One of the most interesting works that analyze the intensity distribution inside a LGP is of Bernabeu and collaborators . They show that in a nonlinear mediums and in appropriate conditions nonlinear behavior can be obtained and these might become useful in order to obtain optical bistability. In a similar arrangement to the IST, alone that using a couple of plane and parallel mirrors, Jaramillo and collaborators  show that due to the superposition of three beams it is possible to obtain an interference pattern located in an zone of the space with rhombus form. This characteristic is also presented in the IST after the first reflection of the beam inside the PPP (to see Fig. 8). Before this area there are other two but due to interference of the two beams, among the beams 1 and 2, and 2 and 3, respectively. As the beam propagates, the number of reflections increases and this characteristic is lost, until being observed some of the patterns shown in Figs. 4 and 5.
The viewer is not always in a position to depict and decode a ‘predetermined’ audio/ visual setup whether is for art or an applied interpretation. This process requires analysis and knowledge of historical and semiotic theories that would facilitate the understanding of how signs are interpreted and interrelated in the context of audio-visual communication-even in the case when sound is on purpose absent from the scene.
This transformation of place identity attached to image representations takes place when tourists act and behave in relation to their mental image constructs. “Place and space are fundamental constructs in tourism studies” (McCabe & Stokoe, 2004). As Lefebvre (1996) proposed, “space is produced and consumed by collective social practice, involving social relationships and presenting an arena of social struggle” (as cited in Almeida & Buzinde, 2007). As Kim and Richardson (2003) explain, this is related to Hall’s (1997) “circuit of culture”, where visual language provides representations that produce meanings. “These meanings regulate social practices, influence people’s conduct, and consequently have real practical effects” (Kim & Richardson, 2003). As noted by Anton (2010), the semiological spaces mentioned by Urry would embody tourism spaces being transformed by their own representations. They are “spaces able to be identified at different territorial levels tending to become reproductions of what they pretend to represent as they become part of tourist circuits, trying to adapt permanently to the idealised picture tourists have” (Anton, 2010). Several studies have been conducted in relation to this place identity transformation, influenced by tourist image representations. In their study, Kim and Richardson (2003) contended that “the popular view of a place offered by media may prompt that place to recreate its own identity in this image”. Similarly, Morgan and Pritchard (1998) explained that televised images of a certain place may alter the reality of that place and may become the reference model followed to recreate “places as living environments and tourism sites”. Almeida and Buzinde (2007) demonstrate that tourist image representations go beyond the world of ideas into the physical spatial world and influence it in several aspects in the case of a contested space, when a community transforms its landscape, habits and habitat to struggle against oppression and affirm and maintain its identity. Hence, tourism studies should examine representations within socio-political frameworks, because such frameworks have implications for understanding cultural identity in relation to tourism (Almeida & Buzinde, 2007).
Peace, wealth, prosperity, abundance. All this inspires the depiction of literary and iconographic sceneries of peace that propagate either during periods of war — such praise is then a much-needed reward —, or during periods of flourishing and productive calm. Since the dawn of time, from when Eirene was but a goddess of the seasons, until she became an abstract deified concept (a process usual in Greek religion), certain motifs are recovered and reused poetically and pictorially: flowers, crowns, altars, feasts and par- tying young people, and also abandoned weapons, for long are the days of combat gone. While Bacchylides’ paean seems to be the most ancient text with such an encomiastic tone about the goddess and her benefits (it seems sure that the author will have influenced other poets, essentially the dramatic authors of the 5th century BC), Cephisodotus’ Eirene is the culmination of a cultural, literary and iconographic tradition — the ultimate artistic crystallization of the inspiring attributes of the deity, both poetic and iconographic.
Furthermore, both methods can depict the principal pixel colors ofanimage. For instance, they consider the image pairs with the same shapes of pixel colors in Figure 9 to be similar images. However, Kuo’s method cannot state the distinction of the directions and simple geometric shapes among the objects in the images. The images of each group in Figure 10 have similar color histograms, but differ in shape and direction. These objects are regarded as similar images in the first experiment; however, in the second experiment, the CDAEO method can distinguish them.
To solve the image-slicer problem Kapany (1958) suggested that a fiber optic system would help and gave a detailed exposition of that possibility but no description of a working unit was given. One can use a fiber bundle arranged in a round profile at the fo- cal plane of a telescope and then ordered linearly in the exit of the bundle to become the entrance slit of the spectrometer. The size of the circular entrance aperture can be made to cover several seconds of arc to match the distorted star image produced by the seeing in the telescope. The exit of the fiber bun- dle is composed of individual fibers to form the slit with the required dimensions to be projected onto two pixels (Furenlid & Cardona 1988). This fiber bundle is very efficient and the light loses are only due to the light lost in the inter bundle holes and in the cladding of the individual fibers, and also by the absorption of light in the long fiber bundles. The individual fibers in this linear array should have a di- ameter that covers two pixel sizes when demagnified by the optics, as mentioned before. For a spectrom- eter where the magnification is m = −1, like in an Ebert-Fastie spectrometer, this imposes a very re- strictive design parameter.
conformer in order of increasing energy (G-g+/cl/g-) of α-D- glucosamine has not been detected, in contrast to that observed for α-D-glucose. This fact can be easily explained by its higher relative energy and, consequently, to its small abundance in the
The paper discusses an ethical analysis of three common cases involving the most popular requests in rhinoplasty. As the nose plays a fundamental role in the aesthetics and physiognomy of the human face, the request for rhinoplasty may be an expression of both subjective discomfort and objective dysfunction. The paper aims, therefore, to fill the gap between qualitative-subjective impres- sions related to bodily self-perception and its quantitative-objective assessment. Ethical evaluation should start with consideration of the formal object and circumstances of the act, by posing the following question: Is this a real clinical case? Only after an undou- btedly positive answer to this question, should we consider specific case-related aspects; i.e., the best scientific evidence, available nosography and informed consent, before conducting an ethical evaluation of the case.
principles are related to the function of the product, so they can be applied more directly. The absence of direct functional information about the overall characteristics of the design, during the optimization process, could reduce the possibilities of a valid solution. On complex geometries or time consuming optimizations where manufacturing constraints play an important role, more restricted TRIZ interpretations could be the best suited . TRIZ concepts could prove useful in suggesting modification possibilities based on some of the TRIZ innovation principles. Such principles can be identified by generalizing existing design contradictions in the given part to obtain suggestions from a predefined contradiction table. These suggestions should enunciate the modification principle along with a design-oriented example depicted by CAD models. Other inventive principles are of a rather topological nature and therefore may be implemented in CAD systems' assembly modules. In other cases the principles are of a mechanical or physical nature, which also involves the effect of time and other physical parameters such as velocity, force, acceleration, temperature, etc. and may be implemented using multi-body systems. Normally a graphic description along with a picture or drawing depicting the given suggestion is also provided. With these examples, the user would have a much better idea about where and how the shape modification process should be focused. However, the designer has to implement the required modifications on his or her own by editing step by step the actual shapes and topologies based on how he or she understands the recommendation. This is commonly a time-consuming task that avoids the search for better solutions.
The optimization of structures is a wished goal, but it is not always achieved in engineering practice, due to either the large additional effort that it demands or the lack of necessary resources to carry it out. Structural engineers usually use batch procedures, consisting of utilizing the software, in which data are input, running the analysis and evaluating the results, along which it is decided whether the design is accepted or modifications must be made, in which case the process is repeated again. The consequence of this is that the final result, normally, will always be improvable. For that reason, the field of optimization has usually been reserved to the acade- mia. The new currents of structural engineering seek optimization by means of parametric design and evolutionary computing. As an additional contribution to the use of these resources, the objective of this work is to present an algorithm developed through visual programming for sizing, shape and topology optimization of plane trusses of the classic Howe, Pratt or Warren typologies, and to highlight the advantages that the use of this resource provides for the professional work of structural engineers, since it allows them to develop their own algorithms without the need of previous knowledge of programming, and to achieve economic and environ- mental benefits from saving materials. All this configures a clear transfer of the advances of computer technology to professional practice, extending the frontiers of the academic sphere. As an example of application, a truss analyzed by traditional methods, without optimizing, and the same truss optimized with the aforementioned algorithm, are compared.
Samoilik (2012) differentiates the normative age crisis and the identity crisis itself. She believes that a normative crisis occurs during the transition from one age period to another, while the identity crisis itself has no relation to a specific age; the normative crisis is determined by a change in the social environment of development, while the identity crisis is associated with changes in the value and semantic sphere; the normative crisis is experienced as an external conflict, while the identity crisis is internal; the normative crisis is determined by the preceeding development, while the identity crisis happens suddenly; the normative crisis is usually limited in time and has a duration of less than one year, while the identity crisis can be very long; the regulatory crisis does not disadapitate the personality, while the identity crisis has a disadaptive nature. The author puts forward the methodology of the “questionnaire of identity under crisis”, which is aimed at identifying the crisis among students for the purpose of subsequent therapy. In addition, the author makes a number of recommendations to reduce the severity of the manifestations of the crisis, for example, by forming comfortable conditions of learning environment, as well as the introduction of pedagogical techniques and group work.
extraction of points block, which determines its best geometric direction d and returns the corresponding Bandelet coefficients. This block is composed of three sub-blocks: projection of points, 1D Wavelet transform, and Lagrangian calculation. The projection of points projects the square pixels orthogonally onto each possible direction d and rearranges them in a one-dimensional array f d . These rearrangements are obtained by the rotation of the vertical midline of the square and the subsequent orthogonal projection of the center of each pixel to this line, following the method presented in  (Figure 3). Every signal f d is processed with the 1D DWT and for each output signal f w , the Lagrangian is calculated. The coefficients of the signal f w with the minimum Lagrangian are thresholded by user’s threshold T. The resulting coefficients are the Bandelet coefficients of the image.
Namely, we compare the corresponding values of the vertical displacement at the keystone (see Figure 3a), the horizontal reaction at the supports (see Figure 3b), and the 1st and 3rd principal stresses at several points in which constraints are imposed (see Figure 4) for load case number 1. (Note: LWE# and UPE# respectively stand for the Gauss points located at the center of the lower and upper layers of element number #; being element number 1 the closest to the keystone, element number 9 the closest to the support, and element number 3 the closest to the center of one of the free borders.) The optimization process was performed by the DAO2 computer aided optimum design system 9 developed by the authors, giving the optimal solution
As an example consider the motion compensation applied to a perfusion data set of a patient considered clin- ically to have a stress perfusion defect that was acquired free breathing. First-pass contrast-enhanced myocardial perfusion imaging data sets were acquired and pro- cessed for one subjects under clinical research proto- cols approved by the Institutional Review Boards of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and Suburban Hospital. The patients provided written informed con- sent, and the analysis was approved by the NIH Office of Human Subject Research. Images were taken in 60 time steps for three slices (at the base, mid, and apical level). The first two time steps comprise proton density weighted images that may be used for intensity inhomo- geneity correction (see, e.g., ); however, this intensity correction is not considered here. The remaining slices were acquired by using the SR-FLASH protocol. An exam- ple of the different time steps at the base level is given in Figure 5.
lished. In general, these correspondences can be obtained either by using marker and markerless-based approaches. In the marked-based AR, one or more cam- eras are employed to automatically detect and recognize a specific known pattern (i.e., fiducial markers) and use computer vision and geometrical transformations to estimate the relative positions of the markers with respect to the observer. On the other hand, some mark- erless methods implement automatic detection and matching of local features to create a set of 3D-2D corre- spondences for pose estimation. The literature on local features detectors is extensive. Luckily, there are inter- esting comparative studies on some of the best-known algorithms  . Other markerless methods use informa-
Therefore, the communication of positive aspects of the companies –among them, the generation of CSR policies as the essence of the business– will have impli- cations for brands, since these are valued by users accor- ding to the actions communicated and complied with. Thus an intangible value on the reputation of the com- pany and its brands is generated, an effect which can be reached through a social transformation (Castaño, 2011). In fact, by communicating CSR, an experience of corporate identity is built in people that influences the value attributed to the brand and the intent of pur- chase (David, Line & Dai, 2005). Also, in research by Dopico, Rodríguez and González (2014) and by Enda- cott (2004) it is evidenced how the perception and decisions of consumer are substantially influenced by the journalistic treatment given to corporate actions.
T HE purpose of this paper is to analyze the attacks problem on encrypted file images. Such attacks may be in communication or storage, and are important in the context of real-time decisions . That is, when an encrypted message is damaged – by attack or not – and then is decrypted the risk is not knowing the original message and sometimes there is not much time to decide what was the original file, say, less time than to ask for it again. So, the first point is to realize animage encryption with quality. In this sense, there are different image encryption works: there are some recent methods using the Hilbert transform , other Chaos ,  and Hyper-chaos  or even AES cryptosystem  with CBC mode encryption , although in this latter case the encryption process is sequential. In the Hilbert transform and Chaos cases, there is the difficulty of not knowing specifically, the size of the keys set. In the case of Hyper-chaos, the keys set is 2 167 and only the brute force
Vertical Edge extract vertical edges in animage by highlighting pixels with significant intensity differences from those to the left and right of it. It produces animage with just its vertical edges visible against a flat background. Vertical Edge filtering is used when vertical features need to be extracted from animage. You can select suitable edge detectors for different images.