PDF superior The Effect of public support on innovative behavior and performance in SMEs.

The Effect of public support on innovative behavior and performance in SMEs.

The Effect of public support on innovative behavior and performance in SMEs.

En este caso las PYMEs locales han actuado como proveedores de experiencia y tecnolo- gía de las grandes multinacionales, creando una relación de desarrollo proactivo entre la PYME y la multinacional, en vez de una rela- ción de dependencia. Las PYMEs locales de Singapur han sido apoyadas desde el ámbito gubernamental para trasladar la visión de que es necesario ofertar productos de alta calidad e innovadores que estén unidos a la cadena de valor de las grandes multinacionales. Sin em- bargo, las desventajas de las empresas de ta- maño reducido tales como, los recursos limi- tados, las dificultades de gestión de su tecno- logía o el uso de maquinarias adaptadas o de segunda mano, las hacen vulnerables, dificul- tándoles la generación o apropiación de tec- nología, la profesionalización de su personal encargado de producción y la existencia de un departamento o un responsable de la actividad de I+D+I (Díaz, 1996; Rogers, 2004). Algu- nas situaciones que pueden motivar o desmo- tivar un comportamiento innovador son: a) la falta de recursos por parte de la PYME (Lafo- ret y Tann, 2006); b) la formación en temas de innovación (Tushman y Nadler, 1986); c) la capacidad tecnológica (Jordá, 2005); d) el contacto con agentes externos (Sánchez et al., 2003); e) la comunicación con clientes y pro- veedores (Santamaría y Rialp, 2007), con uni- versidades, centros tecnológicos y de investi- gación (González, 2002); f) la innovación in- tegral (Audrestch y Callejón, 2007) y g) la concentración de actividades ya que su activi- dad productiva se focaliza en pocos productos (García, 2004).
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An experimental study on the effect of co payment in public services

An experimental study on the effect of co payment in public services

Field experiments by Cárdenas and Ostrom (2004) have inspired a plethora of studies showing that a decision maker’s past expe- rience from the real world determines behavior in common pool extraction settings. Our findings show that experience from the early periods of the experiment can also affect behavior in sub- sequent periods. Specifically, exposure to a completely free access regime renders the use of co-payment ineffective as a means of reducing over-exploitation of public resources. On the contrary, a copayment achieves the desired objectives if not preceded by free access regimes. As said above, it appears that free extrac- tion spoils the future effectiveness of a co-payment in reducing over-consumption.
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8 Lee mas

The mediating effect of organizational citizenship behavior on the relationship between workplace spirituality and intention

The mediating effect of organizational citizenship behavior on the relationship between workplace spirituality and intention

as spiritual humans, whose souls need and want to rejuvenate via work (Ashmos & Duchon, 2000). Spirituality results from employees sharing and sensing a connection, attraction and closeness with their colleagues on their team and in the organization as a whole (Harrington, Preziosi & Gooden, 2004). This new idea aids in predicting lower tendency to resign, there by positively influencing the performance and effectiveness of the whole organization (Hong¸ 2012). Moreover, the success and efficacy of an organization can be influenced by the growing understanding and inverse relationship of workplace spirituality and intention to leave as behavioural outcomes. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to provide a highly effective organizational environment required for employees to flourish beyond their assigned tasks (Tsai & Wu, 2010). Many management systems look to organizational citizens hip behaviour (OCB) for this purpose (Organ, Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 2006). According to Organ (1988), OCB is defined as a discretionary behaviour of a person who is not related to any official reward mechanism and who, as a whole, helps a company to operate efficiently. With a better understanding of the benefits of workplace spirituality towards OCB, organizations can be more successful and effective. Therefore, for this study, the concept of workplace spirituality is a novel idea for hospital managers in order to attract and retain their nurses.
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25 Lee mas

Essays on the behavior and regulation of insiders

Essays on the behavior and regulation of insiders

Our findings are relevant in understanding the liquidity provision process and might enlighten policy makers on the implications of insider trading restrictions, disclosure requirements, and insider transactions publicity on the liquidity of stock markets. Moreover, the impact of insider trading on liquidity, short-horizon variance and skewness is relevant for risk management and asset pricing. Firms that restrict insider trading activity might have less liquid and more volatile stocks. Further- more, the inability to provide price support on the firm’s account makes financially constrained firms riskier. Finally, the presence of lockup periods, in which insiders cannot sell their holdings, can make stock prices more prone to temporal overpricing. At the current state of our research agenda, two important questions remain that will be addressed in further work. The first is to improve our understanding of liquidity provision by insiders by focusing on large price corrections due to liquidity shocks. In this event-study type setting we will be in a better position to asses insiders actions and their impact on return distributions. The second is analyzing the effect of earlier disclosure of insider trades, as imposed by Sarbanes-Oxley Act after August of 2002. Furthermore, our results call for the need to develop a full theory that analyzes the tradeoffs involved in insiders’ decision to trade on the firm’s vs their own account, in the presence of liquidity shocks, when both moral hazard and adverse selection considerations are in place. All these extensions, however, are beyond the scope of the present paper.
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124 Lee mas

The effect of Environmental Corporate Social Responsibility on industrial SMEs innovation

The effect of Environmental Corporate Social Responsibility on industrial SMEs innovation

This article analyses how Environmental Corporate Social Responsibility (ECSR) strategies may help to enhance innovation among small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs). We test our hypotheses over a large sample of 2,620 industrial SMEs in Spain. We find empirical support for ECSR driving innovation as measured by the innovative effort or R&D and its outcomes in terms of product and process innovation. In addition, we distinguish the effect of ESCR on innovation among innovative and non-innovative SMEs. The effect is more intense for the later, suggesting an important role of ECSR on firms’ transformation. Our study contributes to the literature by analyzing the effect of ECSR in promoting innovation, as opposed to most studies that examine only on green-innovation. Besides, we examine the neglected research area of SMEs environmental strategies. Our findings on the instrumental value of ECSR related to innovation strengthen the business case of pro-environmental strategies, specifically for SMEs.
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21 Lee mas

Effect of the sanitary situation of the poultry house on the larval stages of endoparasites in the intermediate hosts and on the productive performance

Effect of the sanitary situation of the poultry house on the larval stages of endoparasites in the intermediate hosts and on the productive performance

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of the health status of poultry houses on the prevalence of larval stages of endoparasites in intermediate hosts and on the productive behavior of 55-week-old White Leghorn laying hens for eight weeks. Two treatments were designed (T1 and T2) with 486 chickens each (three replicas of 162 birds), according to the hygienic quality of two chicken houses (dust levels in the floor, puddles in excreta towers, feathers and broken eggs in the floor and corridors, presence of wild birds, population of insects). Every 15 days (four samplings) 1 kg of excreta per replica was collected from the excreta towers to quantify and classify the intermediate hosts. All insects and arthropods were identified, and the presence of nematode larvae and larval cysts was quantified. The intestines of 15 birds (T1=7; T2=8) were collected for the identification of endoparasites. The extension of the infestation was determined, and the productive variables were estimated (production of total eggs and per bird, percentage of egg laying, conversion, viability, and external quality of the egg). The results indicated that the sanitary situation of the chicken house with poor hygienic conditions (T2) positively influenced the populations of intermediary hosts of cestodes and in a greater production of eggs with dirty, stained, and broken shells. Alphitobius diaperinus was the coleopter with the highest presentation and with the highest intensity of infestation by Subulura suctoria.
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8 Lee mas

Public sector performance and efficiency in Europe : the role of public R&D

Public sector performance and efficiency in Europe : the role of public R&D

Due to all these points, public sector really has a great economic and social importance all over market economies, but even much more within the European Union, where different models, sizes, and organisational ways do exist. This fact becomes an economic achievement, and shows the EU trying to get the right balance between high social protection levels and income redistribution processes, what sometimes involve a certain trade-off between economic growth and income distribution. More recently, some other debates are in the centre of discussion about the modern role of States; for example, the debate about complementarity/substitutions between public and private (crowding out effects included); the debate about the conflict between Welfare State and competitiveness or the debate on modernisation and innovation of public sector. Because of all these old and new debates, the present discussion about the size and structure of the public sector has a more direct effect on the European Union than on any other regions around the world.
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41 Lee mas

Effect of cellobiose and dietary  soluble fibre on fermentation, growth  performance and health in rabbits

Effect of cellobiose and dietary soluble fibre on fermentation, growth performance and health in rabbits

described (Nakamura, 2005). However, it is not probable that the pancreatin used in our study had these enzymatic activities, although this point would require further confirmation. The combination of added enzymes and CEL might have interacted specifically with the microbiota of the LSF-inoculum, as suggested by the marked shifts observed in the proportions of acetate and butyrate. In agreement with our results, Falcão-e-Cunha et al. (2004) found that caecal fibrolytic activity in rabbits depended on the type of dietary fibre. Others have also reported that a reduction of the dietary level of soluble fibre reduced the ileal and faecal digestibility of different fibrous fractions (Abad-Guamán et al., 2015) and modified the caecal microbiota of rabbits (Gómez-Conde et al.,2007 and 2009). The microbial communities in the LSF- inoculum might have also interacted with the pre-digested CEL, causing changes in VFA profile. A change of butyrate for acetate also resulted from the caecal in vitro fermentation of untreated CEL using rabbit caecal contents obtained from donors’ rabbits fed with a low soluble fibre diet (Yang et al., 2010). All these results might indicate that the amount of fermentable substrate available for the microbiota would have been lower for the LSF compared with the HSF diet, which in turn might have influenced the activity and/or adaptability of the microbiota. An adaptation of the microbiota to CEL seems to be required according to the large lag time values observed for this substrate (25.3 h), although the time for maximal rate of gas production (Ti) was similar to that for PEC and lower than that for SBP. It seems that a synergy occurred when the pre-digested CEL was incubated with the LSF- inoculum, which might be related to the potentially high demand of amino acids at initial stages of fermentation, thus avoiding the use of amino acids as energy source. The lack of isovalerate production detected for the pre-digested CEL with the LSF- inoculum (although not different from the other treatments) would support this hypothesis.
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148 Lee mas

Evidence on the role of ownership structure on firms’ innovative performance

Evidence on the role of ownership structure on firms’ innovative performance

In the last columns of Table 3 the NegBin model estimations are shown; this mo- del generalizes the Poisson by allowing for an additional source of variance above that due to pure sampling error. Therefore, we have observed some differences in the sign and significance of the variables explaining the outcome of the innovation pro- cess on the type of model under estimation, either a Poisson or a NegBin. Econome- trically, since our data show a clear overdispersion of zeros in the case of patents (the coefficient of overdispersion of the NegBin model is statistically significant), the se- cond estimation model is pointed out as the most accurate, and therefore their results are the ones we prefer. The basic result of the NegBin models is that the patenting ac- tivity is explained by the effect of the R&D effort and the size like other papers ex- plained. But the most interesting fact is that there are some variables that remain sig- nificant in the patentability activity of Spanish manufacturing firms. All in all, we obtain that the knowledge accumulation through R&D investments is the most im- portant effect for the patenting activity in Spanish manufactures (with a higher elasti- city than in the Poisson model), as well as the size of the firms, since the bigger the firm the more it patents. Additionally, once the overdispersion of the data is taken into account, the firms’ ownership still matters with diffusely-held firms patenting more than closely-held firms. This negative effect of ownership concentration is even increased in the case of foreign owned firms, which patent even less. Concerning the introduction of owners in the board of directors the same negative effect that the one obtained with the Poisson estimation is obtained, although now this effect is indepen- dent of the ownership structure.
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INFLUENCE OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE OF EMPLOYEES ON THEIR INNOVATIVE BEHAVIOUR AND THE MEDIATING EFFECT OF INTERNAL SOCIAL CAPITAL

INFLUENCE OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE OF EMPLOYEES ON THEIR INNOVATIVE BEHAVIOUR AND THE MEDIATING EFFECT OF INTERNAL SOCIAL CAPITAL

capital of employees within the organization has a positive effect on innovative behaviour. This positive effect helps the enterprises to continuously improve internal social capital levels by facilitating communication between employees, thereby stimulating employee’s innovative behaviour. Both structural social capital and relational social capital can promote the creation of innovative behaviours, and the positive impact of relational social capital is more significant. Therefore, enterprises should take multiple measures to provide opportunities of exchange and cooperation for employees, strengthen communication between employees, generate more ideas in continuous interaction, and improve innovation ability and performance. Third, employee’s EI has a positive impact on innovative behaviour through the internal social capital. The four dimensions of employee’s EI have a significant positive impact on structural social capital and relational social capital, and internal social capital plays a partial mediating role between the employee’s EI and innovative behaviour. This means that companies can enhance internal social capital levels by enhancing the identification, development and cultivation of EI, and thus promote innovation.
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8 Lee mas

Impact of public support mechanisms on the performance of public private partnerships : an empirical analysis of road projects in Spain

Impact of public support mechanisms on the performance of public private partnerships : an empirical analysis of road projects in Spain

transferred back to the government by the end of the contract., This support, however, entails three main risks for the private partner: delays in the acquisition of the land needed, construction delays and potential defects in the facilites carried out by the government (World Bank and Ministry of Construction of Japan, 1999). The goal of tax breaks or credits is to reduce the tax burden of infrastructure projects, thereby increasing the cash flow of the projects and the return on investment of the private sector. Tax reliefs and breaks have been used in different countries such as Brazil, India, Italy and Spain to promote PPP projects. In Spain, for example, Law 8/1972 comprised a large set of tax benefits and exemptions from which concessionaires would benefit in order to attract the private sector and implement a PPP market. The road PPP projects developed under this law still benefit from these tax privileges. Regarding Italy, the “To Do” decree approved in 2013 introduced, in the context of the country’s recession, a tax credit and a reduction in the concession fee paid to the public sector for PPP projects worth more than EUR 200 million not benefiting from public subsidies in order to enable the private sector to reach the expected economic profitability of its investments (OECD, 2014a). Another example of tax incentives for PPP projects is that represented by the Private Activity Bonds (PABs) in the US. PABs are tax -exempt bonds issued by or on behalf of a local or state government intended to provide special financial benefits for projects that primarily benefit private entities, such as PPP projects. This type of bond reduces the private sector’s financing costs due to the federal tax exception, and have been greatly used to finance real toll PPP projects in the country (Perez et al., 2016).
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182 Lee mas

The edict on religion of 1788 and the statistics of public discussion in Prussia

The edict on religion of 1788 and the statistics of public discussion in Prussia

preponderance of conservative support for the edict: 1) increasing state censorship became a barrier to publication of liberal opinions, 2) the lure of potential state benefits induced conservatives to publish in favor of the edict. 17 On the first point, whereas censorship did play an important role in the publishing world, themselves were often so closely tied to writers and publishers that their actual effect on the business could be liberating rather than repressive. This was especially the case in Prussia, where lenient censorship had become a practical rule. It is true that Friedrich Nicolai and his Allgemeine Deutsche Bibliothek had to flee Prussia, but this was in March of 1794, well after the French Revolution had entered its most radical phase. Moreover, if Prussia was the most repressive of German states and authors fled to other principalities to publish work critical of Prussian policies, then how do we explain the increase in support for the edict among Non-Prussian texts between 1788 and 1790?
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36 Lee mas

Entrepreneurial and innovative behavior in spanish smes: essays on profitability, growth and export intensity.

Entrepreneurial and innovative behavior in spanish smes: essays on profitability, growth and export intensity.

Returning to our research questions and aims stated in Section 1, the first objective using these SME data was to reply whether network usage affects the EO development in these Spanish firms or not. We argued that by incorporating firms’ network usage in our analysis, we would achieve a better understanding of the development of entrepreneurial posture within organizations. Early discussion of this relationship has been presented by Ripollés and Blesa (2005), who consider the usefulness of the information from the entrepreneur’s personal networks as a valuable resource for EO development. In a similar vein, the findings attest to a positive effect of firm networks on the proclivity of a firm exhibiting higher levels of EO. In this sense, in part, the results reinforce previous research. Furthermore, we used a wider network perspective, namely, not only an entrepreneur’s networking activities, but also attempting to capture the total networking activities going on in the firms as a whole. That is, firm networks as a wide construct measured from the use of a manager’s own networks, network as a knowledge-resource, the use of networks to influence the environment and employees’ networks as an information source. Likewise, we have found significant differences in this relationship when considering small and medium enterprises separately. A multi- group analysis has enabled us to illustrate that networks play a stronger role in EO development in medium-sized companies than in small ones, probably driven by personal networks within the network resources of companies.
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174 Lee mas

COVID-19 and Financial Performance of SMEs:  Examining the Nexus of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy,  Entrepreneurial Resilience and Innovative Work Behavior

COVID-19 and Financial Performance of SMEs: Examining the Nexus of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy, Entrepreneurial Resilience and Innovative Work Behavior

In connection to entrepreneurship, extant literature reports self-efficacy as one of its key antecedents. Particularly, it is a vital prospect for furthering new venture intentions (C. C. Chen, Greene, & Crick, 1998; McGee, Peterson, Mueller, & Sequeira, 2009). We speculate that entrepreneurial self-efficacy will be much needed for SMEs to manage any crisis like the current COVID-19 successfully. Since entrepreneurial efficacy outlines as to how individual perceive themselves to be able to responsively perform various roles of entrepreneurship (Hmieleski & Baron, 2008), we speculate that it will be difficult for entrepreneurs to survive and sustain without it. A recent meta- analytical report suggested a strong correlation between entrepreneurial efficacy and firm performance (Miao et al., 2017). In particular, high levels of self-efficacy have been reported more noteworthy in boosting entrepreneurial orientation and performance of SMEs (Khedhaouria, Gurău, & Torrès, 2015). Scholars have also indicated that entrepreneurial self-efficacy can help businesses perform well in challenging environments (Cumberland, Meek, & Germain, 2015) as the owners express dedication and energy to work hard without any compromise on their goals and objectives. Although there exist gaps in terms of entrepreneurial efficacy and financial performance association, some scholars recently indicted a link
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7 Lee mas

Chiral catalysts immobilized on achiral polymers: effect of the polymer support on the performance of the catalyst

Chiral catalysts immobilized on achiral polymers: effect of the polymer support on the performance of the catalyst

The second factor is related to the effect of the polymeric matrix itself. In order to detect and understand experimental results directly connected with the nature of the matrix, a very systematic approach is required. This involves the preparation of the appropriate homogeneous counterpart having exactly the same structural features as the supported one, including the presence of the additional groups required for anchoring, and carrying out the corresponding reaction strictly under the same experimental conditions with both the homogeneous and the heterogeneous system. For instance, Larionov et al. have recently reported the immobilization of a chiral-at-metal iridium Lewis acid catalyst (1) on polystyrene macro beads using different linkers (2, 3) for the attachment (Fig. 1). 78 When the resulting immobilised Ir–chiral complexes were tested as catalysts for the Friedel–Crafts alkylation of indole (6) with the a,b-unsaturated 2-acyl imidazole 7, the supported catalysts (2–3) provided, in comparison to the homogeneous original catalyst (1), higher enantioselectivities (97% ee vs. 93% ee) while featuring lower catalytic activities. However, when the results were evaluated in comparison with their structural homo- geneous homologues (4, 5), the activity and enantioselectivity were comparable and the results could be correlated with the structural modification required for the immobilisation. Many times, this is not taken into account and claims about the preparation of supported reagents or catalysts performing differently than the homogeneous ones need to be considered with caution and do not provide any hint towards the under- standing of the effects of the matrix and for the design of new supported systems in which the polymeric backbone contributes to improve their efficiency.
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51 Lee mas

The impact of innovation and finance on the competitiveness of manufacturing SMEs

The impact of innovation and finance on the competitiveness of manufacturing SMEs

economic sectors in the State of Aguascalientes. For this reason, this research focus on the impact of innovation and finance in the competitiveness of manufacturing SMEs in this State. To measure this impact, 206 surveys were applied to persons responsible for the administration of this type of business organizations. With the data obtained, the analysis of reliability and validity of the scales of the different blocks of reagents used was carried out, and subsequently the multiple linear regression analysis in order to evaluate the correlation between the variables used. As a result of the tests, data are obtained and consist in new empirical evidence on the importance of innovation and finance as factors that significantly affect the competitiveness of the companies subject to study.
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16 Lee mas

The Effect of Gradation and Fibre on the Performance of Open Graded Friction Course Mixes in Costa Rica.pdf (212.9Kb)

The Effect of Gradation and Fibre on the Performance of Open Graded Friction Course Mixes in Costa Rica.pdf (212.9Kb)

Open graded friction course (OGFC) mix is defined as a thin permeable hot rolled asphalt layer that is applied to a finished pavement to provide surface water removal, increase skid resistance and reduce noise of high volume high speed roads. Typically, OGFC mixes are designed to consist of between 18% and 25% of interconnected air voids that permit sub-surface water drainage to the lateral zones of the pavement (1). The improved surface drainage reduces hydroplaning, splash and spray behind vehicles, improves surface reflectivity and reduces traffic noise (2).
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18 Lee mas

Effect of Xanthan Gum on the Rheological Behavior and Microstructure of Sodium Caseinate Acid Gels

Effect of Xanthan Gum on the Rheological Behavior and Microstructure of Sodium Caseinate Acid Gels

Qi et al. (2001) reported that the concept of tensegrity can be used to explain the structural interaction of caseins. In the three-dimensional models of caseins, extensions between the curves centered on proline residues provide rigid areas, while the turns and helices represent the most flexible elements [28]. In the presence of XG, a restriction volume for NaCAS particles occurs due to phase micro-separation and this effect might induce NaCAS particle association. Secondary structure zones, which are incapable of tertiary folds, can lead to self-association, but due to the compromise between tension and flexibility, no hydrophobic compression occurs and the rest of the protein configuration opens and hydrates, which might lead to an exposition of protein fluorophores to the polar medium. 2.3. Effect of XG on the Viscosity of the Medium
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11 Lee mas

Effect of Private Education Competition on the Quality of Public Education

Effect of Private Education Competition on the Quality of Public Education

El problema de endogeneidad puede ser resuelto mediante el uso de variables instrumentales. Hoxby (1994) utiliza esta herramienta en su trabajo. Primero muestra los resultados utilizando mínimos cuadrados ordinarios, tratando como exógena la variable “porcentaje de estudiantes secundarios matriculados en escuelas privadas”. El coeficiente estimado no es significativamente diferente de cero. Luego, muestra los resultados utilizando variables instrumentales, en cual el porcentaje de matriculados en escuelas privadas es tratado como endógeno a la conducta de las escuelas públicas y es instrumentado con el porcentaje de la población católica, densidad y densidad de iglesias. La estimación VI es positiva y significativamente diferente de cero. El contraste entre las dos estimaciones es confirmación de la hipótesis que la estimación de mínimos cuadrados es sesgada hacia abajo debido a que la demanda por escuelas privadas depende negativamente de la performance de la escuela pública.
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23 Lee mas

Effect of ivermectin concentration on internal parasite control and the productive performance of bovine

Effect of ivermectin concentration on internal parasite control and the productive performance of bovine

El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia del tratamiento con dosis crecientes de ivermectina sobre la carga parasitaria expresada en el número de huevos por heces y la in- cidencia sobre la ganancia de peso de vaquillas de sobreaño en un estableci- miento ganadero en un hato ganadero del Dto de San Pedro-Paraguay. Fueron seleccionadas un total de 200 vaqui- llas hibridadas (Bos taurus * Bos indi- cus) de sobre año divididas aleatoria- mente de acuerdo al orden de entrada en cuatro lotes con 50 animales cada uno, las cuales fueron caravaneadas y pesadas de manera individual. Lote testigo: Antiparasitario ivermectina al 1%; Lote A: tratados con ivermectina a una concentración del 3,15% formula- ción de laboratorio A; Lote B: tratados con ivermectina a una concentración de 3,15% formulación del laboratorio B; Lote C: tratados con ivermectina a una concentración del 4%. De cada lote fue tomada aleatoriamente una submuestra de 10 animales y fueron extraídas muestras de materia fecal siendo la primera extracción coinci- dente con la aplicación del producto y luego cada 30 días se procedió a to- mar muestras de los mismos animales de modo a obtener el evolutivo de la respuesta en número de huevos. En
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