PDF superior Comparison of different methods for the calculation of the microvascular flow index

Comparison of different methods for the calculation of the microvascular flow index

Comparison of different methods for the calculation of the microvascular flow index

The patency of microvascular perfusion is essential for the preservation of aerobic metabolism and organ functions. Although the microcirculation is a key component of the cardiovascular system, its behavior may di ff er from that of systemic circulation [1]. Despite the continuous develop- ments in the monitoring of critically ill patients, the evalua- tion of the microcirculation remained as an elusive issue during many years. The introduction of the orthogonal polarization spectral (OPS) [2] and the sidestream dark field (SDF) [3] imaging devices has recently allowed the direct visualization of microcirculation at the bedside. Thereafter, di ff erent researchers described that septic patients showed sublingual microvascular alterations such as a decreased perfusion and increased heterogeneity [3–5]. These disorders were later found to be associated with the development of multiple organ failure and death [6]. Eventually, the microcirculation became used as a therapeutic target [7–9].
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7 Lee mas

Determination of Sound Reduction Index by impulse response measurements

Determination of Sound Reduction Index by impulse response measurements

Figure 5 shows a comparison, for D values, with high background noise concentrated at low frequencies. It indicates the impossibility of determining the value of D if the traditional method is used. Further measurements with high noise background will be carried out in order to show/demonstrate the reliability of a Sine Sweep excitation in these particular situations. It should be noticed that the Reverberation Time was measured with different methods:

8 Lee mas

A study of different calculation methods for noise barrier top edge designs

A study of different calculation methods for noise barrier top edge designs

Our presentation discusses studying diffraction at the edges of noise barriers. Earlier studies have shown that, with properly designed noise barriers, even an installation sound reduction of +6 dB may be obtained. I have tested several types of noise barriers. To make the comparison easier, relative height of the barriers, the source and the distances of detection were identical. The distance between the source and the barrier was 2 m, its altitude was 1 m, and the height of the barrier was 2,54 metres. Detection field was made up of a 121-node mesh. The following types of barriers were compared:
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5 Lee mas

Performance of the different RAROC models and their relation with the creation of economic value

Performance of the different RAROC models and their relation with the creation of economic value

This article approaches several different methodologies for calculation of the RAROC (Risk Adjusted Return on Capital) for Brazilian banks. Two questions gave reason to the study: whether the application of different methods for calculation of the RAROC would generate significantly different results?, and checking what is the connection between the RAROC and the generation of economic value, measured by the EVA (Eco- nomic Value Added), for the largest banks with operations in Brazil? The following methodologies for verification of the RAROC were applied: Buch’s Method (2011); Prokopczuk’s Method (2006); Prokopczuk’s Method (2006) with application of the VaR technique; Saunders’s Method (2007); Chapelle’s Method (2008); and the Smithon & Hayt Method (2001), by applying these parametric and non-parametric statistics in or- der to check the sensibility of the differences between models. This study has evidenced that, when we compare the metho- dology based on minimum capital with other methodologies, there are no significant differences, except in the few cases in- dicated. It is important to notice it only occurred in the case of the Bank of Brazil and it was concentrated in the comparison of the Creditmetrics models and in the methodology in which there is equivalence by the reference equity.
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18 Lee mas

Towards the development of standardized methods for comparison, ranking and evaluation of structure alignments

Towards the development of standardized methods for comparison, ranking and evaluation of structure alignments

Results: Here we report on the development and application of a new approach for the evaluation of structure alignment results. The method uses the translation vector and rotation matrix to generate the super- position of two structures but discards the alignment reported by the individual programs. The optimal alignment is then generated in stan- dardized form based on a suitably implemented dynamic program- ming algorithm where the length of the alignment is the single most informative parameter. We demonstrate that some of the most popular programs in protein structure research differ considerably in their over- all performance. In particular, each of the programs investigated here produced in at least in one case the best and the worst alignment compared with all others. Hence, at the current state of development of structure comparison techniques, it is advisable to use several pro- grams in parallel and to choose the optimal alignment in the way reported here.
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7 Lee mas

LC/MS for the degradation profiling of cough cold products under forced conditions / A  Marín and C  Barbas

LC/MS for the degradation profiling of cough cold products under forced conditions / A Marín and C Barbas

293 that appeared under acidic conditions was found (Fig. 5d). Two degradation products coming from the active phenylephrine were detected at 1.9 and 2.7 min, respectively. The first of them (product G) showed molecular ions at m/z 196 [M + H] + (Fig. 5f) and the second one (product H) at m/z 180 [M + H] + , m/z 202 [M + Na] + and m/z 381 [2M + Na + ] (Fig. 5e) and, indi- cating they have molecular weights of 195 and 179 Da respectively. It is important to remark that the detec- tion of some of these peaks by UV was close to the detection limit, whereas by MS they presented good ionization. On the contrary, peaks detected by UV, were not detected by MS due to they do not present ionization and in the case of the most polar degrada- tion compounds due to the interference of the HCl and NaOH by MS at the beginning of the chromatogram. That means that for this type of studies is necessary
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11 Lee mas

Reconstruction of the gradient refractive index of the crystalline lens with optimization methods

Reconstruction of the gradient refractive index of the crystalline lens with optimization methods

El cristalino es una lente biconvexa con superficies asféricas suspendido tras el iris del ojo. La cápsula es la membrana transparente que lo envuelve y mantiene en su posición ya que está a su vez unida al músculo ciliar, que se encarga de regular la acomodación. En el cristalino, hay una capa de células epiteliales que se extienden desde polo anterior hasta el ecuador. Estas células son responsables del crecimiento del mismo formando nuevas células epiteliales que se alargan como fibras bajo la cápsula y el epitelio, resultando así una estructura que recuerda a las capas de una cebolla. La diferente concentración de un tipo de proteínas produce cambios en el índice de refracción entre capas. Esta cualidad es fácilmente observable y ya los primeros intentos de medida del índice de refracción del cristalino describieron la distinta “densidad” del cristalino “less and less compact as you recede from the center” [2].
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12 Lee mas

Reconstruction of the gradient refractive index of the crystalline lens with optimization methods

Reconstruction of the gradient refractive index of the crystalline lens with optimization methods

Experimental measurements of the gradient index distribution inside the lens and its age dependence have been challenging, and mostly restricted to measurements in vitro. For example, Pierscionek [1997] measured the local refractive indices directly using a fiber-optic sensor, and reported no significant variation of the surface index in the anterior and posterior poles with age, although she found that the index at the equator seemed to be lower in younger lenses. Using Purkinje images positions and a very simple GRIN model, Hemenger et al. [1995] reported a significantly flatter refractive index near the lens center in older than in younger lenses. Glasser and Campbell [1999] measured lens geometry in vitro, and used a laser ray tracing technique to measure the focal length from which they estimated the equivalent refractive index of the lens. They found no age-dependency of the equivalent refractive index with age. In contrast, Borja et al. [2008] reported a biphasic decline of the equivalent refractive index with age. Uhlhorn et al. [2008] used, for the first time, optical coherence tomography (OCT) for estimations of the refractive index of human crystalline lenses and reported a decrease in the average (not to be mistaken with equivalent) axial refractive index with age. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used as a non-destructive method to measure the GRIN distribution of the human crystalline lens, and results have been reported as a function of the age of the donor lenses [Moffat et al., 2002a; Jones et al., 2005]. These MRI results suggest that the surface and nucleus refractive index are constant with age, but that there is a flattening of the GRIN profile with age [Jones et al., 2005]. More studies using alternative methods are needed to verify the variability of the nucleus and surface refractive index values, and to confirm the changes in the shape of the profile with age.
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159 Lee mas

BiGlobal and point vortex methods for the instability analysis of wakes

BiGlobal and point vortex methods for the instability analysis of wakes

Here, two different methods are compared for the study of wake instabilities, the inviscid point vortex method for stability and the viscous modal stability analysis of the linearized N[r]

16 Lee mas

Spanish plans for Columbus utilization

Spanish plans for Columbus utilization

Once known the pressure drop in single-phase flow of one of the fluids but for the total mass flow rate, the pressure drops for any of the two fluids in two-phase flow (both pressure [r]

5 Lee mas

A MODEL OF UNCERTAINTY CALCULATION FOR THE CALIBRATION OF AUDIOMETERS

A MODEL OF UNCERTAINTY CALCULATION FOR THE CALIBRATION OF AUDIOMETERS

The goal of this paper is to present a model to calculate the uncertainty applied to the audiometers calibration process which adjusts to the limits expressed on the IEC60645-1 Standard (2001 edition) and to the specific standards for the uncertainty calculus. The most outstanding factors in the calibration process, both for aerial and bone conduction transducers, are presented and illustrated for the cases of a circumaural earphone and a bone vibrator.

6 Lee mas

Different methods for the study of interactions of metal complexes  with biological molecules

Different methods for the study of interactions of metal complexes with biological molecules

Addition of GSH to Cp 2 MoCl 2 resulted in an upfield shift of the Cys Hβ resonance of GSH to become coincident with the Glu Hγ resonance, the appearance of a new Gly singlet and two new Cys Hα resonances. The absence of the Cys Hβ of free GSH is indicative of interaction of all free GSH with Cp 2 MoCl 2 being all signals assigned to complex or complexes formed.

29 Lee mas

Unsupervised Learning of Human Action Categories Using Spatial-Temporal Words

Unsupervised Learning of Human Action Categories Using Spatial-Temporal Words

We build video codewords from the videos of six persons. We again perform leave- one-out cross-validation to test the efficacy of our approach in recognition, i.e., for each run we learn a model from the videos of six subjects, and test those of the remaining subject. The result is reported as the average of seven runs. The confusion matrix for a three-class model for the figure skating dataset is shown in Figure 4(c) using 1200 code- words. The larger size of codewords is useful to avoid overfitting of the generative model. The learned 3-class model is also used for action localization as shown in Figure 6(b).
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10 Lee mas

TítuloLa comparación de diferentes clases 7 (4to grado), de 7 países (diferentes pruebas de aptitud en un proyecto comenius   ted's proyecto)

TítuloLa comparación de diferentes clases 7 (4to grado), de 7 países (diferentes pruebas de aptitud en un proyecto comenius ted's proyecto)

To facilitate the understanding and communication between the Physical Education Teachers of each country was prepared a PowerPoint describing the protocol to perform in each financial year. It was also carried out a video explanation to minimize the maximum possible failures of understanding; this PPT and Video were carried out in English, mother tongue Project. To finish, was sent a file in excel for teachers put the data collected, to facilitate and help in obtaining the best data collection possible. This study was carried out between January and March 2014, when were made the tests locally. It was necessary to verify the data, due to a discrepancy in values, a factor that has led to a new collection of data on the part of some countries. All data were treated in SPSS version 17. Through these results was measured the average and the standard deviation.
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19 Lee mas

Tamaño genómico de especies acuáticas de importancia económica y biológica en el Estado de Baja CaliforniaGenome size of aquatic animal of economic and biological importance in Baja California

Tamaño genómico de especies acuáticas de importancia económica y biológica en el Estado de Baja CaliforniaGenome size of aquatic animal of economic and biological importance in Baja California

Currently, molecular genetic techniques and genetic engineering are revolutionizing studies on aquatic animals, ecosystems, fishery biology, also have been used worldwide to enhance aquaculture. Studies on genome size along with genetic analysis have contributed greatly in many areas of natural sciences (Kron et al., 2007). Studies on genome size have been used to assist aquaculture and plan managements for aquatic resources in other countries . However, this has not yet been applied in Mexico. The application of the genome size analysis in aquatic animals to assist aquaculture is thus very important because it allows the confirmation and identification of polyploidy, hybrids organisms, and sex differentiation (sex chromosome), among other features. In addition, genome analyses allows the identification of genetic alterations such as chromosomal abnormalities like trisomy and some diseases like cancer, which could be a great benefit and application in Mexican fisheries and aquaculture.
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85 Lee mas

Obscured GOODS Active Galactic Nuclei and Their Host Galaxies at z < 1 25 : The Slow Black Hole Growth Phase

Obscured GOODS Active Galactic Nuclei and Their Host Galaxies at z < 1 25 : The Slow Black Hole Growth Phase

average is E (B − V ) = 0.47 ± 0.37. This increases to E (B − V ) = 0.78 ± 0.54 for AGNs with solid detections in only two bands. We note that point-source SEDs with significantly different colors from the host galaxy SED are frequent enough in our sample that attempting to determine the reddening value from the combined AGN+host SED would be considerably less reliable. This is consistent with previous simulations and observations (e.g., Pierce et al. 2010a, 2010b). The independent determination of E (B − V ) from reddening and N H from X-ray absorption allows us to estimate the dust- to-gas ratio along the line of sight (Section 4.4). We can then estimate the total re-radiated IR luminosity of the material that is absorbing optical and UV photons from the point source, using the dust emissivity models of Draine & Li (2007) and the dust- to-gas ratios to convert the emissivity profiles to luminosity, L dust .
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16 Lee mas

Comparison of different methods of grapevine yield Prediction in the time window Between fruitset and veraison

Comparison of different methods of grapevine yield Prediction in the time window Between fruitset and veraison

With the FS model, the SD of the differences revealed a moderate systematic error (-0.53) and accuracy (error <0.6 kg per m of row in 95% of cases). As the cycle progresses, yield predictions become better. The V1 model showed the best systematic error (0.16) and accuracy (<0.43 kg per m of row in 95% of cases) (Fig. 2). The V2 model had a similar systematic error (-0.16), but showed greater dispersion between observed and predicted yields and less accurate yield predictions (<0.46 kg per m of row in 95% of cases), with a slight tendency to overestimate. The V1 model had the smallest bias of all and provided the best results of all. The LP60 model showed a systematic error of -0.1 but greater bias and less accuracy (0.63 kg per m of row in 95% of cases) than the FS, V1 and V2 models. The LP40 and LP50 models showed higher systematic errors (-0.69 and -0.31, respectively), while their bias, error and accuracy (0.71-0.72 kg per m of row in 95% of cases) compare well with the V1 and V2 models, showing that making predictions when the berries are at 50% of their final weight does not always work well.
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9 Lee mas

Implementación de dispositivo electrónico para el cálculo  de usuarios  del SITP

Implementación de dispositivo electrónico para el cálculo de usuarios del SITP

Abstract: with the lost economic that the transport system presents STIP, is necessary a control of evaders and a count of users in the routs, for get a solution the development and implementation of the project is presented, Implementation of electronic device for the calculation of users of the SITP, this project was focused on the construction of a device to send data of the people into the SITP’s bus to website using a WIFI module ESP8266 programmed like a client, the information is sent from the module to a web application with MYSQL database, hosted on a server of the Hostinger platform,
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18 Lee mas

Sedentary behaviors and psychological outcomes among older adults: a systematic review

Sedentary behaviors and psychological outcomes among older adults: a systematic review

ABSTRACT This systematic review aimed to synthesize the scientific evidence about the relationship between sedentary behaviours and various psychological outcomes in older adults. The study searches were conducted in the following databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge and ScienceDirect. We selected 15 observational quantitative studies according to specific eligibility criteria. The data extraction was performed independently by different authors, including the evaluation of the risk of bias of the studies and the classification of the force of evidence. The results showed a tendency of showing no associations between the sedentary behaviours, the well-being and quality of life of the elderly. Concerning life satisfaction and perceived stress, it seems that active sedentary activities have positive effects on these indicators. Evidence has also suggested that some sedentary behaviours may help maintain some cognitive functions in the elderly population, namely in different types of memory. In other studies, it has been demonstrated a tendency that too much time in passive sedentary activities has been associated with depressive symptomatology. However, this review suggested that the evidence is not yet consistent in the relationship between the sedentary behaviours of the elderly and the indicators analysed, and more research is needed.
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13 Lee mas

Theoretical and numerical analysis of erosion in steam turbine blades

Theoretical and numerical analysis of erosion in steam turbine blades

The nucleation is the energy necessary to form a stable germ, also named thermodynamic barrier of germination [1]. To microscopic level, phase fluctuations occur as random events due to the thermal vibration of atoms (collisions). In terms of classical nucleation theory, the spontaneous fluctuations lead to the formation of small embryonic droplet that can grow beyond some critical radius; it being possible overcome this barrier and sustain spontaneous growth; that is, it can only survive and grow if there is a reduction in free energy. However, if the energy barrier to spontaneous growth is large and the droplet cannot achieve critical size, it remains unstable and will in all possibility evaporate. As a result of this energy barrier, the system can exist in a metastable state with unfavorably high supersaturation levels being maintained in the gas phase [2].
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151 Lee mas

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