PDF superior Effect of fibers and whole grain content on quality attributes

Effect of fibers and whole grain content on quality attributes

Effect of fibers and whole grain content on quality attributes

OCT made it possible to visualize the quality of coating (when observing dry pellets) and to follow the rehydration process of extruded cereals in milk: the collapse of the structure th[r]

7 Lee mas

Effect of the particle size of pear pomace on the quality of enriched layer and sponge cakes

Effect of the particle size of pear pomace on the quality of enriched layer and sponge cakes

Pear pomace (PP) is a by-product of the fruit industry with a high content of fiber. Its potential as an ingredient at 15% or 30% level for sponge and layer cakes was investigated. Three PP powders with different particle sizes (fine, medium and coarse) were obtained. Microstructure, density and viscosity were evaluated in batter, and specific volume, texture and color in the final product. When PP was added, less uniformity in bubble distribution was observed in batters, particularly at higher particle sizes. Cake specific volume significantly diminished with increasing amounts of PP. For sponge cakes, the decrease in specific volume was the highest for the finest particle size of PP. In general, increasing PP addition increased hardness and reduced elasticity, cohesiveness and resilience but the effect depended on the particle size. In general, better textural attributes were obtained with medium and coarse particle sizes. These results indicate that PP of an adequate particle size could be a promising fiber source for different cake formulations.
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21 Lee mas

The effect of a relatively low dose of nano-ZnO particles  on growth, chlorophyll content, grain yield, and yield components in a mexican landrace of red maize.

The effect of a relatively low dose of nano-ZnO particles on growth, chlorophyll content, grain yield, and yield components in a mexican landrace of red maize.

A field-scale experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of a relatively low dose of nano-ZnO particles (0.16 mg nano-ZnO per seed) on growth parameters, biomass production, photosynthetic pigments, cob components, grain yield, and yield attributes in a Mexican pigmented maize landrace. Seeds were coated with a starch paste containing nano-ZnO and controls comprised both uncoated and starch-coated seeds free of nano- ZnO. The highest plant height, plant stalk diameter, root length, number of secondary roots, and fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots were recorded at 60 d after sowing with the application of nano-ZnO. Also, a significant improvement in leaf chlorophyll concentration occurred as a result of applying nano-ZnO. Cob components, grain yield, and yield attributes were significantly improved by the nano-ZnO application. Furthermore, a significant increment in the FTIR primary active vibrations associated with the peptide-protein, lipids, and carbohydrate, and a high degree of organization at a short- range scale was observed on the outer regions of the starch granules in the F1 progeny of the nano-ZnO treatment. From these results, it can be concluded that seed treatment with a low dose of nano-ZnO particles is a cost-effective method for improving native maize production under rural conditions.
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10 Lee mas

Strategy Patterns for Evaluating and Improving Usability

Strategy Patterns for Evaluating and Improving Usability

Usability can be related to the IQ and EQ focuses, while UX to the QinU focus [5]. We have defined in [17] the Usability, Actual Usability (Usability in use) and UX concepts that are included in the 2Q2U v2.0 quality models [18], which are basically an extension of the ISO 25010 models. Usability is the “degree to which the product or system has attributes that enable it to be understood, learned, operated, error protected, attractive and accessible to the user, when used under specified conditions”. This definition considers Product and System entity super-categories so Usability and its sub-characteristics (i.e. Understandability, Learnability, Operability, User error protection, UI aesthetics and Accessibility) are related to the IQ and EQ focuses respectively. On the other side, we have defined Actual UX as “degree to which a system in use enable specified users to meet their needs to achieve specific goals with satisfaction, actual usability, and freedom from risk in specified contexts of use.” [17]. This definition considers the System-in-Use entity super-category so UX and its sub-characteristics (i.e. Satisfaction, and Actual Usability, etc.) are related to the QinU focus. As a consequence, Usability and UX are linked mainly to the three yellow-colored quality views represented in Fig. 2. That is, Usability is a characteristic related to the Product and System Quality views, and UX to the System- in-Use Quality view. This clear separation of concerns between Usability concepts and quality views and their relationships foster a more robust evaluation and improvement approach, as we discuss later on.
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16 Lee mas

Quality Properties Evaluation for Software Requirements Specifications: An Exploratory Analysis

Quality Properties Evaluation for Software Requirements Specifications: An Exploratory Analysis

A SRS is considered correct if every requirement is something required to build the system, i.e., each requirement contributes to the satisfaction of some need [2,5,6]. The SRS should be compared with any superior specification to ensure that it agrees. The customer or user can also determine whether the SRS correctly reflects the actual needs [5,8]. Instead, some authors define the quality attribute validability/valid when they establish that the client should be able to confirm that SRS requirements describe the system that meets their needs [10,14]. Pohl [7] states that a requirement is correct if the relevant stakeholders confirm that it is correct and require the system to perform the requirement completely. Thus, a requirement is incorrect if it unnecessary adds some functionality or quality property (gold platings).
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14 Lee mas

Mechanical damage behavior of mortars reinforced with recycled polypropylene fibers

Mechanical damage behavior of mortars reinforced with recycled polypropylene fibers

Combining the significant environmental impacts of cement-based materials and the impacts derived from the production of industrialized fibers, it is easy to understand why the use of alternative and more environmentally friendly fibers have attracted more attention in the research materials community [17,18] that is moving towards a more sustainable construction industry. Recently, there have been studies addressing the use of fibers from vegetal origin (e.g., [19,20]), animal origin (e.g., [21]), and waste-based plastic origin (e.g., [22]) in cement-based materials. Particularly, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, there have been few studies analyzing the incorporation of waste-based polypropylene fibers in cement-based materials. Bendjillali et al. [23] evaluated the compressive and flexural strength and the shrinkage behavior of mortars exposed to three different curing conditions and reinforced with waste-based polypropylene fibers from the production of sweeps and brushes and the results indicated a small increment in strength due to fiber addition in mortars exposed to hot-dry environments and a large reduction of shrinkage in fiber-reinforced mortars exposed to hot-dry environments (compared to plain mortars). Bendjillali et al. [24] addressed the characterization of the morphological and mechanical properties of waste-based polypropylene fibers and this study also evaluated the impact of these fibers on the shrinkage, and compressive and flexural strength of cement-based mortars finding that shrinkage can be reduced up to 50% with the incorporation of fibers while the overall mechanical behavior was not affected. Bendjillali and Chemrouk [25] studied the implementation of these waste-based polypropylene fibers as a secondary reinforcement in steel-bar reinforced concrete specimens finding a small increment in compressive and flexural strength and a reduction in the number and dimension of cracks. Pacheco-Torgal et al. [26] presented an extensive literature review addressing the use of recycled plastic in concrete, including recycled polypropylene fibers manufactured from industrial plastic waste, whose manufacturing process, chemical properties and mechanical properties were studied. Although these research efforts have contributed to the characterization and incorporation of these waste-based polypropylene fibers into cement-based materials, there are still important waste-based polypropylene fiber properties (e.g., roughness) and fiber-reinforced cement-based material fracture properties (e.g., flexural toughness) that need to be studied. As a result of the latter, the concept of circular economy can be incorporated if polypropylene fibers are recovered from waste.
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17 Lee mas

The effect of moisture content on nondestructive probing measurements

The effect of moisture content on nondestructive probing measurements

In this study 25 planed large cross-section specimens of laricio pine (Pinus nigra Arn. Ssp. Salzmannii) of Spanish provenance with nominal dimensions of 100 x 150 mm cross-section and 500 mm length were used. Green specimens were selected in the sawmill and their ends were sealed to promote uniform drying. MC was determined by the oven drying method according to standard EN 13183-1:2002. Needle impact penetration depth using the commercial device Pilodyn 6 J Forest (Proceq, Switzerland) and screw withdrawal force using the commercial device Screw Withdrawal Resistance Meter (Fakopp, Hungary) were measured at 14 different MC. Measurements were made avoiding areas close to the pith, following the same grain and with at least a 30 mm gap between them. The first one was performed at 65.1% average MC and the final one at 8.3% average MC. 181 days were necessary from the first measurement to the last one using the natural drying process.
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7 Lee mas

Efecto sobre la producción y calidad de leche de la suplementación con harina de guácimo y Guanacaste

Efecto sobre la producción y calidad de leche de la suplementación con harina de guácimo y Guanacaste

Efecto sobre la producción y calidad de leche de la suplementación con harina de guácimo y Guanacaste Effect on the production and quality of milk supplementation.. guácimo flour and G[r]

10 Lee mas

Effect of water deficit on the agronomical performance and quality of  processing tomato

Effect of water deficit on the agronomical performance and quality of processing tomato

MANOVA biplots of main aroma logodor units in the year 2009 considering the factors irrigation a, cultivar b and the complete model with main factors and interaction c.. Circles represen[r]

37 Lee mas

Effect of high CO2 and water availability on whole plant carbon and water balance in grapevine

Effect of high CO2 and water availability on whole plant carbon and water balance in grapevine

The experiment was conducted during the summer 2018 in an experimental vineyard planted in 2009 at the University of the Balearic Islands. The plant material used during the experiment consisted of Grenache vines submitted to two different water regimes: a moderate water irrigation and non-irrigation. The measurements were carried out in two representative plants of each water regime, which were used along the entire experiment. The measurements were performed during the months of July and August and were developed as it follows: firstly, irrigated plants were measured (beginning with atmospheric CO 2 conditions and ending with high CO 2 conditions) and secondly,
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33 Lee mas

Effect of storage temperature on physicochemical quality of palm oil (RBD) and on vegetable margarine

Effect of storage temperature on physicochemical quality of palm oil (RBD) and on vegetable margarine

In this study physicochemical properties of the palm oil and vegetable margarine were evaluated during storage at different thermal conditions. Refined palm oil bleached and deodorized was used (RBD) enhanced within citric acid as synergist agent and BHT as antioxidant agent. Vegetable margarine was used constituted by 50% of palm oil RBD, 34% of palm stearin, 8% of palm olein, and 8% of soy oil. Fatty acids identification was made (lipidic profile) in each one of the samples through gas chromatography, quantification of fatty solids by means of RMN at 10, 20, 30, and 40° Celsius grades as well as assessment of the physic- chemical properties at temperatures ranging from 4, 25, and 60° C, in a period of 180 days of storage. Results evidenced that main fatty acids found in palm oil RBD and in margarine were palmitic acid and oleic acid in percentages ranging from 45% and 39%, respectively. Temperature increasing presented a significant increment in peroxides and a diminishing in the content of fatty solids in each one of the temperature assessed. In relation to the storage conditions of the palm oil RBD and the vegetable margarine at 4° C , this temperature was the one which presented the better conditions preventing deterioration, crystallization, oxidation and hydrolysis in both fatty products. In the other hand, the palm oil RBD and the vegetable margarine presented a Trans fatty acids content below to 2%.
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14 Lee mas

Effect of disodium/calcium malate or Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on growth performance, carcass quality, ruminal fermentation products, and bood metabolites of heifers

Effect of disodium/calcium malate or Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on growth performance, carcass quality, ruminal fermentation products, and bood metabolites of heifers

A total of 108 Charolaise cross heifers with an aver- age BW of 214 ± 27.3 kg and 6.4 ± 1.10 mo of age were used. Upon arrival to the experimental farm (Comercial Pecuaria Segoviana SL, Coca, Spain), each animal was weighed, treated for endo- and ectoparasites with iver- mectin (1 mL/50 kg BW, Ivomec; Merial Laboratorios SA, Barcelona, Spain), and vaccinated against infec- tious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainflueza-3, and bovine viral diarrhea (2 mLper animal, Cattlemaster-4; Zoetis Spain SLU, Madrid, Spain) and enterotoxemia and car- buncle (2 mLper animal, Miloxan; Merial Laboratorios SA). A booster dose was given 3 wk later. Before start- ing the trial, all animals were fed an adaptation diet consisting of concentrate and straw for 7 d. Feeds were provided ad libitum (5% orts) twice a day, and fresh water was freely accessible at all times. In this period, the amount of straw and concentrate provided was re-
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11 Lee mas

Preparación de nanofibras de carbono y cerámica para aplicaciones en Ingeniería Química

Preparación de nanofibras de carbono y cerámica para aplicaciones en Ingeniería Química

One of the most promising candidates to be directly used as fuel in compression- ignition engines is dimethyl ether (DME). In the last decades the most important application of DME is its use as clean alternative fuel in diesel engines [25-27]. DME is produced by the conversion of various feedstock such as natural gas, coal, oil residues and bio-mass. Although the most interesting raw material would be bio-mass, natural gas is arguably the economically most viable feedstock at the present [28]. DME production methods consist essentially in dehydration of methanol or direct conversion from synthesis gas (syngas). In the latter case, the first step is usually production of syngas from the carbonaceous feedstock, then methanol synthesis using a copper-based catalyst, while the third step is the dehydration of methanol to DME using alumina- or zeolite-based catalysts. For the former case, second and third steps can occur simultaneously in one reactor using appropriate catalysts. A final step of purification of the product would be needed, as it may also contain some methanol and water [28]. Besides the aforementioned application as bioethanol, DME is also used to obtain many chemical products as methyl acetate, dimethyl sulphate and in propellant formulations, replacing chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) that destroy the ozone layer [29-31]. The catalytic dehydration of methanol to DME has been widely studied in the literature [32-34]. Dimethyl ether can be produced by methanol dehydration over acidic porous materials, which usually yield non desirable hydrocarbons as by-products [35]. Moreover, the methanol dehydration produces a fast deactivation of the catalysts due to the coke deposition [36,37]. To avoid the coke deposition and to increase the selectivity to DME, the strength of the acid sites should be decreased [29].
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194 Lee mas

FERTILIZER SOURCE IN BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND QUALITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF THYME (THYMUS VULGARIS L.)

FERTILIZER SOURCE IN BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND QUALITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF THYME (THYMUS VULGARIS L.)

The supply of mineral nutrition overtook the organic in all the variables evaluated, such as plant height which increased by 36.5%; this was because the essential elements in the nutrient solution were readily available [16], and favored the growth of plants in comparison to plants to which organic nutrients were applied. However, these treatments showed homogeneous growth, perhaps because the plants used inorganic fractions of organic substrates that were available to the roots as indicated by [17], and because the composition of organic fertilizers contain, in addition to nutrients, other substances that stimulate and regulate plant growth. This is because, compost is a source of organic nutrients, contain chelated micronutrients for easy plant absorption and the nutrients is in biologically available form for plant uptake [11]. In this way, some studies have documented that the fresh herb positively responded to increased levels of either organic or chemical fertilizers [18], and improve growth of plant foliage and roots [19].
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7 Lee mas

Bevacizumab diminishes inflammation in an acute endotoxin induced uveitis model / Salvador Mérida, María Sancho Tello, Inmaculada Almansa, Carmen Desco,
Cristina Peris, Mari Luz Moreno, Vincent M  Villar, Amparo Navea and Francisco Bosch Morell

Bevacizumab diminishes inflammation in an acute endotoxin induced uveitis model / Salvador Mérida, María Sancho Tello, Inmaculada Almansa, Carmen Desco, Cristina Peris, Mari Luz Moreno, Vincent M Villar, Amparo Navea and Francisco Bosch Morell

IL-2 significantly decreased when Bevacizumab was administered with endotoxin. IL-2 is a pleiotropic cytokine that induces T-cell growth, enhances the cytolytic activity of natural killer cells, promotes Tregs differentiation, facilitates activation-induced cell death and inhibits IL-6-dependent signaling events, e.g., down-regulating IL-6 receptor expression (Banchereau et al., 2012). The effect that Bevacizumab had on endotoxin-stimulated chemokines varied. Several related M1 macrophage chemokines (GRO/KC and MIP-2) showed relevant increases (Figure 5). MIP-2 is a chemokine secreted by macrophages and monocytes that acts as a chemoattractant for polymorphonuclear white blood cells and hematopoietic stem cells. GRO/KC is expressed by epithelial cells, neutrophils, and macrophages. Some authors (Omari et al., 2008) have suggested that this chemokine could play any kind of protective role.
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11 Lee mas

Organic-polymeric radial flow biorreactor for liver models

Organic-polymeric radial flow biorreactor for liver models

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) The cultured scaffolds are drained of their media cell culture and immediately placed in the appropriate fixative for a minimum of an hour. The fixative routinely used in this lab is a modified Karnovsky’s, 4% Paraformaldehyde and 25% Glutaraldehyde (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) in 0.1M Phosphate Buffer. After fixation the scaffolds are rinsed several times with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (Invitrogen, USA) followed by post fixation with 1% osmium tetroxide in phosphate buffer for one hour. After rinsing again with PBS for 15 minutes, the scaffolds were dehydrated through a series of graded ethyl alcohols: 70% for 10 min., 95% for 10 min. and three changes of 100% for 5 minutes each. All the SEM images were taken with the microscopy JEOL, JSM-5900 LV model.
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16 Lee mas

Effect of plant row spacing and herbicide use on weed aboveground biomass and corn grain yield

Effect of plant row spacing and herbicide use on weed aboveground biomass and corn grain yield

Incident Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) at the top of the canopy (I o ) and at ground level (I gl ) was measured at V 4 , V 7 , R 1 and R 6 stages. Measurements were made under clear-sky conditions at solar noon ± 2 h. I gl was measured using a linear quantum sensor (Accupar 80, Decagon Devices). The bar was placed on the soil surface (weed-free plots) or 40 cm above ground level (weedy plots), diagonally across two 70-cm rows or three 35 cm-r ows at five locations in each experimental unit and averaged. I o was measured outside the canopy with a point quantum sensor (190 SB, Li-Cor, Lincoln, NE). The Percentage of PPFD intercepted (PPFD i ) by the crop was calculated as:
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7 Lee mas

Nitrogen use efficiency and residual effect of fertilizers withnitrification inhibitors

Nitrogen use efficiency and residual effect of fertilizers withnitrification inhibitors

The application of nitrification inhibitors (NI) is a strategy to increase the efficiency of nitrogen (N) in farming systems. These chemical compounds delay the conversion of ammonium to nitrate in soil by depressing the activity of nitrifiers bacteria. Consequently, when fertilizers pre-blended with NI are supplied the aim is to improve the synchronization between the N supply and crop demand, enhancing N use efficiency (NUE) and decreasing nitrate losses (Ladha et al., 2005). Evidence for the mitigation of nitrous oxides emissions has been reported in various studies (Ruser and Schulz, 2015) but for the increase of NUE is controversial. In a meta-analysis conducted by Quemada et al. (2013) in irrigated agricultural systems, the use of NI reduced nitrate leaching by 27% compared to conventional fertilizers but did not increase crop yield or NUE significantly. Whereas, Abalos et al. (2014) reported that NI increased crop productivity and NUE with varying degrees of success. Without underestimating the enormous importance of the environmental benefits, it is also crucial to consider the economic costs and profits of NI use. The opportunity of saving N-fertilizer, reducing the number of applications, or increasing the productivity are advantages that would justify the higher price of NI to farmers as a viable alternative over conventional fertilizers. Therefore, identification of cropping systems or environmental conditions in which NI enhances NUE and crop yield may contribute to the best practice of this fertilizer technology.
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18 Lee mas

Effect of high pressure carbon dioxide on tomato juice: inactivation kinetics of pectin methylesterase and polygalacturonase and determination of other quality parameters

Effect of high pressure carbon dioxide on tomato juice: inactivation kinetics of pectin methylesterase and polygalacturonase and determination of other quality parameters

50 To our knowledge, no previous studies on HPCD treatment of tomato juice have been found in the 51 literature. Other non-thermal technologies have been applied to inactivate some of the deleterious 52 enzymes in tomato juice. Most of the studies were focused on the use of high pressure processing 53 (HPP), observing a different behavior for both enzymes with pressure. Generally, it was found that 54 PME was more pressure resistant while PG can be inactivated at moderate pressure and 55 temperature by HPP (Andreou et al., 2016; Crelier et al., 2001; Fachin et al., 2003; Hernández and 56 Cano, 1998; Houben et al., 2014; Hsu, 2008; Van Den Broeck et al., 2000). Other studies can be 57 also found in the literature that employ other different non-thermal treatments, such as electric 58 processing, cold plasma, membrane processing, ultrasound and ultraviolet irradiation (Bevilacqua 59 et al., 2018).
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35 Lee mas

Effect of seed protein content on plant growth of barley and wheat

Effect of seed protein content on plant growth of barley and wheat

INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW Nitrogen Effect on Plant Growth Nitrogen Utilization in Wheat and Barley Yield Grain Protein Amino Acids Lodging Protein Increase by Field Application of C[r]

103 Lee mas

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