Performance in elite swimming requires great technical expertise that takes years to develop (Barden and Kell, 2009), by consequence involves a large number of hours of training to improve sports results (Llop, Arellano, González, Navarro, and García, 2010; Navarro and González, 2012). This form of training is often accompanied by high levels of psychological pressure as athletes are constantly judged by coaches, parents, teammates and friends (Fernández-Río, Cecchini-Estrada, Méndez-Giménez, Fernández-García, and Saavedra, 2013). In the search for sports excellence in the different levels, understanding athletes’ motivation in practice to maximise their performance has been a central element in sport psychology (Fernández-Río et al., 2013; Ntoumanis, 2001; Treasure and Roberts, 2001). As a result the motivational climate of a training setting influences athlete goals and behaviours including time spent in an activity, effort exerted, and persistence (Abbott and Collins, 2004; Duda and Hall, 2001; MacNamara, Button, and Collins, 2010; Megan-Babkes and Sinclair, 2013).
The experiment consisted of three listening sessions per subject. All possible combinations of nine stimuli shown in Table 1, including reverse order, were presented to each test subject once per session, in random order. The subjects answered the preference ofthe latter tone compared to the former tone, in five steps, immediately after the pair was played. The total number ofthe pairs presented in a session is 72. Details ofthe nine subjects are as follows: Subjects 1 and 5 were two ofthe present authors; Subjects 2, 3 and 4 were amateur flute players; Subjects 6, 7, 8 and 9 were undergraduate students ofthe faculty of music, majoring in flute. Stimuli were presented diotically via headphones (Audio-Technica ATH -A5X). Sound pressure levels [measured by artificial ears (B&K 4153 and B&K 4134)] were in the range from 63 to 69dB. The results of each subject's first session were not used for the analysis; this was meant to compensate for results that may have been due to subjects' lack of familiarity with the experimental procedure.
in the soil reduces yields (Steingrobe and Schenk 1991) because a characteristic of kohlrabi is the high uptake of N from the soil (Feller and Fink 1997). Sharof and Wier (1994) studied the mini- mum amount of N required for vegetable crops, including kohlrabi, in relation to components of N balance in the soil and found that N requirements were invariably lower than values from field trials. As early as the first stages of growth in this pot study there was a visible difference between the fertilised treatments andthe unfertilised control.
Because of its importance, rather than evaluating aggregation properties per se, it may be prudent and more relevant to assess structural resilience (Kay, 1997). It refers to the ability of soil structure to recover following a major disruption in the aggregation process outlined in Eq. (4.5). The disruption may be caused by alterations in land use, cultivation, or soil management practices that change the composition of cations onthe exchange complex, decrease quantityandqualityofthe humus fraction, and reduce effectiveness ofthe bio tic factors. Numerous soils exhibit selfmulching properties (Fig. 4.21; Blackmore, 1981; Grant and Blackmore, 1991). In other soils, aggregation is restored only when taken out of cultivation and put under a restorative fallow (Lal, 1994). Inevitably, soils with structural resiliency are better suited for intensive management under different land uses than those that do not possess these characteristics. Structural resiliency depends on numerous factors including soil organic matter content, clay mineralogy, wettability characteristics, and biotic factors. It may be important to evaluate soils according to numerous indices outlined in Tables 4.6 and 4.7, and develop a comprehensive index of structural resiliency.
In experimental conditions, cockles have been shown to adjust the amount of food held in their guts according to seston quality (Ibarrola et al., 1998). For example, as the proportion of organic particles increases in the diet (i.e. increasing quality), an increasing amount of food can be allocated from the stomach to the digestive gland diverticula, increas- ing gut content (Navarro et al., 1994). Such a mech- anism has not been included in this model due to a lack of detailed data under experimental and field conditions. Nevertheless, in this model, variation of gut content has only been related to body weight of a single cockle as it represents a major variation during its lifetime (Hawkins et al., 1990). This has been done in order to simplify the digestive response to variable food quantityandquality. This mechanism is so com- plex that a separate model onthe digestion-related processes may be of interest.
The current research on improving the comprehensive qualityof higher education mainly focuses on improving the level of knowledge and skills, but rarely discusses from the psychological point of view (Luthans, Avey, Avolio et al., 2006; Avey, Nimnicht, & Pigeon, 2010). From the psychological point of view, most researches generally focus on coping of negative psychology, such as the discovery and mitigation of psychological problems, but neglect the development and utilization of positive mental energy (Ruthig, Haynes, Stupnisky et al., 2009). Active psychologists believe that every human body has positive and constructive strength at different stages of individual development. If we can guide people to adopt open visual angle and constructive thinking mode through positive psychological guidance and psychological capital construction, we can help college students to improve their comprehensive quality continuously (Gonzalez, 2013). Meanwhile, relevant researches show that psychological capital, as a positive psychological resource, has a significant effecton students’ psychological state and happiness (Wang, Sang, Ping et al., 2016). Therefore, it is of great practical significance to apply psychological capital construction in improving and promoting the comprehensive qualityof higher education.
Introduction: The e-learning training courses for Physical Education teachers should be designed to produce significant learning (Calderón & Martínez, 2014). In this study, the e-learning contents designed are the Olympic Boxing and Taekwondo, which due to different prejudices are not selected in the classrooms (Camerino, Gutiérrez & Prieto, 2011, Ruiz-Sanchis & Ros, 2013). The website escuelaolimpica.com (Ruiz-Sanchis & Martín, 2015) was designed in order that Physical Education teachers of Secondary School can train in fundamentals of combat sports (Olympic boxing and taekwondo). Objective: To assess theeffectofthe time spent onthe web onthe reduction of prejudices in a didactic intervention of 10 teachers, carried out in the municipality of Aracati (Brazil) where these contents were developed with students of 12-16 years. Results and discussion: The continuous e-learning training tool showed a correct adaptation to the needs ofthe teaching staff, facilitating access and understanding ofthe contents for the introduction ofthe modalities. The analysis of Spearman's bivariate correlation, made from the results of a test ad hoc, andthe time spent onthe application, reveals that teachers' beliefs about danger have been reduced andthe belief that the practice of these sports promote respect increase. Teachers consider that boxing is useful for developing intellectual skills, and what is more, the perception of masculinity decreases in both sports. Conclusions: The online training course introduces changes in models based on technical patterns in Physical Educationand reduces existing prejudices towards combat sports.
exposed to episodes of day- and night-time temperatures exceeding 30 and 20 °C, respectively, that can affect pollen availability and con- sequently plant’s yield. The relationship between air temperature and relative humidity during the meiotic phase of microsporogenesis, andthequantityandqualityof pollen produced by the flowers, were studied in two sunflower hybrids during two years. The hybrids were grown on irrigated plots in Bahía Blanca (38° 45’ S; 62° 11’ W) in three planting dates (PD) at a density of 5.6 plants/m 2 . Flowers were consecutively
Color difference, ΔE, (Equation 4) is also listed in Table 4. In all TS experiments, a color difference was observed compared to the untreated juice. According to Yuk et al. (Yuk, Sampedro, Fan, & Geveke, 2014), the color difference could be estimated to be not noticeable (0–0.5), slightly noticeable (0.5–1.5), noticeable (1.5–3), well visible (3–6) and great (6–12). Based on this classification, at 60ºC, the change in color was noticeable (1.5-3) while at 67ºC was well visible (3-6). According to color parameters, the chroma value presented the lowest value at 67ºC andthe lowest treated volume, 60 mL (higher power density). Therefore, although higher TS temperatures, led to higher inactivation rates, change in color was more visible. Color changes during TS have been attributed to Maillard reactions that may occur at long treatment time and high temperature, as well as to cavitation, that involves various physical, chemical and biological reactions (Anaya-Esparza et al., 2017).
Sending organisations can be government agencies, NGOs, universities, religious organisations, private companies or chari- ties (Guttentag 2009). Sending organisations’ responsibilities in- clude building a relationship of trust with the host organisation or directly with the community; designing programmes aligned to the host communities’ needs; publicizing the projects; recruiting and selecting volunteers; providing logistical support, information, orientation, sometimes training, and supporting in post-trip ac- climatisation (Ong et al. 2011). That means they play a crucial role in directing the orchestra of IVS. The responsibilities they take on vary however: some stick to the recruitment and logist- ical support, and others get involved in specific programmatic work. Voluntourism experts Wearing and McGehee (2013, p. 124) consider sending organisations a «key factor in maximizing good practice». The body of knowledge in this area is still small but growing. Some have engaged with organisations’ guiding consid- erations (Ong et al. 2011), their image (Coghlan 2007), and best practices to maximize benefits and minimize negative impacts (Ellis 2003, McGehee & Andereck 2008, Palacios 2010). However, these have mostly focused on short-term voluntourism, providing a tourism-oriented perspective, and few have offered a view on developmental outcomes. So far, no comprehensive study has been conducted comparing practice differences between the di- verse types of sending organisations. This research aims to ad- dress this gap by comparing four types of organisations: Govern- ment agencies, non-profit NGOs, social enterprises and for-profit companies.
This paper aims to verify whether music education could induce positive emotions, and explore the emotional regulation of different types of music and different breathing methods. For this purpose, a 2×2 factorial experiment was designed to test the emotional impacts of two types of music (soundscape music and non-soundscape music), and two breathing methods (abdominal breathing and thoracic breathing). The test subjects were evaluated against the revised positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS-R). The results show that, music can induce positive emotions and reduce negative emotions; the most significant increase in positive emotions was observed under the soundscape music/abdominal breathing condition, while the most insignificant increase was observed under the non-soundscape music/thoracic breathing condition; the most significant decrease in negative emotions was observed under the soundscape music/thoracic breathing condition, while the most insignificant decrease was observed under the non-soundscape music/thoracic breathing condition. The research provides more empirical evidences to the emotional impacts of music education.
From the present results, it can be concluded that besides the properties as a fungicide to control early blight, Boscalid + Pyraclostrobin has a stay-green effect that positively impacts on tuber yield andquality. Moreover, these compounds play an important role in the development of IR. The latter is particularly important for potato tubers because in many cases, as it occurs with those for processing they are stored up to 6-8 months andthe risk of potential infections would be reduced. While there is some limited evidence regarding the development of IR by systemic fungicides and strobilurins, this work constitutes the first evidence, of an anilide + strobilurin (Boscalid + Pyraclostrobin) as inducers of chemical disease resistance, in potatoes. A key factor to take into account, since the anilides belong to the green group (category IV) of agrochemicals.
the individual laminate members making up the Glulam produced as evidenced by the higher standard error of its mean (Table 1). However, the overall trend of radial shrinkage can be said to decrease with increasing adhesive quantityand this can also be explained by the fact that more adhesives penetrated into the individual laminate cells as the glue quantity increased, thus reducing excessive moisture loss from the walls ofthe bamboo laminate cells due to the reduction in cell proportion exposed for moisture exchange with the environment. Despite the change in the radial shrinkage ofthe samples, the result of analysis of variance showed no significant difference in the means ofthe samples tested as shown in Table 1. This observation indicated that B. vulgaris Glulam radial shrinkage was uniform over the three glue quantity rate.
Thus, unlike the industry definitions, new endeavors help define quality through academics. Defining quality as excellence, improvement, and transformation largely captures an academic perspective (Harvey & Green, 1993). In this interpretation the central foci are (a) students’ learning, skills, and knowledge and (b) continuous improvement in teaching. Also, this definition directly reflects the roles of academics (Houston 2008; Mizikaci, 2006; Ulrich, 2001). Baharustani (2012) implies that thequality discourse in Afghanistan underscores student learning and curriculum alignment with the labor market and notational economy. Similarly, Harvey (2006) puts forward a comprehensive definition: “Quality in higher education is a multi-dimensional, multi- level, and dynamic concept that is related to the contextual settings of an educational model, to the institutional mission and objectives, as well as specific standards within a given system, institution, program, or discipline” (p. 2). This definition ofquality resonates with the way higher educationquality is being defined in Afghanistan, with an emphasis on robust accountability mechanisms to both satisfy external stakeholders and to facilitate improvements internally.
The discussion so far involves a stylized description ofthe world, wherein causal effects are the same for every unit (province). However, the theory of decentralization highlights several channels through which decentralization may differently affect outcomes. Decentralization effects may depend onthe technical capabilities of local governments, the risks of capture by local elites, or the significance of agency costs. Thus, our estimate of α may be subsuming positives as well as negatives impacts of school decentralization on test outcomes. This may not only obscure the existence of heterogeneous impacts on test outcomes but also impede us to learn about the channels through which decentralization operates. To investigate this heterogeneity of program impact, we postulate the following model that encompasses model (6):
were asked whether the social position of primary school teachers had improved in the past century. From the trade union’s point of view this naturally constitutes a legitimate, understandable and simple question, but one that is by no means easy to answer. This is because social status or position is obviously a complex given, in which highly diverse variables play a part. While one factor may result in greater appreciation, another could cause teachers’ prestige to decrease. Let us take, for example, thequalityof flows entering teacher training programmes – a subject of frequent complaints today. In contrast to the rather stereotypical image ofthe teachers’ college from the interwar period as the «university» for intelligent children ofthe ordinary people, except in a few very exceptional cases the teaching profession no longer seems to attracts the bright minds it once did. Therefore, in our study (see, in this respect, Depaepe, De Vroede & Simon, 1993; and also Depaepe & Simon, 1997) besides the level ofeducation, we attempted to include many other operational aspects ofthe phenomenon, such as employment and career prospects, legal status and employment conditions, social characteristics andthe composition ofthe profession, income and living standards, and – naturally, given the origin ofthe question – trade union protection. Moreover these factors and their specific historical development do not reveal much on their own, since they would de facto need to be compared with analogous historical developments in other professions and at the end ofthe day, as far as Belgium is concerned, not much research was or is available.