Top PDF Extraction and characterization of cardamom oil (Elettaria cardamomum)

Extraction and characterization of cardamom oil (Elettaria cardamomum)

Extraction and characterization of cardamom oil (Elettaria cardamomum)

PALABRAS CLAVE: Aceite de cardamomo, Arrastre con vapor, Hidrodestilación, Extracción con solventes, Productos naturales. ABSTRACT: Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) is an agricultural product with high industrial and commercial potential. Results on the extraction of essential oil of cardamom are reported. Three extraction techniques were studied: steam distillation, hydrodistillation and extraction with solvents. The components of the oil were identified and quantified by gas chromatography with mass and TCD detectors, respectively. The obtained yields were 4,7% by steam distillation, 3.7% by hydrodistillation, and 6,5% by extraction with solvents. The main identified compounds were: cineol, terpinyl acetate, linalol and β-pinene. Results show that there is not water in the oil sample, and the maximum concentration of residual solvent in the oil is 72,4 p.p.m. The obtained results allow to determine the main operational variables to perform the basic desing of a pilot plant for extraction of the oil.
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Extracción del aceite de la semilla de uva variedad “Criolla negra” y su caracterización / Oil extraction process from the seed of the “Criolla negra” grape and its characterization

Extracción del aceite de la semilla de uva variedad “Criolla negra” y su caracterización / Oil extraction process from the seed of the “Criolla negra” grape and its characterization

The oil extraction process of grape seed from Criolla negra variety was evaluated from residues of the press process on wine production. The extraction was taken at a laboratory level in an Soxhlet equipment using hexane like solvent, to a constant temperature of 70 ºC. The factors analyzed in the design were a particle size, extraction time and seed mass; three levels

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Synthesis and Characterization of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (IPNs) from Acrylated Soybean Oil and a-Resorcylic Acid: Part 1. Kinetics of Network Formation

Synthesis and Characterization of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (IPNs) from Acrylated Soybean Oil and a-Resorcylic Acid: Part 1. Kinetics of Network Formation

The reaction yield of the triglycidylated derivative of α -resorcylic acid, after purification through silica gel chromatography, was around 80%. The remaining 20% probably corresponds to mono and di glycidilated products of α -resorcylic acid, as well as unreacted α -resorcylic acid and mechanistically possible dimer- ization products of the newly formed glycidylation compounds. Since this work is mainly focused on the preparation of IPNs, no further identification or charac- terization of the reaction products was performed. The mixture of glycidylated products was used to produce the interpenetrated systems. Because phenols are more acidic than alcohols, they can be converted to phe- nolates through the use of a strong base. These inter- mediates are strong nucleophiles and can react with primary alkyl halides to form ethers. According to the literature [39], once the phenolate anions are formed, they can react with epichlorohydrin following two competitive mechanisms: one-step nucleophilic sub- stitution (mechanism SN 2 ) with cleavage of the C−Cl bond and a two-step mechanism based on ring open- ing of epichlorohydrin followed by intramolecular cyclization (through SN 1 mechanism), with the release of chloride, to reform the epoxy ring. Titration with HBr showed that the resulting mixture after modifica- tion has an average molar epoxy content of (9.0 ± 0.5) × 10 –3 moles per gram of resin, which corresponds to an
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Micromechanics of oil palm mesocarp fibres and biocomposites

Micromechanics of oil palm mesocarp fibres and biocomposites

The research scope of this work focusses on the mechanical behaviour of oil palm mesocarp fibres, and mechanics of oil palm fibres biocomposites interface. The former will involve complex mechanical characterisation and micromechanical modelling of oil palm fibres. The mechanical characterization will consider tensile tests under constant speed, cyclic tensile and tensile-relaxation modes. These tests will reveal viscoelastic behaviour of the fibres, with possibility of damage occurring within the fibres due to deformation. The biocomposites study on the other hand involves production of bio composites using in situ grafting method in internal mixer, which includes anhydride, polymer (LLDPE) and OPMF itself. Focus will be placed on the interfacial behaviour of the filler-matrix interface in terms of chemical bonding (from grafting) and microstructural effect (silica bodies effect on preventing filler-matrix sliding).
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Water Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Polyphenol Compounds from Brewer’s Spent Grain: Kinetic Study, Extract Characterization, and Concentration

Water Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Polyphenol Compounds from Brewer’s Spent Grain: Kinetic Study, Extract Characterization, and Concentration

Brewer’s spent grain is the main by-product produced by breweries, accounting for 20 kg per 100 L of beer produced [1]. BSG represents up to 30% of the starting malted grain [2]. Currently, it is mostly used as animal feed, but its high moisture content results in an increased cost of transportation. Furthermore, the presence of fermentable sugars, reduces its shelf life. However, BSG is a lignocellulosic material rich in proteins, polysaccharides and other bioactive compounds such as polyphenols. Therefore, BSG presents a great potential to obtain valuable products to be incorporated in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Specially, taking into account that European beer production reached nearly 39.7 billion liters in 2017 [3]. Furthermore, BSG valorization will contribute to reduce the percentage of BSG that is released in landfills yearly.
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Application of a generalized model to the estimation of physical properties and description of the aromatic extraction from a highly paraffinic lubricating oil

Application of a generalized model to the estimation of physical properties and description of the aromatic extraction from a highly paraffinic lubricating oil

decomposition. Agitation at 430 rpm was maintained for one hour, followed by settling for another hour to achieve a good separation of the two phases (Moreno et al., 1992). Furfural was removed from extracts and raffinates by vacuum distillation. Table 1 shows experimental conditions (temperature and furfural/feed ratio), extraction yields (defined as the percentage in weight of raffinate or extract), furfural content and results for the characterization of the mixtures: Composition (in saturates, aromatics and polars), specific gravity (SG), liquid density at 343K (D 343 ), refractive index at 343K
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Chemical characterization and evaluation of the antifungal activity of the Lippia alba essential oil against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

Chemical characterization and evaluation of the antifungal activity of the Lippia alba essential oil against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

The aim of this study was to characterize and evaluate the in vitro efficiency of leaf essential oil of Lippia alba against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Essential oil from the leaves was extracted by the method of assisted microwave hydrodistillation (MWHD) and metabolites were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/ MS). The in vitro evaluation was performed using 4 concentrations of essential oil (500, 1000, 3000 and 10000 ppm) diluted in acetone; positive control with Benomyl 1 g /L, a negative control with acetone and absolute control was used; oil efficiency was measured by the percentage of antifungal index (% IA). It was found that the major component was in the essential oil citral (34.62 to 40.03%) and the highest %I.A was found to 10000 ppm concentration (97.8%) very similar to Benomyl (100%). This would demonstrate the efficacy of the L. alba essential oil to control C. gloeosporioides, and its possible use as a biological fungicide.
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Revalorization of a peach (Prunus persica (L ) Batsch) byproduct: Extraction and characterization of ACE inhibitory peptides from peach stones

Revalorization of a peach (Prunus persica (L ) Batsch) byproduct: Extraction and characterization of ACE inhibitory peptides from peach stones

A liquid chromatography equipment 1100 series from Agilent Technologies (Pittsburgh, PA, USA) was employed. It was equipped with a vacuum degasser system, a quaternary pump, an automatic injection system, a column thermostatic compartment, a diode array detector, and a fluorescence detector. Data acquisition was performed by the HP-Chemstation software. ARP perfusion POROS R2/10 (100 x 2.1 mm) column from Perseptive Biosystems (Framingham, MA, USA) was employed. The mobile phases consisted of 0.1 % (v/v) TFA in water (mobile phase A) and 0.1 % (v/v) TFA in ACN (mobile phase B). The elution gradient was 30-45 % B in 20 min, the flow rate was 0.5 mL/min, the column temperature was 60 °C, and the injection volume was 20 µL. UV detection at 210, 254, and 280 nm and florescence detection at excitation and emission wavelengths of 280 and 360 nm, respectively, were employed.
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Selection and characterization of active cellulases against pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch from a native endophytes library

Selection and characterization of active cellulases against pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch from a native endophytes library

Colombia, taking advantage of its location in the tropic region, has developed a important area dedicated to cultivate oil palm, reaching values close to 300,000 hectares throughout the national territory for the 2006 [1]. The growth of this agro-industry in Colombia has to take into consideration the use of sustainable technology, as well as strategies that will improve its competitiveness. A material balance of an oil palm plant yields, in terms of mass, for every Ton of fresh fruit processed 220 kg of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB), 125-130 kg of fiber, between 50 and 60 kg of shell and 195-200 kg of oil are obtained [2]. This means that, in terms of mass flow, this industry generated approximate equals quantities of OPEFB and oil. Considering that the average of annual increase in palm oil is around 6% [1] it is estimated that the amount of available OPEFB will be 1.35 million tons and 2.2 million tons by 2010 and 2015 respectively. Therefore, it is necessary to generate alternative ideas for its use. Currently, most companies used the OPEFB as manure, reporting different problems for composting
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Extraction assisted by Ultrasound Bath and Chemical Characterization by HPLC-ESI-UV-MS/MS

Extraction assisted by Ultrasound Bath and Chemical Characterization by HPLC-ESI-UV-MS/MS

T. elatum Sw. is a big tree that grows naturally in wet mountain forests of Cuba and Jamaica. It produces all year beautiful flowers orange to red, and was domesticated and planted in almost all the islands and countries of the Caribbean basin (Fig. 1). In Martinica, under the name Blue Mahoe or Mountain Mahoe, the uses are less known and therefore less common, and a complete exploration of the biochemical and biological properties remains to be done. In 2015, a Martinican research team isolated and characterized from the petals of the flowers the isomeric form of gossypitrin: gossypetin-3’-O-glucoside, utilizing 1,2-dimetoxiethane by Soxhlet extraction (Françoise- Haugrin et al., 2016).
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Supercritical fluid extraction of wheat bran oil: Study of extraction yield and oil quality

Supercritical fluid extraction of wheat bran oil: Study of extraction yield and oil quality

The fatty acids profile was determined by the AOAC method [30]. The fatty acid methyl esters were firstly prepared and then analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) in a Hewlett Packard gas chromatograph (6890N Network GC System) equipped with an auto-sampler (7683B series) and a flame ionization detector (FID). The separation was carried out with helium (1.8 mL/min) as carrier gas. A fused silica capillary column (OmegawaxTM-320, 30 m×0.32 mm i.d.) was used. The column temperature was programmed starting at a constant temperature of 180 ºC for 20 min, heated to 200 ºC at 1 ºC/min, held at 200 ºC for 1 min, heated again to 220 ºC at 5 ºC/min and finally held at 220 ºC for 20 min. A split injector (50:1) at 250 ºC was used. The FID was also heated to 250 ºC. Fatty acid methyl esters were identified by comparison of their retention times with those of chromatographic standards. Their quantification was made by relating the peaks area to the area of an internal standard (methyl tricosanoate) and using the corresponding chromatographic standards in order to find the response factors of each compound, as indicated by the AOAC method [30].
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Characterization of the gasification of the oil palm husk using pure oxygen and oxygen-air-and oxygen-steam mixtures for partial oxidation

Characterization of the gasification of the oil palm husk using pure oxygen and oxygen-air-and oxygen-steam mixtures for partial oxidation

After the Second World War, the interest for gasification was almost completely lost. But nowadays, as the prices of oil and its derivates keep rising, their reserves being depleted and a higher environmental responsibility, the significance of this process in order to obtain energy at reasonable priceshas risen. Moreover, the fact that the light, low heating value gases obtained from the process can be re-processed using the Fischer-Tropsch process to obtain heavier hydrocarbons has increased the global interest in the gasification of sustainable resources (Foley, 1983).
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View of The Physical and chemical characterization of the nut and oil from the nine varieties of Macadamia integrifolia, M. tetraphylla and interspecies hybrids
							| Nova Scientia

View of The Physical and chemical characterization of the nut and oil from the nine varieties of Macadamia integrifolia, M. tetraphylla and interspecies hybrids | Nova Scientia

Macadamia is part of the plant family Proteaceae, and the only species of commercial interest are M. integrifolia and M. tetraphylla. There is currently a growing demand for these nuts given their high nutritional and functional value due numerous studies have shown the protective effects of its consumption decreasing the risk of suffering cardiovascular diseases; however, there is a significant level of variability in regard to the quality of the nut and its derivatives.

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Study of the influence of process parameters on liquid andsupercritical CO2 extraction of oil from rendered materials: fish meal and oil characterization

Study of the influence of process parameters on liquid andsupercritical CO2 extraction of oil from rendered materials: fish meal and oil characterization

where k o is the association number at ρ o , ΔH o is the total heat required to synthesize the solvato complex at T o , and α, β and g are empirical parameters. The same reference condition (40ºC and 30 MPa) as the one adopted by del Valle et al. [13] has been considered in this work. The parameters for both models (equation 4 and 5) has been obtained for solubility data presented in Table 3 by means of the Levenberg-Marquardt method for nonlinear least squares curve-fitting [25] and are listed in Table 4. In the fitting procedure some solubility data were not included when they were identified as outliers when plotting the corresponding isotherm. Table 4 also summarizes some statistical parameters of the fitting such as the correlation coefficient (r 2 ) and the mean relative deviation for all experimental fish oil solubility data employed in the correlation procedure:
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Supercritical fluid extraction of corn germ oil: Study of the influence of process parameters on the extraction yield and oil quality

Supercritical fluid extraction of corn germ oil: Study of the influence of process parameters on the extraction yield and oil quality

A total of fifteen experiments under the different extraction conditions reported in Table 1 were carried out. Runs 1 to 8 were performed to study the influence of temperature, pressure and solvent flow rate on the extraction kinetics. Runs 9 to 12 were performed to evaluate the influence of the extraction temperature on oil quality, runs 9 and 10 were carried out at 56 ºC, and runs 11 and 12 were carried out at 84 ºC. Additionally, three experiments (R13-R15) with a subsequent fractionation in two separators installed in series were carried out. The first separator was maintained at 10.0 MPa and 40 ºC in order to recover the less soluble compounds (triacylglycerides), and the second one at 4.0 MPa and a temperature of 40 ºC. Most of the water was found to be recovered in the second separator.
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Characterization study of a thermal oil based carbon black solar nanofluid

Characterization study of a thermal oil based carbon black solar nanofluid

The base fluid used herein was TH66 (Solutia Inc.). It consists of a hydrogenated terphenyl with proper thermal properties, which allows its use for high-temperature working conditions. CB nanoparticles (ELFTEX 570, Cabot Corporation) were selected for their high solar absorption ability and because their structure is not affected by high temperatures. According to the manufacturer, they consist of spherical amorphous carbon particles with a primary diameter of 10 nm. The surfactant used was diphenyl sulfone (DS, Sigma Aldrich Co. Ltd.) and it was selected for its chemical affinity to thermal oils and its effective thermal behaviour at high temperature.
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Nuts as raw material for oil extraction in the food industry: characterization, product and process innovation and economics

Nuts as raw material for oil extraction in the food industry: characterization, product and process innovation and economics

Available almond and pistachio genotypes have different physical and chemical characteristics that need to be considered (Roncero et al., 2016a, b; Catalán et al., 2017; Rabadán et al., 2017c;). In pistachio kernels from different cultivars, several studies have found differences in size (Rabadán et al., 2017c), fatty acids (Dyszel and Pettit, 1990; Arena et al., 2007), triglycerides (Dyszel and Pettit, 1990), phytosterols (Arena et al., 2007), amino acids (Mahmoodabadi, 2012), minerals (Küçüköner and Yurt, 2003; Anderson and Smith, 2005) or major coloured compounds (Bellomo and Fallico, 2007). Similar results have been reported for almonds (Martín-Carratalá et al., 1999; Kodad et al., 2006; Kodad et al., 2011; Yada et al., 2011; Maestri et al., 2015;). Most of the studies have analysed kernels from different cultivars produced in different countries, with few studies considering trees grown in the same plot (Bellomo and Fallico, 2007; Tsantili et al., 2010; Tsantili et al., 2011; Maestri et al., 2015;). When cultivars are not grown in the same plot, the influence of ecological conditions (García-López et al., 1996; Kodad et al., 2014; Yada et al., 2011) and management practises (Sánchez-Bel et al., 2008; Carbonell-Barrachina et al., 2015; Zhu et al., 2015) may cause differences that should not be attributed to the genotype. The global demand of almonds and pistachios has been associated to the health benefits of nut consumption. Research has reported that nut consumption decreases the risk of coronary heart disease (Braschi and Naismith, 2008; Dreher, 2012), reduces the level of triglycerides in blood (Dreher, 2012; Sauder et al., 2015) and increases the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (Sheridan et al., 2007), while reducing the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (Sari et al., 2010). It also has been associated with cancer prevention due to the stimulation of immunological mechanisms and the protection against free radicals (Gentile et al., 2007; Kodad et al., 2011). Moreover, it does not lead to weight gain and may even improve the risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome (Dreher, 2012; Wang et al., 2012).
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Wheat bran valorization by supercritical fluid extraction: characterization, formulation and application of wheat bran oil

Wheat bran valorization by supercritical fluid extraction: characterization, formulation and application of wheat bran oil

To our knowledge, the four tocopherol isomers have been detected and quantified for the first time in supercritical wheat bran oil (Table 3.1). This was possible because a normal phase chromatographic method, which enables the separation of β- and γ-tocopherols, was used. When reverse-phase columns were used, this separation was not possible (Bramley et al., 2000). The main tocopherols of the wheat bran oil obtained in this work were α-tocopherol (57%) and γ-tocopherol (39%). The α-tocopherol proportion is similar to that described for wheat germ and cottonseed oils, and the γ-tocopherol proportion is higher than that reported for sunflower and olive oils (Lampi et al., 2002). These results could be of interest to the food industry because it has been described that α-tocopherol presents high biological activity and γ-tocopherol has been reported to be the most effective tocopherol isomer to inhibit the oxidation of fats and oils (Bramley et al., 2000). Nevertheless, in recent years, different results suggest that the antioxidant activity of each tocopherol homologue depends, among other factors, on the food system where they are evaluated (Seppanen et al., 2010).
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extraction and characterization of proteins from cell walls of two strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

extraction and characterization of proteins from cell walls of two strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

Kcy words: Paracoccidíoides brasiliellsis. Palabras clayc: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, protcinas , gp-1-3, parccl celular. brasiliellsis slrains 11'O S ohscn.'ed.. lNTRODUCT[r]

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Optimization and physical characterization of biodiesel obtained from Annona cherimola waste oil

Optimization and physical characterization of biodiesel obtained from Annona cherimola waste oil

1 Universidad Nacional de Huancavelica, Escuela de Ingeniería Agroindustrial, Perú, roberto.chuquilin@unh.edu.pe, pecuqui1@gmail.com, pedro01arteaga@hotmail.com 2 Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Perú, hobregon@pucp.pe Abstract– The effect of temperature, catalyst concentration (sodium hydroxide), alcohol molar ratio: oil and transesterification time on the yield of biodiesel obtained from cherimoya residue oil (Annona cherimola) was evaluated. A rotatable composite central design (DCCR) with 30 runs was used. The concentration of the catalyst and the molar ratio alcohol: transesterification oil were the variables that had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on the biodiesel yield. The highest yield biodiesel (90%) was obtained with a catalyst concentration of 0.4%, at a temperature of 50 ° C, molar ratio methyl alcohol: oil of 3: 1 and time of 39 minutes of transesterification process. Its physical characteristics were: caloric power 9477 cal.g-1, kinematic viscosity 7.53 mm2.s-1, carbon residue 0.0817% and sulphated ash 0.005%. Thus, it was determined that it is feasible to obtain biodiesel using waste cherimoya.
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