There is also some evidence on the effect of drugs on the mortality rate and life expectancy. Lichtenberg (1998b) related the introduction of new drugs with an increase in life expectancy. Using cross-section data on diseases for two different periods (1970–1980 and 1980–1991), he found that the introduc- tion of new drugs increased life expectancy by about 0.75–1.0% per annum. Lichtenberg (2002) explained life expectancy by using a times-series analysis over the second half of the 20th century inthe US. The long run elasticity of longevity, with respect to the number of new drugs approved, is significant and near 0.03. In Lichtenberg (2001), he analyzed the effects of drugs on mortality from rare diseases and HIV. New drugs, and especially drugs developed through the orphan drug act of 1983, show an important impact on reducing mortality. Further, Lichtenberg (2006) studies the impact of new laboratory procedures and other medical goods on the health of Americans between 1990 and 2003, and found that an increase of almost 6 months of mean age at death is attributable to the use of new lab procedures, which represent almost 42% of the total increase in that period.
Cluster analysis represents only a portion of the overall tip programme. Figure 1 tries to sum up the major cluster-related studies and the intended logic of the programme design. Inthe beginning, the lack of current IO tables forced us to concentrate on the detection of general patterns and “dense locations” within certain dimensions of technological and economic performance. The overall goal of this screening for relevant clusters was to draw a map, which helped to define priority areas for the following case studies. Inthe subsequent periods, important areas of economic or technological activity were selected for individual cluster case studies. Beginning with a study on industries related to wood and paper as common resource, the telecommunications sector, thepharmaceuticalindustry and currently the potential cluster at the interface of multimedia and cultural content have been analysed. With regard to the cluster case studies on “wood & paper” and telecommunications a policy review workshop was organised as well. Finally, tip participation within the OECD NIS project can be regarded as an activity which extends the cluster related research agenda.
Competitive intelligence (CI) is one of the most useful tools for strategic analysis because it provides, analyses and distributes information, the knowledge and intel- ligence throughout the organization. The importance given to CI has been based on offensive and defensive activities implemented inthe company. However, some authors have opened another research line that creates tools to make deci- sions in other directions. Thus, sometimes the company launches its CI to research the environment and competition in particular with the aim to enhance internal improvements or collaborations with companies (e.g. for open innovation lines).
A wide range of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) are present inthe environment, and many of their adverse effects are unknown. The emergence of new compounds or changes in regulations have led to dynamical studies of occurrence, impact and treatment, which consider geographical areas and trends in consumption and innovation inthepharmaceuticalindustry. A Quantitative study of StructureeActivity Relationship ((Q)SAR) was performed to assess the possible adverse effects of ninety six PPCPs and metabolites with negligible experimental data and establish a ranking of concern, which was supported by the EPA EPI SuiteÔ interface. The environmental and toxicological indexes, the persistence (P), the bioaccumulation (B), the toxicity (T) (extensive) and the occurrence in Spanish aquatic environments (O) (intensive) were evaluated. The most hazardous characteristics inthe largest number of compounds were generated by the P index, followed by the T and B indexes. A high number of metabolites has a concern score equal to or greater than their parent compounds. Three PBT and OPBT rankings of concern were proposed using the total and partial ranking method (supported by a Hasse diagram) by the Decision Analysis by Ranking Techniques (DART) tool, which was recently recommended by the European Commission. An analysis of the sensibility of the relative weights of these indexes has been conducted. Hormones, antidepressants (and their metabolites), blood lipid regulators and all of the personal care products considered in this study were at the highest levels of risk according to the PBT and OPBT total rankings. Furthermore, when the OPBT partial ranking was performed, X-ray contrast media, H 2 blockers and some antibiotics were included at the highest level of concern. It is important to improve and incorporate useful indexes for the predicted environmental impact of PPCPs and metabolites and thus focus experimental analysis on the compounds that require urgent attention.
Taking advantage of the knowledge gained during these years and the need to develop new treatment technologies inthe field of industrial wastewater, the E3L has also participated in numerous projects with private companies inthe search of technological solutions for the management of their liquid wastes. In this context, in 2009 a project was started with Laboratorios Servier with the ultimate goal of solving some of the problems associated with wastewater generation and treatment inthe plant of Toledo. The wastewater in this chemical plant comes from the organic synthesis of pharmaceutical base products. The production varies according to the needs of the market, situation that affects directly the characteristics of the residual effluent that reaches the treatment plant. In addition, although the plant operates five days per week in two operation shifts, the daily flow is quite variable and depends on the characteristics and materials used in each process.
The third argument is that drug companies are today, in many countries, the only accessible source of financial support for drug trials, the organization of large scien- tific meetings and CME events, so that it is practically unavoidable for a professional who wants to implement one of those activities to look for the support of thein- dustry. This is most probably true. However, again, the fact that a partnership is unavoidable does not imply that such a partnership should not have rules. The fourth argument is that the relationship with drug companies is not the only source of financial conflicts of interests for physicians and researchers, although it is by large the most visible. This is certainly a good point. There are indeed financial conflicts of interests in psychiatric practice and research which do not involve thepharmaceuticalindustry. For instance, public health sponsors usually have an interest to avoid spending money on the most expensive drugs(25). This may affect the conduct and the outcome of the studies they fund (e.g., comparisons between old- and new-generation drugs), especially if the report of re- sults in line with the public sponsor’s interest involves a better chance for researchers to be funded again by that sponsor.
via centrifugation at 3500 × g. The resulting pellet was resuspended in 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0. Crude extracts were prepared by French press lysis of cell suspensions. The lysate was centrifuged at 17,500 × g for 40 min and the supernatant was filtered through a 0.22 µ m filter (Millipore). Cleared lysate was loaded onto a 5-mL HisTrap FF column (GE Healthcare) pre-equilibrated in a binding buffer (10 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, with 100 mM NaCl, and 10 mM imidazole) and the column was washed. Bound proteins were eluted using a linear gradient of imidazole (from 10 mM to 500 mM). After this process, fractions containing His6-tagged-LdNDT were pooled and concentrated, and N-terminal His6-tagged was removed from LdNDT using thrombin to avoid precipitation of the protein. In a second step, fractions containing LdNDT were loaded onto a HiLoad 16/60 Superdex 200 prep grade column (GE Healthcare) pre-equilibrated in 25 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0. Fractions with the protein of interest identified by SDS-PAGE were pooled and the protein was dialyzed against 10 mM sodium phosphate, pH 6.0, and concentrated and stored at 4 ◦ C, until its use. Electrophoresis was carried out on 15% polyacrylamide slab gel with 25 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.6, 0.1% SDS . Protein concentration was determined spectrophotometrically by UV absorption at 280 nm using ε 280 = 34,380 M −1 cm −1 .
The control of degradation products is currently a critical issue to thepharmaceuticalindustry. A degradation product that appeared in alprazolam tablets during their sta- bility assay, 7-chloro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]quinolin-4-amine, also named triazolaminoquinoline, was tested as possible candidate inthe HPLC method employed for the study. The impurity showed the same retention time and spectra as the degradation product; but as all these compounds are very closely related, a con- firmation with an independent technique was necessary, and CE was chosen for that purpose. Problems related to the adsorption of the analytes to the negatively charged silica surface were solved by employing a new polymeric capillary coating consisting of poly(3-aminopropylmethylsiloxane). The polymer provided EOF towards the anode, and the two compounds were separated in less than 8 min in a 60 cm total-length capillary, 75 mm id capillary with a BGE containing 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 2.0 with 20% ACN. When the sample containing the degradation product was injected, the presence of triazolaminoquinoline was confirmed.
On the other hand, the financial return (ROE) or the return on equity is a measure within a specific period of time, the yield obtained from the property rights of the company with the independence of the results. This profitability is what the shareholders and owners of the company perceive, which the managers try to maximize it for the interest of the owners. A poor financial return limits the accessibility to new funds for the company. On the one hand, investors will not be attracted to invest inthe company if it does not have a good financial return and another part, it is indicative that the funds are generated internally, According J.P. Ballesta (2002). The financial profitability of a company is calculated by the coefficient between Benefits before Taxes divided by total net equity of the company.
In this paper, the evaluation of the investment project in research and development for the innovation and of great impact inthepharmaceuticalindustry is presented. The project evaluation is done through an American type real call option, based on binomial trees incorporating the expected volatility of the expected cash flows in order to determine the benefit of postponing the project three years, providing flexibility to investors in their decision making. Besides, inthe valuation of a real option associated with the project, fuzzy sets theory is incorporated inthe process of assigning possibilities to the branches of a tree. The value of the American type real call option to postpone the project are between 24.83 % and 51.22% of the investment, and the value of real option, using fuzzy logic is between 9.91% and 23.13% of the investment in a pessimistic scenario, and of the 10.04% and 39.08% of investment in an optimistic scenario, and for a experts scenario the option premium is between 10.00% and 26.91% of the investment, these are better results.
formation of antigen-antibody complexes throughout the coated surface but, as capture antibody is used in excess, it is expected that some binding sites remain empty. Then, the detection antibody is added (3). Before that, this antibody has been chemically bounded to an enzyme which is able to produce a detectable signal by some type of chemical method. Usually, these enzymes chemically decompose a colourless substrate into a coloured product. Once the detection antibody-antigen complexes have formed, the sandwhich is obtained. Finally, the substrate is added (4), allowed to react during a specified amount of time (5) and the resulting signal is then measured (6) using an imager or some other detector. It should be noted that the arrows between phases indicate in-between procedures that are omitted for clarity. These procedures are incubations, usually conducted at a given temperature for a given period of time, and washes, that are used to remove unused products at the end of a step before proceeding to the next. As the solid support used is usually a microtiter plate of at least 96 wells, the black “U” shaped solid lines represent each one of this wells.
The difference between this system with the previously enforced is that the patient used to pay only a (fixed) copayment of the price, irrespectively of the good purchased. For ob- vious reasons, we will use the Spanish way of implementing reference prices throughout this paper. Hence, this setting is implicitly assuming that the reference price is set below the price of the branded good, but equal or higher than the price of the generic drug. One of the main purposes of implementing reference prices is to try to achieve more intense price competition between branded and generic producers; Health Authorities hope that branded good producers actually reduce their prices. Pavcnik (2000) shows the effects of implementing reference prices in Germany empirically, and her results confirm that imple- menting such system affect the pricing decision of firms. The interested reader can find a more detailed explanation on the objectives of reference prices in Mestre-Ferrándiz (2001). There exist two opposing views with respect to the effects that such system will have on the R&D decision of pharmaceutical firms. On the one hand, it is argued that the introduction of this system will reduce profits which will lead to decreased revenues to finance the R&D costs necessary to develop new drugs. On the other, it is assumed that the R&D decision of these firms depend on total sales. Pharmaceutical enterprises are usually multiproduct firms, so even though sales for the drugs which are subject to reference prices might be reduced, total sales may not necessarily be so.
Inthe field of medicine, which is by far the most extensively studied area, recent evidence indicates that physicians’ medication prescription frequency would be affected by the fact of receiving money from thepharmaceuticalindustry(66), giving support to the above results. Moreover, publications dating from the 1990s indicate an increase inthe prescription of pharmaceutical products from specific industries by physicians who had received support inthe form of money for attendance to scientific events, whether as speakers or participants, as well as for research funding(67,68). One explanation for the minimization of the impact of accepting gifts is the influence of the seductive capacity of thepharmaceuticalindustry and rationalization by professionals —refuted by the evidence— in relation to their capacity to differentiate information sources based on their quality and the importance assigned to the medical sales representative as an efficient means for keeping pace with new developments(29). Another explanatory factor is a self-serving bias(6-8), which becomes evident when people evaluate themselves as being better than others. In this case, professionals believe that gifts from thepharmaceuticalindustry will not distort their professional judgment, although this could happen to others. It is an unconscious bias and, therefore, it escapes the rational control of the individual.
Kapric is one of the largest TNCs involved inthe clothing industryin Kenya. Kapric’s view of its relationship with other public and private institutions is typical of the industry’s “wait and see” stance. The company is a member of KAM and its industry arm, KAMEA. Through these forums, Kapric has consistently expressed its concerns over the high cost of doing business in Kenya, including issues over labour costs, inadequacies of infrastructure and the high cost of utility services. It has also been vocal on the lack of support for theindustry from the government. The interviewee from Kapric was pessimistic about the ability of the Kenyan clothing industry to respond to the imminent threat of competition from Chinese garment manufacturers and compared the Government of China’s concerted approach to supporting the expansion of its clothing industry with that of the Government of Kenya. Kapric’s “wait and see” stance resulting in a halt to further expansion of capacity is a product of the lack of government support and the uncertainty over the AGOA’s future prospects. The interviewee at the company noted, “we are lobbying but the government is very slow. We do not wish to keep banging our heads on the wall, if they do not have the sense to listen. They don’t even know what this industry is about” [Interview FDI 12].
The images of the Monastery shared the success achieved by the contemporary engravings that depict other European monuments, towns and landscapes. Some original points of view and unlikely settings were used, and as a result, unusual compositions were produced to describe the interior, the outside and the surroundings. Louis Meunier (1665-1668) was among the pioneers when drawing the building from nature, as it could be seen by a passer-by. This perception altered deliberately both the building proportions and the scale, in order to look like a bigger construction and a more impressive one (Fig. 2). Meunier’s engravings were copied, transformed, and reproduced many times (Langlois ca.1690, Van der Aa and Álvarez de Colmenar 1707-1741, Van den Berge 1720, Salmon and Albrizi 1731, Huquier ca.1775, Leizelt 1780 …). Because of their capacity to simulate the third dimension, they were much appreciated for entertainment as “optical views” (vues d’optique) or vistas de ojos, that became very popular between 1740 and
We present a theoretical argument to identify the conditions under which a firm prefers to invest in factor saving innovations rather than neutral innovations. We prove that incentives to invest in factor saving innovations positively depend on i) total factor productivity and ii) the scarcity of the factor.
Abstract: Although for thirty years researchers involved in biomedical investigation have designed international strategies for the protection of the subject of investigation, the consideration of the patient as an active subject inthepharmaceutical business in practice is minimized. One of these compromises inthe patient’s protection is contained inthe Helsinki VI Declaration, in which the laboratory accepts to continue the supply of the medicament and/or method studied post- protocol, when this has been proved to be a benefit to the participant inthe research, in practice, this is not fulfilled. Bioethics, as a pro- dialog discipline, tries to approach the involved sectors looking for languages or common points of view in order to have agreements. That is why I, inthe present work, used thepharmaceutical laboratory’s own arguments, commercial laws and general ethics.
Nevertheless, where this book clearly excels is inthe deontological training that Montañana pro- vides to the future chemist. His approach towards this subject was based on the principle that young students should be given adequate ethical training, so as to be able to appreciate the seriousness and importance of ethics in their work. He considered that to be able to fully understand the implications of the subject, students should be of at least 20 years of age. At such an age, the master chemist would have peace of mind, inthe knowledge that the student would have the capacity to concentrate wholly on the task of interpreting prescriptions and preparing the remedies, rather than being distracted by other unrelated considerations.
Concerning normative challenges, the results show that the experts ’ views are aligned, in part, with the main challenges of the international industry. The principal regulatory bodies note the need to succeed in harmonizing the existing extensive and diverse regulations (OECD/NEA/IEA, 2015). These organizations also advo- cate encouraging what would be a collaborative focus between the regulators and licensed professionals who would implement the regulatory requirements in an integrated manner and in accor- dance with their impact on safety (INPO, 2014). The information from our study does not provide evidence supporting this type of focus by experts inthe Spanish sector. On the contrary, the following belief appears to be shown: “ we are safe in spite of the regulation ” , that is, the regulatory framework is seen as excessive and counterproductive for a safe and ef ﬁ cient operation. Put differently, the experts believe that regulatory norms are more of a burden to safety than an added value.
(IRS) (normally there is no withholding at source) and requires individuals to self- report the same information in annual tax returns, with data reconciliation undertaken by the IRS. Taxable fund income is subject to regular federal income tax rates, while capital gains and losses are recorded as they are incurred in mutual fund trading and net gains attributed to the mutual fund investor and taxed at the federal capital-gains rates. Tax fraud, including the use of offshore accounts to evade tax, is a criminal offence. States and sometimes municipalities likewise tend to tax mutual fund income and capital gains (and sometimes assets) at substantially lower rates. Under the U.S. Constitution, the states and the federal government cannot tax each other. So there is a broad range of mutual funds that invest in securities issued by state and local governments with income exempt from federal tax as well as (usually) tax on the income from the state's own securities contained inthe portfolio. Similarly, the states do not tax income derived from federal government securities. The U.S. tax environment, while complex, provides the mutual fund industry with opportunities for product development such as tax-efficient funds (e.g., investing in municipals and capital-gains-oriented equities) and imposes compliance costs in terms of the required tax reporting both to the IRS and to the investor client.