According to the pertinent literature on thequalityevaluationofeducationalsystems, the question is not whether or not evaluation is not necessary or not, but the question is in what form it should be accomplished not to ignore the shortcomings of other evaluation models already presented. In order to answer this question, several researches have embarked on writing different articles on the issue. However, the problem is that each of them has taken one particular aspect and left the others untreated. No general tailored principles have yet been suggested to be relatively practicable to the universality ofeducationalsystems. To exemplify the issue, one of these projects was the Minerva/ADAPT project , funded by the European Union. Within the scope of this project, systems like MOT were developed to create a test environment for AEH authoring systems, so new techniques could be integrated and tested in a real life setting. That report stresses the importance of continuous research in the field of AEH and discusses several evaluations of AEH systems to ultimately offer recommendations to the community of researchers involved in the field. Another example is Devedzic  gives an analysis ofthe key issues in next-generation web based education. He refers to problems like the need for sharing and reuse of material, the proliferation of standards for communicating andthe ability of end-users (teachers) to deal with ICT as the key challenges for the field. Others, like Cristea and Garzotto , accentuate the soundness ofthe design being the most important factor in AEH authoring. This research, in effect, aims to fill the gaps formed by the new challenge of having to evaluate several systems instead of one generic application. Instead a generic evaluation framework is constructed so any educational system can be evaluated. As such, this research also assists in the conclusions and recommendations covariate in one way or another supporting the commonalities ofqualityevaluation. Recapitulating, the main problem this report focuses on is the lack ofevaluation frameworks for generality coping with a variety ofeducationalsystems throughout the world.
López (2010) proposes a causal model that identifies some factors that affect the management of school organizations andthe relationships between these factors, as well as the effect that management has on thequalityof education of these organizations, integrating key factors such as educational leadership, planning and strategy, resource manage- ment, processes, people management, satisfaction, and results. It manages to identify key relationships among them, highlighting how school administration is fundamental for the development ofeducationalinstitutionsand in general points out that the factors that associate the dimensions of leadership, resources and processes, have a significant statis- tical effect on the variable results. The importance ofthe proposed model lies on the fact, that in addition to identifying the factors that affect thequalityof education, the existing relationships within these are shown, which helps principals and governments to make better decisions related with the improvement ofthequalityof education ofthe system in general andoftheinstitutions in particular.
In 2017-2018, on Russian language portal “ProKazan” and Tatar language “Tatar-In- form”, similar activation of language func- tioning in the republic is observed. State provided creation ofsystemsofeducational organizations, other forms of upbringing and training in two officially acknowledged lan- guages of RT. On territory ofthe republic, bilingualism is observed; it also extends on educational sphere. Learning of native lan- guage in education institutions became vo- lunteer at the end of 2017. Analysis of results of sociological questioning on functioning of Tatar language as officially acknowledged one shows that position of Tatar language in sys- tem of students’ social communication is sta- ble; however, there are the following anxious moments. In rare cases, studied portals are conducting social questionings themselves. For example, “ProKazan” states that “By re- sults of editors office questioning, 61% of pa- rents signed documents for learning of Tatar language voluntarily. 20% of questioned did not sign their consent and note that the si- tuation did not worsened. Other 9% and 7% of respondents either agreed to compromise after pressure from school administration or are still under pressure. There also are those who confessed that after refuse, attitude to their child at school had changes for worse - they are 3% of questioned” [http://prokazan. ru/news/view/125249].
Formative and shared assessment is closely related with active learning methodologies and processes student-centred, their attitudes and values fundamental to the development of certain professional competencies. This affects positively: 1) The improvement and involvement of students in their own learning process. 2) The development of critical thinking, self-criticism and autonomy ofthe students. Students reflect on their own learning process, taking responsibility of it and becoming aware ofthequalityof their work. 3) Improves and optimizes the processes of teaching and learning, while helping to correct problems or deficiencies that arise in the development of this process. 4) It is a learning experience in itself. 5) Set one ofthe most logical systems for learning models focused on the student learning and in the developing of personal and professional skills. 6) In addition, several studies have indicated that this type ofevaluationsystems favour the improvement of learning outcomes, as well as success rates and academic performance, without entailing an excessive workload as important as it is believed .
Castillo-Merino, D.; Serradell-Lopez, E.; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, I. (2010). Which Are the Determinants of Online Students' Efficiency in Higher Education?. A 1st International Conference on Reforming Education, Qualityof Teaching and Technology-Enhanced Learning: Learning Technologies, Qualityof Education, EducationalSystems, Evaluation, Pedagogies, May 19-21, 2010, Athens, Greece; Technology Enhanced Learning: Qualityof Teaching and Education Reform, Book Series: Communications in Computer and Information Science, 73, 209-215.
It is interesting to see how the topics ofthe schools which apply for the Comenius projects are different, but their main objectives coincide. The following are the most common aims ofthe projects: a) to improve students’ and teachers’ second language (in all the cases studied, it was English); b) to reinforce a European community feeling; c) to share the knowledge of other customs and cultures (for example a teacher commented that some Catalan students were surprised when they saw that the Romanian students addressed the teacher with the use of “usted”, which is the polite form ofthe personal pronoun); d) to enhance the feeling of community among students at the same centre; e) to motivate students in their learning of a foreign language as well as new subjects; f) to know and understand different cultures (as an example, several teachers commented that many parents did not allow their children to travel to other schools because they did not want their children to live with foreign families; g) to get used to living immersed in another culture to learn about tolerance, patience, and culture.
recognise their obstacles and know how to find ways to overcome them are those who will have successful learning. To recognise their obstacles, they must become aware of what they do not know and reflect on it. The challenge is that students understand that if they do not reveal what they do not know, no one can help them overcome the obstacles to learning. For example, a class journal can be an excellent evaluative-regulatory activity because it allows students to reflect on their successes and difficulties and allows teachers to obtain useful information to help them in their learning.
Adaptation of foreign students to a new socio - cultural, linguistic andeducational environment begins with entry into the cultural andeducational environment. The main meaningful goal in the new environment for each student is the creation of subjectively significant comfortable living conditions and peace of mind, so during the initial adaptation they do not try to understand and become part of a culture andthe system of life unfamiliar to them. Organization ofthe process of interaction is more freely aligned with students of its ethnos, thereby becoming more desirable and there is no need for communication with Russian students. The staff controlling the process of professional training of foreign students at the university should pay special attention to the formation of their motivation and necessity to show their activity, interest and desire to deepen and expand the information field of culture and life features of citizens of Tatarstan.
The purpose of this article is to analyze the factors that determine the difficulties of incorporating ICT in the classrooms ofeducationalinstitutions in the city of Riohacha - La Guajira. It is a descriptive type of study, with non-experimental and field design, used the technique of personal survey, field work and observations within educational facilities. The results ofthe analysis conclude that the problems for this incorporation come fundamentally from the formation of teachers, the infrastructure that the classrooms must have andthe level of management of tools that the teacher must acquire for the society in which we find ourselves. On the other hand, there are not enough economic resources for the acquisition, maintenance, and continuous training in ICT, which makes many teachers refuse to use new educational technologies.
no case has been reported since February 2006. However, the situation remains fragile in view of ongoing transmission in neighbouring countries and rather weak surveillance. Measles is the fourth leading cause of death among children under five years of age, constituting 12% of total deaths. Following the implementation of national measles campaigns, the number of cases dropped dramatically. The main challenge for the immunization programme is how to sustain and increase routine coverage in the presence of financial constraints and poorly staffed and ill-equipped health facilities. Other communicable diseases that are public health threats include schistosomiasis and hepatitis B and C. Available data indicate a low prevalence of HIV in Yemen. However, the prevalence has increased rapidly, from 0.001% in 1999 to 0.2 percent in 2006. By the end of 2006, the national AIDS programme had reported 2075 HIV/ AIDS cases (passively collected from public health facilities in 18 governorates). Due to the cultural factors andthe stigma attached to the HIV/AIDS, it is recognized by the Ministry of Public Health and Population that the reported prevalence rates are an underestimation.
Human resources (HR) managers have a greatly influence on the utilization and development of HR. This calls for high attention on the mental health and job burnout of HR managers. This paper firstly sums up the key factors influencing the mental health of HR managers andthe causes of their job burnout in relevant literature, and then carries out a questionnaire survey on the mental health, educational background and job burnout of HR managers. Through statistical analysis on the survey data, it is concluded that: the mental health and job burnout of HR managers are influenced by educational background, but not significantly affected by their universities; the mental health of HR managers is negatively correlated with job burnout. The research results shed new light on employee motivation and growth in enterprises.
The existence of business opportunity perceived by individual (for example capital access, business information availability) is more probable to make a choice to start up new venture. Many entrepreneurs generally consider family support like parents, siblings and spouse as a significant predictor to start up a new venture. However, regarding students EI, a university support for instance perceived educationaland concept development support etc. are found as a significant predictor explaining entrepreneurial self- efficacy and EI (Saeed, Yousafzai, Yani-De-Soriano, & Muffatto, 2015). Encouragement and support is viewed as significant predictor of entrepreneurial development (Baughn, Cao, Le, Lim, & Neupert, 2006; Davidsson & Honig, 2003). Generally, PS (for example family, friends and other support) and financial assistance is considered as a critical factor by entrepreneurs to start up a new business. Therefore, it is intended here to test the student’s PS provided by the institution in creating their EI. Hence, it is hypothesized that:
ofthe work they carry out poses high risks, due to the strenuous nature ofthe work- days that tax them beyond their physical abilities, andthe fact they are permanent- ly exposed to extreme climates and to the negative effects of agrochemicals and pes- ticides without having adequate protec- tion measures in place. Above all, however, their incorporation into agricultural work diminishes their opportunity for full devel- opment and a dignified future life project. For these reasons, child farm labor has been the subject of a great deal of research. One ofthe main areas of analysis is the po- litical and legal implications ofthe partic- ipation of minors in labor activities, given the lack of compliance with current legal principles by government agencies and employers (Rojas, 2010, 2012; Rodríguez y Rojas, 2018; Glockner, 2018). Various analy- ses have also been carried out to address it, relating it to labor flexibility, segmentation ofthe rural labor market, andthe economic importance of child labor in the processes of capital accumulation by agribusinesses in the global model (López, 2006; Becerra, Vázquez, Zapata & Garza, 2008; Glockner, 2009; López & García, 2010), highlighting the ethical and social implications ofthe ex- ploitation of child labor in agriculture. Oth- er studies show the regional peculiarities of child employment in the different types of fruit, vegetable and agro-industrial (cof- fee, sugarcane and tobacco) crops (Ladrón de Guevara & González, 2002; Reyes de la Cruz & Ramírez, 2005; González, 2006; Méndez, 2008; Martínez & Hernández,
Moreover, it is important to notice that there are few several subjects with similar experiences like the shown in this paper, in the Bachelor Degree of Industrial Electronics Engineering. For this reason, this experience allowed us to see a possible problem in the bachelor degree development: the attempt to synchronize the theory explanations with the use ofthe on-line resources. It is possible that students do not study suitably, or even if they do it, their learning-process work-rate was different, because there are many subjects without the innovative design explained in this paper and they have not achieved an important simplification in their design regarding the idea ofthe student independence. Moreover, the time problems in some subjects probably could reduce with this new multimedia experience.
IMS QTI 2.2 considers three main elements: tests, sections and items. According to IMS QTI 2.2, a test (also referred to as assessment) consists of one or more parts, each part consists of one or more sections and each section consists of one or more subsections and/or items. A test must have at least one part, a part must have at least one section and a section must have at least one item or other section. An item is defined as a set of interactions collected together with any supporting material and an optional set of rules for converting the learner's response/s into assessment outcomes. Typically, an item represents just one question with one point of interaction (e.g. a multiple choice question). These items are termed ―simple items‖. IMS QTI 2.2 supports the following interactions: choice, inline choice, order, associate, match, gap match, text entry, extended text entry, hottext, hotspot, select point, graphic order, graphic associate, graphic match gap, position object, slider, media, drawing and upload. Thereby, it allows representing in XML files practically any type of question including among others: multiple choice, multiple response, true/false, sorting, matching, short answer, open-ended, fill in the blanks and hotspot. Custom interactions can be also defined. IMS QTI 2.2 allows specifying several settings for questions and tests such as the scoring method, feedback, hints, number of allowed attempts, time limit, branch rules, choices and items shuffling. It provides many other features such as adaptive items, random values, HTML5 tags, CSS stylesheets, MathML andthe support of several types of resources including text, images and HTML5 audio and video elements. Besides, it has been designed to support application profiles. Any IMS QTI test, section and/or item or combination can be exchanged as a ZIP file (termed IMS QTI package) according to a profile of IMS CP 1.2 . IMS QTI 2.2 also provides a profile that extends IEEE LOM  for describing items, tests and question banks with QTI specific metadata. Finally, IMS QTI 2.2 also defines a data model for reporting test results data and another data model for reporting statistical information about the usage of IMS QTI items. 184.108.40.206 Moodle XML
A significant contribution to the study of internationalization has been made by C. Kreber, who characterizes two dimensions of internationalization in the modern practice of higher education. According to Kreber, the first of them provides for the international and intercultural measurement of education and research carried out at universities. The purpose of this process is to provide students with assistance in developing intercultural competencies in the context of an educational program within the university. This process does not require the crossing of borders and is called internal, or domestic, internationalization. The second dimension ofthe analyzed educational phenomenon is associated with international (cross-border, transnational) higher education, which relates to border crossing by students, teachers, and administrative staff, as well as joint educational programs. This dimension is called external internationalization. According to Kreber, the main reasons for the development ofthe internationalization of higher education andthe factors that contribute to its acceleration are the massification of higher education in a favorable economic and technological climate, ensured by the rapid development of ICT, development of global competition of services, goods, and labor, internationalization of labor markets, as well as cheaper transport services andthe
Summarizing all the above it should be noted that the study of processes of adaptation of future teachers of a foreign language has allowed us to see qualitatively the results of our pedagogical experiment. So, theoretically grounded and practically tested our pedagogical experimental achievements, the results of our doctoral research indicate the existing positive-qualitatively improving trend. As the result ofthe conducted research in 2015-2016 in three high pedagogical institutionsof Ukraine in the experimental groups the following generalized results were obtained: the level ofthe psychological aspect of adaptation is at the indicator of 80%; the level ofthe pedagogical aspect of adaptation is at the indicator of 70 %; the level of foreign-language aspect of adaptation is at the indicator of 60 %. A comparative analysis ofthe percentage for each other shows the following results: psychological – 40%, pedagogical – 30 %; foreign language -20 %. This suggests that the students adapted better psychologically and there are some problems in the context of foreign languages adaptation. It should also be said that the results in experimental groups compared with the control groups are much better and have an increasing effect. This underlines once again the relevance and practical value of our pedagogical experiment. We understand that our observations are only a part ofthe created program of our studies of this problem. Further studies we see in the observation and practical implementation ofthe system of adaptation of students at the II course of study at the faculties of foreign languages at higher education institutions.
According to the current legal and regulatory framework, a public-private partnership is understood to be legally defined for a certain period of time and based on pooling of resources, risk sharing cooperation of a public partner, on the one hand, and a private partner, on the other hand. It is based on a PPP agreement concluded in accordance with this Federal Law in order to attract private investment in the economy, ensure the availability of goods, works, and services by public authorities, and improve their quality. The organization of public-private partnerships as a special type of cooperation between economic entities ofthe country is governed by a set of federal laws. The basis ofthe legal regulation of PPP is the Federal Law dd. July 13, 2015, No. 224-FZ “On Public-Private Partnership, and Municipal-Private Partnership in the Russian Federation and Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts ofthe Russian Federation” and Federal Law dd. July 21, 2005, No. 115-FZ “On concession agreements”. It should also be noted that an important role in the formation ofthe legal
To improve students’ learning for better life development, cognitive understanding and social return through the establishment ofquality programmes in education seem to be the major concern of professional. This phenomenon has been found in all subjects of learning and recorded in every corner ofthe world. For example, China adopted “Quality Education” (Suzhi Jiaoyu) as the main theme during the 2000s reform works in education. The reform indicated clear objectives to place generic and life skills as focal points in development (National Center for Education Development, 2000: p.28). In the city of Hong Kong, the Education Commission Report No.7 in 1997 focused on the development ofQuality School Education as the main agenda and this concept was expected to be implemented in different learning phases (Education Commission, 1997). Such quality concept was further promoted into the “Learning to Learn” curriculum reform in 2000 by Curriculum Development Council to indicate the development of necessary natural life abilities that every student should have as modern person. These natural life abilities were referred to generic skills in the reform document and contained the features of learning in collaboration, communication, creativity, critical thinking, information technology, numeracy, problem solving, self-management and study skills in information collecting. These natural skills were expected to be the main task of development throughout the different key learning stages from junior primary to senior high (Curriculum Development Council, 2000: pp.35-36). Such desire to include quality concept in education turned to be the UNICEF issue and a paper on “Defining Quality in Education” was presented at the meeting ofThe International Working Group on Education in June 2000 at Florence, Italy. The recent World Bank 2014 report on educational development in South Asia also indicated about the needs ofquality improvement in education. Although primary school were almost fully funded, the lacking of suitable efficiency was the concern and needing to do more to improve thequalityof education was the urge in the World Bank report.
The definition andthe elaboration of university curricula tend to follow a number of prioritised processual steps, although this apparent linearity in decision making may conceal a complexity of movements that may require a theorisation that goes beyond the description and interpretation of what it means to make the most visible decisions. In the realm of European universities, it was the movement triggered by the Bologna Declaration of 1999 that gave rise to the need for curricular change to ensure the availability of comparable and equivalent curricula, thus creating an EHEA in which student and lecturer mobility – and labour mobility – would become a reality. What, at that time, was a kind of programmatic agreement of intentions has now become an action plan through laws, decrees, political stances, approvals and rejections that each university institution needs to interpret within the framework of its political autonomy and, above all, its economic autonomy. 9