Background: A strategy for assigning priorities in biodiversity conservation was developed forthe rivers ofthe proposed Greater Addo Elephant National Park in South Africa. Due to the limited availability of biological information on the freshwater ecosystems in this area, a desktop approach, supplemented by aerial and land surveys, was used to devise a new river classification typology. This typology incorporated landscape attributes as surrogates forbiodiversity patterns, resulting in defined physical “signatures” for each river type. Riverine biological diversity is considered to be conserved by including rivers of each type as defined by the respective signatures. Where options existed, and two or more rivers shared the same signature, a simple procedure was used to assign priorities to similar rivers for conservation. This procedure considered the extent of transformation, degree of inclusion within the park, irreplaceability or uniqueness, and geomorphological diversity of each river. The outcome ofthe study was that 18 ofthe 31 rivers within the proposed Greater Addo Elephant National Park must be conserved to achieve representation of all thebiodiversity patterns identified. It concluded that, given further development and testing, the river signature concept holds promise for elevating the river focus in general conservation planning exercises.
12. Therapidassessment decision tree is a schematic guide to a number of available methods used forrapidassessmentof marine and coastal biological diversity. The decision three is meant to enable selection of appropriate biodiversityassessmentmethods, based on a structured framework of selection criteria. The tree begins with the most basic and broad elements of an assessment, and advances through progressively more selective criteria. Eventually a general framework ofthe necessary assessment should emerge, taking the amalgamated form defined by its purpose, output information, available resources, and scope. The idea is to meld informational parameters, like output and purpose, with logistical parameters such as time frame, available funding, and geographical scope, in order to present a realistic assessment model and determine what methods are available for its implementation.
6. In 2004, Ramsar’s Scientific and Technical Review Panel (STRP) considered how best to incorporate the various components ofthe CBD rapidassessmentguidelines into the suite of Ramsar guidances on inventory, assessmentandmonitoring. The Panel determined that, given that the Ramsar definition of “wetlands” covers both inland waters and marine and coastal systems, it is most appropriate for its application by Ramsar Contracting Parties to make the guidance available as a single consolidated guidance document, with the relevant material from all three inland waters and marine and coastal CBD papers merged. These present guidelines are thus a compiled and edited version ofthe CBD materials, prepared by the Ramsar Secretariat andthe STRP, working with the CBD Secretariat. Throughout this Ramsar version oftheguidelines, the CBD terms “inland waters” and “marine and coastal ecosystems” are as appropriate replaced by the term “wetlands” sensu Ramsar.
48. TheguidelinesforRapid Assessments, developed jointly by the Convention on Biological Diversity andthe Ramsar Convention, stress the importance of clearly establishing the purpose as the basis for design and implementation oftheassessment. They also emphasize that before deciding on whether a new field survey using rapidassessmentmethods is necessary, a thorough review of existing knowledge and information should be undertaken, including information held by local communities. Subsequent steps are then presented in the form of a decision tree to facilitate the selection of appropriate methods to meet the purpose oftheassessment. An indication ofthe categories of information which can be acquired through each oftherapidassessmentmethods is provided. Summary information on a range of appropriate and available methods suitable for each rapidassessment purpose is included, as is information on a range of different data analysis tools.
The Ramsar Convention Secretariat wishes to acknowledge the very many people who have, over several years and numerous meetings ofthe Conferences ofthe Contracting Parties, contributed their knowledge and experience in the area ofwetland site management andmonitoring. Their collective efforts have allowed the Convention to develop this integrated management package. Special mention should be made ofthe contributions by Prof Max Finlayson (now Director ofthe Institute for Land, Water and Society at Charles Sturt University, Australia) in the areas of ecological character, monitoring, andwetland risk assessment. The guidance relating to risk assessment was adopted by the 7th meeting ofthe Conference ofthe Parties (COP7, 1999), which followed an experts’ workshop held at the Ramsar Secretariat in April 1998, preceding the 7th meeting ofthe Scientific and Technical Review Panel (STRP). The authors oftheWetland Risk Assessment Framework, Prof Finlayson, Dr Rick van Dam, and Dr Chris Humphrey ofthe Environmental Research Institute ofthe Supervising Scientist, Australia (eriss), deserve special thanks. The Secretariat also extends its thanks to eriss andthe National Wetlands Programme of Environment Australia for supporting the authors during their development of this guidance. The New Guidelinesfor management planning for Ramsar Sites and other wetlands adopted by Ramsar COP8 (2002) were prepared by an STRP Working Group, and special thanks are due to Mike Alexander (Countryside Council for Wales – UK) and Dr Mike Acreman (Centre for Ecology and Hydrology – UK) for their preparation of drafts of this guidance. The guidance on wetlands and fisheries, adopted by COP9 in 2005, was derived from information in a draft report prepared by Dr Robin Welcomme forthe STRP, with financial support from IUCN and WWF. Thanks are extended to all involved for their support for this work, includingthe STRP forthe preparation ofthedraft COP9 Resolution on this topic. The underlying full report is presently being prepared for publication as a Ramsar Technical Report.
These guidelines have been produced through an extensive consultation process involving inputs from a large number of specialists. They are prepared in response to requests ofthe Conference ofthe Parties to both the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and Ramsar Convention. They are designed as a suite of optional tools to assist those with urgent need and/or limited capacity and resources to under- take, where necessary, rapid inventories, assessmentandmonitoringofthe biological diversity of inland water, coastal and near-shore marine ecosystems. They focus largely at species level considerations (i.e., assessments of taxa) but also include some tools relevant forassessment at the habitat/ecosystem level. Guidelines to assess the socioeconomic and cultural aspects ofthe value ofbiodiversity in these ecosys- tems are being developed to complement the current methodsand will be published separately. Theguidelines should be seen as additional means of obtaining information to that already held through existing and local knowledge which should be assessed, and used, as the first step in any survey. Rapidassessment is defined here as a synoptic assessment, which is often undertaken as a matter of urgency, in the shortest timeframe possible to produce reliable and applicable results for its designed purpose. Given the importance of often limited inland wetlands in small island States, the importance of their coastal and marine systems and limited capacity, rapidassessmentmethods are particularly valuable in these States.
22. During 2006 the Secretariat and Wetlands International reviewed the current procedures and responsibilities of each organization in the checking, handling and database entry of RIS information, with a view to identifying ways and means of streamlining these procedures. The main aspect ofthe procedures that this review identified could be streamlined, following trials with the Secretariat staff, is that of coding and entering information from the RISs into the Ramsar Sites Database. It has therefore been agreed that as from early 2007 the work of entering this information into the Ramsar Sites Database will move from Wetlands International to be undertaken by the Secretariat – specifically the Regional Assistants immediately after they have undertaken their detailed review of each RIS as part ofthe current responsibilities ofthe Secretariat.
78. Where residual post-mitigation impacts remain or are expected to occur (or when Article 2.5 “urgent national interest” is invoked for a listed Ramsar Site), the next step in the sequence is to compensate forthe resulting change in ecological character. Note, however, that the COP has stressed the point (in Resolutions VII.17, para. 10, and VIII.16, para. 10) that restoration or creation of wetlands cannot replace the loss or degradation of natural wetlands. This is true in relation to the ecological values of such wetlands, but in many cases it is equally true, or even more so, in relation to those cultural values that are site- specific in nature (see also Resolution IX.21, Taking into account the cultural values of wetlands).
the Contracting Parties (COP7, COP8, COP9 and COP10) held, respectively, in San José, Costa Rica, in May 1999, Valencia, Spain, in November 2002, Kampala, Uganda, in November 2005, and Changwon, Republic of Korea, October-November 2008. Theguidelines on various matters adopted by the Parties at those and earlier COPs have been prepared as a series of handbooks to assist those with an interest in, or directly involved with, implementation ofthe Convention at the international, regional, national, subnational or local levels. Each handbook brings together, subject by subject, the various relevant guidances adopted by Parties, supplemented by additional material from COP information papers, case studies and other relevant publications so as to illustrate key aspects oftheguidelines. The handbooks are available in the three working languages ofthe Convention (English, French, and Spanish). The table on the inside back cover lists the full scope ofthe subjects covered by this handbook series at present. Additional handbooks will be prepared to include any further guidance adopted by future meetings ofthe Conference ofthe Contracting Parties. The Ramsar Convention promotes an integrated package of actions to ensure the conservation and wise use of wetlands. In recognition of these integrated approaches, the reader will find that within each handbook there are numerous cross-references to others in the series.
RF : The general communication and education programmes give attention to all aspects of environment andbiodiversity, although for sites that include wetlands specific wetland issues form the main subject of those programmes. Visitors centres in Ramsar sites exist in Kalmthout, the Zwin site andthe Blankaart and include activities of education and training. Exhibition centres take into account thewetland functions in the frameworkof the integrated water management, flood prevention plans, nature reserves etc. (imput from Flemish Government and Natuurpunt NGO).
Even after such a process of clarification and refinement of questions asked, there would typically be 50 or more questions that were thought likely to be amenable to being addressed by biodiversityindicators. This was generally regarded as too large a number to be dealt with satisfactorily under the project, and likely to be unfeasibly large under most indicator processes. To deal with this, some questions were prioritized and groups of others synthesized into more general overarching questions. High-priority questions were generally those that were asked by the largest number or widest range of people. Grouping questions together was an analytical exercise generally carried out by the core project teams. As noted above, established conceptual frameworks, particularly pressure-state-response and its variants (e.g. driver-pressure-state-impact- response), were often helpful in organizing questions, although there was a risk of trying to assign all the key questions to this framework beyond the point of meaningful analysis.The GEF’s biodiversity programme framework for assessing the impact of conservation programmes also proved useful in some instances.
SCREENING FORANDMONITORING CARDIAC REJECTION: CLINICAL METHODS Hitherto, the main technique employed in monitoringthe rejection status of a transplanted heart has been endomyocardial biopsy (EMB), which allows rejection to be screened forand monitored on the basis ofthe extent and distribution of lymphocytic infiltrates and associated myocardial damage. 6 The goal of periodic EMB is to detect acute rejection before allograft dysfunction occurs. The latest version ofthe ISHLT EMB grading scheme 7 establishes 4 categories: 0R (absence of rejection); 1R (mild rejection: presence of an interstitial and/or perivascular infiltrate, with or without a focus of myocyte damage); 2R (moderate rejection: presence of 2 or more infiltrate foci with associated myocyte damage); and 3R (severe rejection: presence of a diffuse infiltrate with multifocal myocyte damage and/or edema, vasculitis, or hemorrhage). The letter “R” denotes “Revised Classification” to avoid confusion with the previous scheme, the 1990 working formulation. 8
On one hand, Evaluation and testing have been most common tools during many years. At the end ofthe unit students make an exam and they receive a mark for that. Teachers only give a Feedback when it was finished, and there is no possibility to improve. Students can not follow their own process and they are not conscious about the reach. On the other hand, with the arrival of constructivist theories and bilingual setting at the schools, Assessmentfor Learning is beginning to be a really important tool, actually it is. This consists on developing autonomy and “learning to learn” competence in our students. They are the centre ofthe learning process, they need to know where they are in each moment and how can they improve. This involves a hard-work by the teachers, but it is a difficult technique to be used but worth applying. Furthermore it is a part of teacher’s competences that any teacher should develop. Assessmentfor Learning 1 doesn’t implicate
Framework synthesis andthe ‘‘best fit’’ framework approach both involve extracting data from primary studies against an a priori framework or conceptual/theoretical framework to better understand the phenomena of interest [24,25]. Cochrane have recently published guidance for re- view authors on the selection and application of social the- ories in systematic reviews that can be used to aid the extraction, analysis, and synthesis of evidence  For example, Glenton et al.  extracted data against a modi- fied Supporting the Use of Research Evidence framework  to develop a thematic synthesis of factors affecting the implementation of lay health worker interventions. The Supporting the Use of Research Evidence framework provides a comprehensive list of possible factors that may influence the implementation of health system interventions  Equity criteria, expressed as the acronym ‘‘PROG- RESS’’ (referring to place of residence, race/ethnicity/cul- ture/language, occupation, gender/sex, religion, education, socioeconomic status, and social capital), may help to ensure that data extraction has an explicit equity focus .
M.J.O.P., T.A. and H.E.R. receive support through the Natural Environment Research Council via national capability funding to the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. The workshop in Chile was funded through FONDECYT (project 1140662) with additional contributions from Kauyeken Association, Doctorate in Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences (University of Chile), College of Agriculture and Forest Sciences (Pontificia Universidad Cato´lica de Chile) andthe British Ecological Society. We are grateful to all the participants at the workshop: http://www.kauyeken.cl/con-exito-se-realizaron-el- taller-y-los-seminarios-sobre-ciencia-ciudadana/. eBird: Thanks to Gretchen LeBuhn and Andrea Wiggins for contributions to the case study. Zavamaniry Gasy was supported by JRS Biodiversity Foundation. Kenya Bird Map: Thanks to Les Underhill andthe Animal Demography Unit for supporting us in Kenya to use the SABAP2 system, and Michael Brooks for database design, implementation and maintenance. Thanks also to the National Museums of Kenya and Tropical Biology Association for their partnership with A Rocha Kenya on the bird atlas andfor support from NatureKenya. Kenya Bird Map has been made possible through funding received from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) ofthe European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007–2013/under REA Grant agreement no 317184 andthe Natural History Museum of Denmark. FreshWater Watch: DGFC thanks CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientı´fico e Tecnolo´gico) forthe research productivity Grant (Process Number 300899/2016-5) and Earthwatch Institute/Neville Shulman forthe Earthwatch Shulman Award. Pollinator monitoring: Thanks to Wanja Kinuthia (National Museums of Kenya) and Rosie Trevelyan (Tropical Biological Association) for discussions about pollinators.
Professional potential reproduction is of particular importance and relevance for effective management ofthe region under the conditions of its systemic renovation, the meaning of which is precisely the orientation of professional potential reproduction towards regional management effectiveness provision. During previous studies, they emphasized the first half ofthe logical link “the systemic renovation of professional potential reproduction - the effectiveness of regional management”. The second part ofthe link was implicated in the general context ofthe presentation. In this case, it acquires an already expanded, explicit character. In this regard, we clarify the general research task - to reveal the mechanisms of management professional potential transformation into theindicatorsof its effectiveness and efficiency. The task includes three subtasks: firstly, the ways of individual professional potential aggregation into group (structural) ones and then into institutional ones; secondly, the ways of model integration for professional and institutional effectiveness; thirdly, the organizational and technological models for regional management efficiency provision. At that it should be noted that the objectives ofthe study do not include clarification of efficiency and effectiveness concepts in relation to state and municipal government, justification of evaluation criterion system, the comparative analysis of evaluation methods, etc.
pollution, but a matter of economy. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), with at least 88% of clinker, becomes a very pricey good. Bearing these two sustainability dimensions in mind (Economy and Ecology), the use of a potential surrogate for clinker in the cement content has been deeply studied and well-documented. Funded by Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, a joint project with participation of Swiss, Cuban and Indian scientists has developed a new type of cement, named Limestone Calcined Clay Cement (LC 3 ). LC 3 , a low carbon cement,
36. Baseline conditions, trends and characteristics ofthe production and socio-economic systems determine whether indirect consequences will affect biodiversity. This SEA works with a combination of economic modelling studies, empirical evidence from literature, case-study analysis and causal chain analysis. Biodiversity impact is described in very broad terms, mainly as changes in surface area and species richness. Groupings of countries with comparable characteristics are studied in further detail by selecting one country per grouping in which an in-depth case-study is carried out. The difficulty in the identification ofbiodiversity-related impacts lies in the definition of impact mechanism.
example, the growth rate of sperm whale (Physeter macro- cephalus) populations became important in the 18th cen- tury when spermaceti replaced tallow as the candle wax of choice (Whitehead et al. 1997), but declined in impor- tance during the 19th century when mineral, vegetable, and terrestrial animal products replaced spermaceti (Davis et al. 1997). Similarly, the salt tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa) varieties gained prominence in the 20th century when irrigation led to the increasing salinity of farmlands (Maas and Hoffman 1977). More recently, the capacity of many ecosystems to maintain function has been tested by an increasingly variable climate (Smith et al. 2000). Simplification of ecosystems to enhance average yields of food, fuel, and fiber has reduced their capacity to operate in highly variable conditions (Elmqvist et al. 2003; Lobell and Field 2007).
agricultural societies, water became an essential prerequisite for food production. Its abundant availability created the basis for great civilizations, as in the case ofthe Nile forthe Egyptians andthe Euphrates and Tigris forthe Mesopotamians. Its scarcity in periods of drought brought down the same powerful societies. It is only natural, therefore, that water was venerated in many religions andthe ‘blessing ofthe waters’ has been a common ritual. Wetlands in turn, as a major source of water, were equally respected. Thus their values, and especially their cultural values, have been inextricably linked. In a contemporary framework, water is often associated with flow, while wetlands with stagnant waters. However, this distinction is simplistic, as water in aquifers can remain static, while coastal lagoons can experience a very dynamic water regime during different times ofthe year. In any case, rivers may be classified as wetlands under the Ramsar definition, and their floodplains experience dynamic water movement in times of floods.