entre otros Fuente: Pearce, David W. y D. Morán (1994).
El economista John Krutilla (1967) en el trabajo seminal sobre Economía: “Conservation Reconsidered” en American Economic Review, September 1967, p. 777-786, discute muchos de los conceptos que hoy son la base de la Economía Ambiental, y propone el concepto pionero de Valoración Económica Total (VET), definido como la suma de los Valores de Uso y No Uso. Krutilla es considerado el padre de la moderna teoría de la conservación del recurso. Ver la figura 3.
Usually it is not made explicit, but ultimately specialization and trade rest on institutional arrangements that protect property rights and enforce agreements. If these institutional requirements are fulﬁlled then the invisible hand does its work properly; it is not necessary a central authority that harmonized the simultaneous activities of all individuals, neither benevolent or moral human beings. Just if everybody pursue his selﬁsh aims the gains from specialization and trade are realized. Following this line of reasoning all the burden ofthesocial order is put in polity. In the model this feature is represented in a very simple way introducing a state that taxes individuals and provides a system that discourage theft. Hence, thesocialcost to support a productive society are the taxes people pay to ﬁnance the system. However, as mentioned before two related problems emerge. First, if actors in the political game are supposed completely selﬁsh, they would not probably have the necessary incentives to impose and manage a system that protects property rights and enforces contracts. On the contrary, they would probably abuse of their power choosing a high tax rate and expropriating people. In the model the political behavior of individuals is not included, neither the political game. As normal in economic theory formal institutions comprise the ‘givens’ ofthe analysis. Thus, as regards this ﬁrst problemthe model is absolutely silent; however, it is important to remark that: (i) employing the standard assumptions on agents’ behavior voluntary exchange is as natural as theft, violence, and coercion, (ii) a priori there is no reason why people would be a selﬁsh sophisticated optimizer when playing the role ofeconomic agent and a benevolent person when voting or participating in political decisions, and (iii) as North  claims it is diﬃcult to maintain the standard assumptions on agents’ behavior and derive a model of polity that protect property rights and enforce contracts.
preliminary results of this work were first presented to stakeholders at a public hearing, held at the house of Councillors in the city of Mucugê, bahia state, and later to decision-makers at a workshop in brasília-df (figure 8). sixty-one people attended the event in Mucugê, including representatives from governmental and non-governmental organizations, civil society and farmers, who discussed the development of a participatory Action plan for the management and conservation of pollinators in Chapada diamantina. this public hearing was very important for exchanging information on the importance of pollinators in both environmental and economic terms, highlighting thesocial and economic value of pollination, and establishing the main guidelines for the Action plan. Moreover, experiences were also shared on pollinator-friendly and unfriendly practices, which raised awareness of some best practices for sustainable agriculture. during the meeting in brasilia, it became clear that the socio-economic analysis of pollination complements the specific studies on pollinators in agriculture. therefore, implementation of a regional programme of incentives for farmers is feasible, to encourage them to adopt pollinator- friendly farming practices that favour pollinators and pollination, such as the enrichment of bee pasture and crop diversification, and to link conservation and food production in the region.
Los métodos del nivel teórico empleados son el histórico-lógico para conocer el desarrollo del problema y el tratamiento del tema en el contexto cubano y la provincia en particular. Investigación social (cuantitativa y cualitativa) para la recolección de datos, el análisis estadístico descriptivo, obtención de información referida básicamente a percepciones, actitudes y opiniones, entre otras, usadas de manera complementaria e integrada. Métodos empíricos como análisis documental y bibliográfico, observación para obtener esclarecimientos, referidos a la biodiversidad, con trabajadores de la conservación y pobladores en general de las comunidades ubicadas en el área de estudio, donde se emplea la observación abierta, con observadores externos y por tanto ajenos al grupo (estudiantes universitarios e investigadores del proyecto). El método estadístico-matemático para el diseño de la muestra y realización de estimaciones para el análisis de la información. Talleres de ideas criterios sobre los resultados parciales y finales (participan como oponentes especialistas de otras instituciones y tomadores de decisiones). Se utilizó el Sistema de Información Geográfica con el software Mapinfo 9.0 para la descripción y análisis de la información geográfica. Se emplea el análisis Costo Beneficio para proponer soluciones viables desde el punto de vista económico, social y ambiental.
This is especially true when it comes to interventions whose environmental results occur not only in the long-term, affecting the present generation, but more importantly in the very long-term, affecting the future generations. These policies usually pursue to counteract the effects of an increasing number of time-persistent environmental problems −like CC, nuclear waste or pollution− which arise because ofthe accumulation in the environment of some long-lasting pollutants which interact in a complex way with ecosystem processes’ dynamics (Underdal 2010). In this context, the time sensitivity assumption that individuals allocate a lower weight to policy benefits occurring in the long-term but especially in the very long- term future can have important negative welfare implications for unborn generations (Scarborough 2011). Indeed, thesocial discounting literature has shown that the consideration of a positive discount rate could make socially unacceptable those policies whose major environmental benefits arise in the very long-term future (Weitzman 1998; Azqueta 2002; Gollier 2013). In other words, assuming individuals discount the future could prevent policy makers from undertaking environmental policies with positive welfare impacts for the unborn. Under these premises, given that there is a concern for the welfare not only ofthe present but also of future generations, the analysis ofthe time sensitivity of current generations’ preferences for policies oriented to avoiding impacts in the long- and very long-term future acquires special importance. Given that current generations represent, as trustees, the unborn (Thomson 2010), considering results from this analysis in ECBA can better inform decision- makers. In fact, it can lead to the design of welfare-maximizing policies that can also include sustainability considerations, which are expected to play an important role in this context.
Again, ecological economics has taken on board some ofthe insights from the deliberative democracy literature through work on deliberative multi-criteria analysis and deliberative valuation (Zografos & Howarth, 2008). Nevertheless, these attempts focus more on using deliberation to extract more representative group environmental values or preferences in a quasi-experimental environment rather than examining the policy potential and limitations of deliberative processes. Criticism of deliberative valuation suggests that in practice they function as a means for justifying stated preference methods by adding often superficial forms of deliberation or discussion, and that they essentially point out that theeconomic model they use is unsuitable for understanding particular sets ofsocial values as regards the environment (Spash, 2008). Moreover, the study ofthe deliberative potential of existing participatory decision-making arrangements is less advanced in ecological economics. In one exception, concerns regarding the application and full potential of deliberative processes as regards environmental decision-making have been raised (Kallis et al., 2007). This work points out that the framing ofthe processes is key so much regarding the assumptions that underlie them and the assumptions of those
Also, on table 2, the noise measured was originated by traffic, during day periods. Inside the apartments we had extrapolated the limits stipulated in land use code. The noise inside had about 25 dB(A) more than the tolerated. With the modifications proposed, this noise level is now acceptable, since the new upper limit is 75dB(A). What has the government implemented in order to solve or monitor the traffic noise problem? Since traffic noise the mainly source of annoyance in urban areas, if it decreases quality of urban life, how could it be avoided or controlled? At a municipal level, the instrument available in order to prevent the occurrence and monitor noise impacts is basically the master plan , the instrument which has the mission to promote developing policies and urban expansion. In that level, no evidence of noise environmental policy has ever been proposed, and worse, the upper noise limits for stable sources have now a degraded referential.
Abstract. In this paper, an algorithm inspired on the T-Cell model ofthe immune system is presented, it is used to solve Economic Dis- patch Problems with smooth objective function. The proposed approach is called IA EDP S, which stands for Immune Algorithm for Economic Dispatch Problem for smooth objective function, and it uses as differenti- ation process a redistribution power operator. The proposed approach is validated using five problems taken from the specialized literature. Our results are compared with respect to those obtained by several other approaches.
Regarding competition, Indra has a fierce European market dominated by global companies such as, Thales, Leonardo or Raytheon. However, there also exist other international peers with higher Market Cap as Airbus. Indra has a competitive advantage position in simulator business, being the most profitable ofthe company. By comparing the Operating income ofthe industry, we see that Indra has still a margin to improve, as most its peers benefit from double digit margins. EPS suggest a lower level for Indra, while Leonardo is in negative EPS due to the drop of revenues that they have been suffering since 2013. When comparing by multiples, again, Indra is in the average with its peers, while Leonardo is clearly suffering a recession. In the Transport & Traffic vertical Indra benefits form a competitive advantage position in the ATM market, competing with the French system. The SESAR project is getting more and more allies and growing its revenues.
In response to global concerns of these issues, a widening literature on sustainability transitions has emerged in recent years (Markaard, Raven, and Truffer 2012). Literature on climate summits mostly evaluates whether they comply with emissions limits or not (den Elzen et al., 2011; UNEP, 2010; Kartha & Eriksson, 2011; Höhne et al., 2012). Considering COP21 and the Paris Agreement (2015), main contributions are related to its impacts in energy technologies evolution (Peters 2017; Lacal Arantegui and Jäger-Waldau 2017) or evaluate possible transition pathways under its contexts in different regions (Liobikienė and Butkus 2017; Van de Graaf 2017; Gao 2016). Some works, conversely, points out difficulties to accomplish the COP21 objectives according to geopolitical and governance limits from a general perspective ofthe Paris Agreement (Spash, 2015; Viola, 2016). Moreover, an increasing number of governments, municipalities and NGOs are creating its own low carbon transitions plans plans according to their own criteria, or those established in the aforementioned climate summits. Thus, on the basis of Wiseman et al. (2013), Nieto & Carpintero (2016) deal with a more in-depth analysis of 19 low-carbon transition plans from government sources and other dependent agencies, NGOs and research centres.
Ciencia Económica. Causalidad. Metodología. Epistemología. Paradigmas de investigación.
The main point ofthe paper is theproblemofthe economy to be consider like a science in the most strict term ofthe concept. In the first step we are going to tackle a presentation about what we understand by science to sub- sequently present some ofthe fallacies which have bring certain scepticism about the scientific character ofthe investigation in economy, to know: 1) The differences between hard and weak sciences -physics and social; 2) The differences between paradigm, —positivist and phenomenological— 3) The differences between physic causality and historic causality. In the second step we are going to talk about two fundamental problems which are questio- ned: 1) the confusion between ontology and gnoseology and, 2) the erroneous concept of causality that commonly is used. In the last step ofthe paper we are going over the recent models of «causal explanation» and we suggest the probabilistic casualty development next with a more elaborated models of causal explanation, like a way to conjugate the scientific severity with the possibility to tackle complex economic realities.
Dynamic expansion of mobile communication networks is observed in the republic. If it has only recently been used for speaking purposes, today this modern type of communication helps to get up-to-date information, information sharing, and financial transactions. Currently, Unitel LLC (Beeline trademark), Universal Mobile Systems (UMS trademark), RWC (Perfectum Mobile trademark), Coscom FE LLC (“U cell” trademark) provide mobile services in the market of Uzbekistan. Mobile communication services are provided in CDMA, GSM900, GSM-1800, UMTs 2100, 4G LTE standards. Mobile operators provide additional services for mobile users, including mobile internet, SMS-informer, internet banking and other services.
En los grupos sociales, junto con sus esquemas de percepción y aprecia- ción, hay una lucha al interior del espacio social para imponer una determi- nada visión del mundo (Bourdieu, 2011). De acuerdo con nuestro tema de estudio, los entrevistados generan sus percepciones en gran medida gracias a la interacción que ofrecen los gremios como espacios de socialización y pro- ducto de sus propias historias personales, formando un “espíritu de cuerpo”. En ese sentido, debemos apreciar la necesidad de las narrativas puesto que forman parte de cómo un grupo social ve el mundo y sobre este actúa (Jimeno, 2016). Estas deben ser estudiadas de acuerdo al significado de los mensajes que buscan transmitir los sujetos dentro del lugar en donde se enun- cian los discursos, tomando en cuenta cómo las categorías y subcategorías se relacionan. Por ende, las narrativas son una forma de ver la realidad social por parte de los entrevistados que, por su relación con el Estado, ha devenido en hegemónica porque se ha convertido en sentido común al interior de todo el sector empresarial agremiado y es transmitida en los medios de comunica- ción social, dando la idea de sentido común (García-Huidobro, 2016).
The algorithm works in the following way (see Al- gorithm 1). First, the TCRs are randomly initial- ized within the limits ofthe units (Step 1). Then, ECV and ICS are calculated for each cell (Step 2). Only if a cell is feasible, its objective func- tion value is calculated (Step 3). Next, while a predetermined number of objective function eval- uations had not been reached or if after 50 itera- tions the best value does not improve (Steps 4-6) the cells are proliferated and differentiated con- sidering if they are feasible or infeasible. Finally, statistics are calculated (Step 8).
References about research on environmentaleconomicvaluation are scarce in Cuba; therefore, economic effi- ciency criteria for impacts involved in anthropic actions that could facilitate environmental management are lacking. This paper is focused on the Ecological Reserve “La Coca” where the most significant environmental im- pacts and their effects on the main endemic vegetation unit, the dry scrub on serpentine (cuabal), were analysed and valuated from an economic standpoint. This scrub has a dense shrubby layer (2-4 m high), emergent trees (4-6 m), scattered grasses and herbs, palms, epiphytes and lianas. Several environmental functions of this scrub were identified and theeconomic value ofthe retention of carbon dioxide mass. Substitution costs of decreases, restoration costs and the maintenance and environmental protection costs were determined. Results from this paper can be applied as a guide pattern in Cuban regions, espe- cially in dry scrubs on serpentine.
Theproblem needs to be addressed from several fronts. Infrastructure is one of them. The Centre should take an active role in ensuring that the disparity between states in Infrastructure is reduced. It is the opinion of this author that Infrastructure development is an important key to solving the regional disparity problem. However, eliminating the differences in infrastructure involves a significant lag period. During this time it is likely that the disparity will increase. The immediate changes that can be enacted could be in terms of power generation, telecommunications, roads and rail services. These facilities can be provided in a much shorter time period. Other factors such as improving literacy, lowering population growth, improving health care facilities and increasing the access to such facilities by all, will take time. However, the centre can begin assisting the states in these areas as well.
Es así como en países subdesarrollados el agua es un foco de presencia de bacterias, la razón según y Eddy  el alto costo que representa la infraestructura para procesos de tratamiento de agua, además del mantenimiento, control y vigilancia de las fuentes de abastecimiento. A su vez los sistemas de distribución deben ser igualmente monitorizados, porque aunque pequeña la cantidad de patógenos que se encuentran en estos son igualmente un foco que debe ser detectado, lo que conlleva a la comunidad científica a buscar nuevas alternativas que permitan tener un control eficiente y disminuir la colonización de la bacteria que como lo menciona The Helicobacter pylori Foundation, la presencia del H. pylori se asocia a el grado de desarrollo de los países, teniendo en América del sur porcentajes de 90% y 80%, a diferencia de América del Norte con porcentajes de 40% y 30% 
The scarcity of water resources is one ofthe most serious problems worldwide. Factors such as pollution and deterioration of water quality, climate change and increased water demand aggravate the shortage problem that mainly affects agriculture. In areas such as southeast Spain, specifically the Segura River Basin, irrigated agriculture is the most important economic engine in the region. However, its enormous potential has caused a significant environmental deterioration degrading soils and aquifers, as well as adjacent ecosystems. Therefore, it seems clear that it is necessary to evaluate innovative irrigation systems (closed hydroponic irrigation systems as a nutrient film technique system) as well as different irrigation strategies (deficit irrigation) and the use of new non-conventional water sources (desalinated sea water and regenerated water) that allow under proper management the resilience of irrigated agriculture.