-effectiveness of the approach to training used until now, more interested in the number of workers who have attended any training initiative or in the number of training courses delivered, andto prioritize training impact in the workplace (Renta-Davis, Jiménez-González, Fandos-Garrido & González-Soto, 2014). The concern for transfer of training and for its evaluation is making a dominant appearance on the stage.
Overall, several attempts have been made to apply the recommendations of studies on stress in the workplaceandto instruct workers in coping mechanisms and multidisci- plinary partnerships. A proper intervention should focus on solutions that involve the active participation of institution- al employers. Workers who do not exercise regularly gen- erally have higher levels of stress. Physical activity is also associated with psychosocial benefits; for example, the so- cial interaction and interpersonal communication that take place during exercise can serve as strategies for coping with stressful situations. If nothing is done to alleviate stressors, workers’ clinical conditions may emerge or worsen. Over- work may make appropriate periodic medical monitoring difficult. Many diseases may result from the effects of stress and lack of an adequate clinical follow-up. Although the worker may not realise it, the body responds to a lack of care through the emergence of chronic diseases, which could be prevented or detected earlier through medical monitoring and changes in behaviour and lifestyle.
3. Taking turns, the students provide clues until each student is able to guess the names of the pictures on his partner's belt. Clues should include the name of the beginning and ending letters. For example, "This picture begins with /d/ and ends with /t/."
The Penelopiad, by Margaret Atwood, is a lyrical drama mainly based on the Odyssey, yet phocalized from Penelope‟s perspective. The original title in English evokes other titles from the ancient Greek epic tradition, which confined the heroic glory to the illustrious male figures of myth. With an acute feminist sensitivity, Atwood accords Penelope a similar heroic stature to her male peers in myth, focusing on her own „odyssey‟ at Ithaca and beyond. Moreover, Atwood is also concerned with a social critique of the original poem, a concern she channels through the device of the chorus, composed by the servants of Penelope, as the Spanish translation of The Penelopiad – «Penélope y las doce criadas»– underscores. These servants play a pivotal role in Atwood‟s reception of the Odyssey and they are unique in their having a lyrical voice that resounds all over the play. The aim of this essay is, firstly, to analyse the main characters from the Odyssey, such as Penelope, Odysseus, Telemachus, the suitors, Eurycleia, and even Helen, and, secondly, to explore the specific refigurations of these very characters in Atwood‟s version. Our analysis will depend largely on the concepts, methods and terminology from Classical Tradition as well as Gender and Reception Studies.
A further additional element that is enriching in its learning approach is the simulation group role play “MEP for a day” which last for about 2 hours, designed in an interactive manner by the Parlamentarium, the visitor centre of the EP (Pearson, 2013). The participants take on the role of an MEP, and experience in a lively and reality-near way the EP policy / legislative process from the EP’s side. The learners are divided up into four fictive political groupings, which nonetheless reflect the political realities in the European Parliament, and negotiate over and decide on two legislative proposals (Directives) of the European Commission, for which they have to find an agreement within the EP itself (joint position) and with the Council of the European Union (representing the governments of the Member States). As MEPs they meet in their respective political groupings, in two policy-field Committees of the EP as well as in the Plenary of the EP. They also hold press conferences, and communicate via info stations with a multitude and variety of interest representatives (lobbyists). This playful experiential insight into EP parliamentary work can aid the understanding of the learners additionally. Talks by and discussions with real MEPs, as well as the reflection and debrief round at the end of the seminar day enable a “reality check” to critically reflect on the role play simulation experience. Of course, this does not replace a more sustained insight into the organisation of everyday political life in an MEPs office (Busby, 2013), though meeting an MEP’s (experienced) assistant (who often do the policy thematic preparatory or even background co-ordination work) can also be useful in this regard for the learners.
A distinction, then, can be made between what we could call ‘pragmatics in the text’ and ‘pragmatics of the text’, the two be- ing mutually inﬂ uenced. ‘Pragmatics in the text’ has to be un- derstood as language in use at the level of the literary ﬁ ction; its analysis will, then, focus on how characters use language in their interaction with others. ‘Pragmatics of the text’, on the other hand, has to be understood as the communicative act that takes place between the translator -as the purveyor of the original writer’s intentions- and readers; its analysis will deal with how writers or translators encode meaning having in mind the potential readership of their work. A TT should ideal- ly present pragmatically equivalent verbal interactions among characters so that the TR can get as close a reading of the text as that of the SR and, consequently, is able to grasp the original writer’s intended meaning.
The paper’s objective is to determine the factors that explain farmers’ responses in the first area, and based on those factors, analyse the demands for two instruments (insurance, and future & option markets). After carrying out basic descriptive statistic analyses, we perform factor analysis in order to establish the linkages between the perceptions and ranking of risks with the declared strategies to manage them. Logit models were fit to determine potential demand of insurance, and futures & options based on the three factors, and other variables like activity types and other controls, like nationality. Results from the factor analysis show that the perception of risk and actual use of risk management are very diverse. Logit models show that insurance is clearly an alternative instrument to diversification, but its demand is poorly explained by the other factors. Furthermore the demand for the use of futures and options is explained by the three factors, with the volatility factor, positively linked; market access /contractual risks; and diversification, negatively linked. In conclusion, policy makers should proceed with caution selecting the most adequate risk management instruments for farmers. It appears that the expected demand of risk management tools does not fit perfectly with the stated perception of risks.
I think it is especially dangerous in this kind of digital age to get this feeling that you can solve big problems only by having an app or with a very clever system that is based on digital technology. The real- ity is that nothing has changed that much, it’s always basically people; it’s always a human endeavor, things get accomplished by humans. I remember I read an article about Obama’s presidential campaign in 2012 describing how he had this completely amazing system for identifying voters and relationships; it was all digital and about understanding to an extremely high level of detail who were potential voters, and how you could reach them. So, if you read this you could say: “Yeah, this is amazing; this is really impressive, and it is the future of democracy”. However, when you get to the very end and ask his campaign manager, “What do you use all this technology for?,” he would probably answer: “Usually we just use it so that when all the volunteers go out and knock on peo- ple’s doors they know exactly where to go.” What this means is that all that technology was just to support the work that everybody had been doing anyway, which is to physically go and talk to somebody.
Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) projects are complex systems that are evaluated based on many factors. Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods are used to support AEC project teams in this process. Traditionally, these decisions are made using the Weighting, Rating and Calculating (WRC) method. Recent literature shows benefits of the Choosing By Advantages (CBA) method compared to WRC. However, these studies have been made in the context of comparing and ranking a small number of design alternatives (2-10). This research presents a case study in which CBA and WRC are applied to a large design space. The results show that CBA allowed for a more complete comparison of design alternatives. In addition, CBA enabled decision makers to explicitly evaluate performance versus cost, which led to more transparent and Pareto optimal decisions considering all alternatives in the design space.
French fiction in the light of its connections to American and European literature (17). However, on the methodological level, this questioning of national frames is pursued with less rigor. Sometimes, Schoentjes stresses cultural and epistemological specificities, which are terminologically suggested by the author’s insistence of using “écopoétique” to describe a more poetic paradigm than ecocriticism and cultural studies. At other times, he adopts an approach that one might designate as ‘cosmopoetical’. Such quibbles aside, Ce qui a lieu not only represents a seminal contribution to the study of literature and the environment in the Francophone world, but it also constitutes an essential contribution to the environmental humanities as a transnational and transdisciplinary field of study.
For Papalia, Feldman and Martorell human development occurs in eight stages. What have college students experienced? The purpose is to know the events that have lived. The methodological orientation: is quanlitative and qualitative case study. Technique: autobiography. The population was 21 students of the Faculty of Pedagogy of the University Veracruzana Conclusions: recognize that what has been lived has served as learning, adversities have made them strong, are able to face the challenges of life, have learned to value people, They have: the desire to form a family, the conviction that they are going to achieve the goal in their life, feel happy to study and discovered that serving others fills them with happiness.
In Heaney’s poetry references to the English culture that was violently superimposed on the Irish soil are often expressed with masculine language, while he associates the Gaelic tradition to the female gender (Parker 1993: 21, 56, 73). His composition "In the Chestnut Tree", for example, presents nature in close connection to primeval Ireland, the latter framed in feminine terms. "Kinship", which belongs to the first part of his collection of poetry called North, also refers to the earth as a mystical, feminine entity with regard to the formation of bogs: a distinct trait of Irish landscape. The essay on Kavanagh that opens his collection of essays The Government of the Tongue shows his concern with “a political situation where land, place, street name and townland acted as a symbolic register which “placed” individuals in terms of their religion, their politics and their ideology” (O’Brien 1998: 7). And indeed Heaneys’s concern with place is also political, insofar as “possession of the land, like possession of different languages, is a matter of particular urgency in Ireland” (Andrews 1990: 2)
investigation is that the borders are considered strips where the search for wellbeing inherent to people can be clearly observed. Smuggling and migration have always taken place; the variation is the way that these are performed. These ways are the forms of creation where people’s capacity to adapt to the environment becomes visible, as well as, how artificial and arbitrary the institutions that dictate what is legal and what is not legal are.