Harmer (2007, p.175) designed a structure that he called “technology pyramid” with the purpose of classifying all the appropriate audio-visual devices for teaching and learningEnglish. On the top of this pyramid are included the resources considered as educational technology such as: fixed data projectors, interactive whiteboards, computers, the Internet. The next scale is formed by traditional material like whiteboard, overhead projector (OHP), tape recorder, blackboard and exercises books. At the bottom of the pyramid there are not resources related to educational technology or other learning aids. There are hardly any boards and books. However, Harmer believes that even with minimal aids learning is possible if the teacher use creativity.
Furthermore, Zepeda S. J. (2008) explains that classrooms observations can be formal or informal and they offer opportunities for both authority and the teacher to develop an extensive range of understanding of the complexities of teaching and learning. For this range of understanding to come out, classroom observations must take place over time with continuous attention to the processes used to observe teachers. For classroom observation to be effective it is crucial that a positive climate exists within a school. The focus of observations should be on the benefits for all learners. Following observations professional dialogue should explore the practice, be constructive, formative and examine what works well and which areas of instruction or classroom management could be enhanced by modifying practice.
Buttner (1997) coincided with some of theteaching resources suggested by Spratt, Pulverness & Williams (2011), but he also added some more like the prop box that is a container of materials thatthe teacher may use for promoting role- playing into the lessons. The butcher block paper is also proposed to be used. It is a large piece of paper that can be rolled in a large space so students can draw or write on it. Students must give an oral presentation collecting information about new vocabulary, common phrases and questions among others. Index cards enable students to communicate effectively using basic words and phrases relevant in their work environment. Binders are another type of useful supplementary resources when referring to teaching. They are used to individualize students’ information. And at last the graphic organizers or visual aids, available in different types of designs. They are considered extremely useful tools that allow students to parse the lesson into pieces.
commands which children respond to physically before responding in speech. Thus, this form of teaching is aimed to have little learners’ verbal response and more teacher verbal response. Imperative drills are the major classroom activity. On the other hand, Nunan (2011) states that Communicative LanguageTeaching (CLT) considers language acquisition as a philosophy that includes an ample variety of practices which aims are to provide learners with meaningful tasks that allow them to use language rather than learn it. Furthermore, Richards & Rodgers (2001) claim thatthe primary function of CLT is to allow equal parts of interaction and communication between the learner and the teacher. Memorization is not used. The principles underlying this method state thatlanguage is used to express meaning and structures are practiced through the discourse. Activities are designed with this in mind.
It was very interesting to witness how, in one of the observed classes, during the individual activity, the teacher used different approaches to explain the same question to different students. She was very resourceful and creative when handling the situation and showed her teaching skills. She drew a chart for one student, translated for another, and gave further explanation of the matter to the last one. This proves that individual needs can be better met on a one to one basis when teachers are sensitive and trained. Most of the classes where students were involved in individual activities ended up either in-group work or in a whole-group discussion. Only one class did not follow this pattern. The task involved self-access material; so, after finishing the individual assignment, students had to check their own work and correct their mistakes, if any, independently, using the answer key available at the end of the book. Therefore, they kept engaged inthe activity till the class period was over.
A research took place in rural villages Spain according to Borja (2009). It identified two basic ways of organizing space: regular classrooms with no determined space organization and classrooms organized into “function corners or territories”. The method carried out for this study was merely descriptive and was based on different documents that described the same topic in detail. The author compared the information in order to develop or suggest different ways of allocating the space of a classroom from a structural perspective of the investigation. It was determined that for a better teaching practice an appropriate classroom should be an area of about 20 square meters and must have all relevant electrical installations; the strategic location for its construction has to be analyzed in order to avoid dead spots; the size of the desks must have the appropriate size for the size and age of the students; there must be adequate space for students to leave their belongings; and finally; students safety and comfort must be present in any educational environment inside and outside the classroom.
phenomenon in L2 learning. The results of the study suggest that as with the other few studies inthe field, factors like thehigh frequency of classes during a week, some more important subjects to be studied other than English, lack of English usage in daily life, lack of enough self confidence among seminary students and finally difficulties in understanding what they listen to inEnglish, could demotivate learners if they are perceived negatively. Finally, Rahimi & Rizi (2008) conducted a study to examine the use of languagelearning strategies by post-secondary level Persian EFL learners. They paid attention to the variables affecting learners’ choice of strategies, and the relationship, if any, between these variables and learners’ patterns of strategy use.
seating arrangement for the students, according to how the teacher sees the class. The teacher could organize the class in horizontal rows, if the intention is to guide the students’ attention towards him at all time. There is also the option of using orderly rows. In this arrangement the teacher has a clear vision of all the students. It makes lecturing easier; enabling the teacher to maintain eye contact with the people he or she is talking to and inthe case thatthe teacher has designed a discussion class organizing a circle arrangement would be must appropriate. Harmer (2007) clarifies this point by mentioning that classes which are arranged in a circle make a solid statement regarding what the instructor and the students believe in. Finally, if the teachers sit with their students in a circle, it would make the environment friendlier; as a result, the attention will move from the teacher to the group.
The next study was conducted by Aduwa & Iyamu (2006), whose purpose was to analyze three factors: the resources, methods and environment. This study examined the frequency of instructional resources used by secondary school teachers; the accuracy of methods applied in class was also observed; and finally, it studied the type of environment conductive to learning. The research concluded that very basic resources as posters, English textbooks and workbooks were frequently used; the methods and techniques were limited mostly to lectures and reading activities; and that inadequate installation and resources do not provide a suitable learning environment. No limitations were found in this study.
fin de titulación: “ FactorsthataffecttheEnglishlanguageteaching-learningprocessinEcuadorian public highschools ” , de la Titulación de Licenciado Ciencias de la Educación mención Inglés, siendo Salcedo Viteri Karina Soledad director (a) del presente trabajo; y eximo expresamente a la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja y a sus representantes legales de posibles reclamos o acciones legales. Además certifico que las ideas, conceptos, procedimientos y resultados vertidos en el presente trabajo investigativo, son de mi exclusiva responsabilidad.
Nowadays, there are many benefits of using technology inthe classroom especially as students become increasingly digitally literate. This increasing focus on technology use in a classroom and the different ways that today learners communicate have impacted how computers and any other technological device are used inthe classroom in order to prepare students to meet the demands of the 21 st century. In fact, these technology tools have also been used to extend classroom communication outside the classroom. In others words, today with a single laptop, an android phone, a projector and an internet connection a teacher can make the class more enjoyable, save time and give students authentic and meaningful learning experiences. As a result of it, students gain an awareness of the importance and the value of communication.
According to Alexander (2012), when managing learning, there are three basic points to take in mind as a teacher: giving instructions, feedback, and time management. When the teacher is supposed to give instructions, it is a good idea to catch the attention of his/her students. Avoid any kind of distractions and check that all the students are listening and watching. It is important to use simple languagethat students will truly understand. The use of gesture, eye contact and the voice are essential because they help us get across what we want to say.
The results showed in this study were: the availability of the instructional resources varies from school to school. Another factor was the class size influence inthe achievement of the students, the effect was very negative because in classroom overcrowded teacher need more materials and resources, and they have no available enough materials intheschools. It was found in Nepal that only a few highschools have a policy about how many students they receive in their highschools. It was determined thatin larger classes the teachers not give individual attention to each student. As recommendation, the researcher suggested: include leasing space, collaborative, recollecting, administrative space, and district-wide redistribution of the space.
teach their classes. Inthe observations performed, it was noticed that most teachers have multi-level classrooms; they include students who communicate inEnglish at a variety of different levels, and different types of learning backgrounds, such as those who have learned orally and those who have learned mainly from a textbook. Students also have different levels of literacy in their own native language. Teachers mention that they face a challenge with multi-level classrooms because lessons preparation takes longer and students are more demanding, but at the same time, there are some advantages as for example students are able to learn at their own pace, they learn to work well in a group, and they develop strong relationships with their peers. Students also mentioned that they feel comfortable working in a multi-level environment since it ensures that all students are challenged and interested.
Previous studies show that there are several factorsthataffecttheprocess of learningEnglish as a second language. The first one was carried on by Bhela (1999), who mentioned that there is a high influence of our native languageinthe acquisition of a second language; the author explains how students always tend to go back to their native language to model and perform in L2, the most important mistakes that an Englishlanguage student makes when performing in L1 are closely related to the structure, pronunciation, and culture of their mother tongue. The limitation that Bhela identified in his study focuses mainly on the fact thatthe sample involved was too small, therefore only a limited range of languages were analyzed.
can see, most public school teachers have a bachelor teaching degree, however, this does not mean they have a good English level or that their knowledge about teaching is wide. During the observed classes, a low English level and a poor pronunciation was evidenced. Teachers speak English with a strong accent and with lots of hesitation. Most teachers made mistakes such as wrong grammar structures and inappropriate tenses. A lack of vocabulary was also evidenced as they repeated the same words over and over while teaching. The question is how a person with a degree inEnglishteaching has such a low level and how can they be teachingEnglish. Well, it is because university English teachers also have a very low level and consequently, theEnglishteaching-learningprocess is being affected by this low teacher quality since, as we know, learners pick up languages as they are taught and if a teacher teaches wrong the student learns wrong. Plus, since most teachers were taught the same way inthe university, they all have about the same English level. Therefore, there are not many options to choose from and those teachers were and are being hired.
According to some teachers, it is difficult to do many activities where they have to rearrange the seats because they think that students do not see this change as useful. Instead, the students use it as a reason to create disorder and disturbance in classes. After these comments, it seems that teachers and students were not very honest with this answers because of the comment mentioned before. They tried to let the author know that they do not do these types of activities with frequency, but responded to the question they answered with “yes”.
Inthe graphic 80 % of teachers do arrange the seats according to the class activities. The other 20 % cannot move the seats because of the lack of space. In two of the observed classes, teachers told the students they have to arrange the seats before teachers appear inthe class. They must maintain this order for the whole year. In a smaller class, I observed the teacher making a circle or horseshoe formation of desks. I noticed another way of seating classes by making columns facing each other. The rest of the observed classes used the usual way, which is having students sit in an orderly row.
Kral (1994) argues that time is very important for our lives but it is really important inside the classroom, because inthe classroom we have different types of students and the different way how they apply the knowledge and time has an important role. Teachers must keep in mind the algorithm to be used, it means explain students the steps to follow inthe class including the time assigned for each activity, also the class must include a warm-up, introduction to the topic, and all the steps considered in a lesson plan; besides this, students must have the time to copy the important information from the board at the end of the lesson, but ¨slower students¨ must have more time to copy the necessary information.
Despite the fact that some methodologies suggest the translation as a strategy to teach something students find difficult to understand, teachers must speak most of the time English. If students don`t understand a word they must find the way to teach them, maybe using pictures, or mime, or real objects, or an English-English dictionary, but never translating, in this way students learn thelanguagein a better way. As Brown (2000) reports about the Total Physical Response method, children acquire their mother tongue listening to the people around them and speaking when ready, that is why students should be taught inthe target language.