Englishlanguage, it will not motivate students to improve their English knowledge. For this reason, they always find many ways for their students to understand what they want to communicate or transmit during their English classes. Some of these forms are mime, drawing stick figures, and examples that help students remember the new words, phrases, idioms, or whatever. Nonetheless, two of the fifteen observed teachers (20%) pointed out that they do not use only Englishduring their classes but also Spanish because they guarantee thatthe mix of both languages help students get engaged with the different topics.
from classes with thirty one or more students. 29,99% are taken from classes with a student population of twenty six to thirty. 6,66% of the results are taken from classes with sixteen to twenty five students. The last results were taken from the first periodin a night highschool, where classes began only with five students and it ended up with twenty. The difference is because of that many students did not attend classes at the first hours. Teachers said that these cases are very common because most of students work duringthe day (or they say that they work) and they cannot arrive on time for the first hours of class, the assistance of the students is verified duringthe second hour of class.
catch up students’ attention. Also, Dobbs (2001) explains thatthe board can be used to provide learners a sensory experience as follow: when teachers write on the board, visual learners are benefited; kinesthetic learners enjoy writing on the board; and competitive styles are strengthened when students write on the board and others do it simultaneously on their notebooks. Videos are described by these authors as a type of material that students understood easily because of visual contents. In addition, overhead projector is a material that allows teachers and students to share information using transparencies. Other materials are worksheets which can be home made and students can use them in pair or group work. Finally, the authors explain that computers provide teachers with computer assisted learning programs but it is necessary to know how computers work in order to use them effectively.
can see, most publicschool teachers have a bachelor teaching degree, however, this does not mean they have a good English level or that their knowledge about teaching is wide. Duringthe observed classes, a low English level and a poor pronunciation was evidenced. Teachers speak English with a strong accent and with lots of hesitation. Most teachers made mistakes such as wrong grammar structures and inappropriate tenses. A lack of vocabulary was also evidenced as they repeated the same words over and over while teaching. The question is how a person with a degree inEnglishteaching has such a low level and how can they be teachingEnglish. Well, it is because university English teachers also have a very low level and consequently, theEnglishteaching-learningprocess is being affected by this low teacher quality since, as we know, learners pick up languages as they are taught and if a teacher teaches wrong the student learns wrong. Plus, since most teachers were taught the same way inthe university, they all have about the same English level. Therefore, there are not many options to choose from and those teachers were and are being hired.
Nowadays English is a language widely spoken all over the world, but this is not what really makes it so important; it is used as the official languagein commerce, education, diplomacy, international business, technical and technological activities of any kind. Jo anne Welling, an English expert in ESOL teaching, teacher’s trainer specialist, and a Cambridge ESOL examinator, who has lived in Ecuador for several years and has acted as the Cambridge Exams Coordinator for Ecuador, highlights the importance of English a s the “world language”, she says that “whatever career you choose, you are going to need a little bit of English at least to get by, for your training and for your travel needs” (Welling, 2012).
established the Communicative Approach as the most distinguished, accepted norm inthe area of languageteaching and learning. Since, the National English Curriculum Guidelines (2012) identified the essential goal of the current curriculum design that is to help students build up their communicative language skill throughout the concern of the following assumptions: Language is a system for the expression and conveyance of meaning, also its primary function is the interaction and communication. As well, the structure of language reflects its functional and communicative uses and it is important to know thatthe primary units of language are not merely its grammatical and structural features, but also categories of analytic, functional, and communicative meaning as exemplified in discourses.
Tsai (2008) did an interesting research based on the belief that observing existing classroom practice could bring fourth insights into improving a language teacher’s instruction. The purpose of the current study was: first, it attempted to conceptualize through classroom observations the activity structure and instruction patterns of an EFL class in a junior highschoolin Taiwan to identify the existing problems. Second, it tried to seek out feasible interventions to improve the class and evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions take in different research questions. The methods of data collection in this study included videotaped classroom observations, the classroom observation protocol, the post-study interview with the teacher, and the post-study questionnaire to the students.
Another good point that it is essential to mention is that according to the interview made to the teachers, the majority of them got a B2 level in their language proficiency. They knew how to answer the questions made; however, some of them have little grammatical errors and need to enhance their vocabulary. Just the teacher with an English master ‟ s degree got a C2 level in its language proficiency. He actually understood well and answered all the questions from the interview. He did not hesitate at all. He had a fluent vocabulary. And he did not have any grammar error.
After the scientific information that supports this research was obtained and organized into the literature review, five publichighschools around Quito were chosen. Once thehighschools authorized the researcher to make the observations, three teachers were chosen in each highschool to be observed and get data for their class. Those teachers had to fill a questionnaire in order to know their point of view about factorsthataffecttheEnglishteaching-learningprocessin their place of work. Also, one student in each observed class was selected to fill a survey; those students were picked randomly from all of the pupils in each observed classroom. The students´ questionnaire was about how students feel in class, how technological resources are employed by their teachers, what they think about the space they have into the classroom.
interviewed teachers have an English bachelor ‟ s degree; 40% of the teachers have an English master degree; and 7% of the teachers have other type of degree such as doctor or engineer. Duringthe interview, the group of teachers with an English bachelor ‟s degree explained that they studied English for an average of six years at different language institutes inthe place they live. The time while teachers have been teachingEnglish varies according to the years of experience, some of them have been working inthe field during 10 year; others for 20 years; and others for 6 years. Those teachers expressed thatthe easies skill to teach is reading. It was not possible to continue gathering information about other aspects such as advantages or disadvantages of teachingEnglishin Ecuador or the benefits of staying more time in an educational institution due to the fact that an important proportion of teachers has a A2 level and they were not able to give accurate answers inthe interview.
educational field. Kizildag (2009) investigated the problems and challenges encountered by Englishlanguage teachers teaching at public primary schoolsin Turkey such as having a poor institutional planning, instructional methods, and socio-cultural problems. This study concluded thatthe problems and challenges identified by theschool teachers in Turkey were highly interrelated. It appears to be that one problem results into another through a chain reaction, giving as a result, ineffective teaching and learning activities. It is well documented that foreign language teachers start over from the beginning during each academic year. They re- teach what they had taught the previous year due to the limited use of languagein context and learners eventually forget what they learn.
However, this was hardly done by most of them duringthe observed lessons. For instance, from the needs considered inthe present study (age personality-attitude-aptitude- motivation-and learning styles) the mostly considered by the educators was age, since no one of them brought in topics that were not related to their pupils´ age or too difficult for them to understand; in this respect most of the educators were aided by the workbooks they use, which as being developed by professionals, have their content quite properly selected and sequenced; nonetheless, some educators had developed their own syllabuses or modules, so they have been the ones who have selected the topics, materials, and activities according to the age range of their pupils.
As it can be seen inthe graph 12, all the teachers (100%) answered that they have 31 or more students in their classes. Duringthe observations, it was possible to notice thatin some courses, there were more than 40 students, being classes too crowded to teach successfully, and being difficult for teachers to walk around the classrooms to check student s‟ work. Besides, it was observed thatthe teachers had to speak aloud to get the students attention, and in some cases, it was necessary to repeat the instructions wasting time; this was because the students who were sitting at the back of the classroom could not clearly listen to the teacher.
It is necessary to mention that some studies about this specific topic had been conducted in many different countries: to mention a few of them, Saricoban & Sakizli (2006) discovered that Iranian Seminary students face some factorsthat constitute enormous barriers intheteaching-learningEnglishlanguageprocess. For example, they point out that teachers who approach classroom management as a process of establishing and maintaining effective learning environments tend to be more successful than teachers who place more emphasis on their roles as authority figures and disciplinarians. Tabatabei (2012) recognized three different aspects: The frequency of classes is high, there are more important subjects for students to study, some students do not have enough self-confidence, and there are difficulties in understanding when they listen to inEnglish. Finally, Dubin & Olshtain (2000) agree on the fact that creating materials is a highly specialized craft, one that seems to be perfected through immersion inthe activity itself.
classrooms of various sizes, etc. to enhance the understanding of classroom ecology. Lang, another researcher, in 2002 carried out an exploratory case study in an interim schoolin Washington D.C. The purpose was to determine how teachers mediate their physical environment and change their work plans due to their classroom space. The research involved thirty one highschool teachers. In this exploratory case study data were gathered through questionnaires, observations, and interviews. Duringtheprocess, the amount of teacher personalization to their classrooms was recorded in notes and photographs. One conclusion of this research is that teachers altered their classroom spaces and/or adjusted their routines to meet their pedagogical goals. To lead to the allocation of adequate space for arrangements furnishings and equipment, Lang suggests that a deeper collaboration between teachers and administrators should be necessary.
Clarity inthe explanations, instructions and directions related to concepts and ideas about subjects referent to a lesson inthe classroom are explained in Nath & Cohen (2012) where is established that students will be able to fulfill their tasks as long as clearer are the instructions given by the teacher; it is suggested that directions are best explained in a whole class format instead to a fewer groups ensuring the reception of the instructions. It is always useful to ask students to repeat the orders and reiterate them again as many times as necessary. In order to get students to perform their tasks properly it is advisable to explain every stage of the activities avoiding errors and missing details.
Sariçoban and Sakizli (2006) examined thefactors and solutions for successful classroom management. According to these authors , learners‟ characteristics, school environment and teachers‟ features are factorsthataffect classroom management. On one hand, learners‟ characteristics gui de class management. For instance, age, personality, attitude and motivation make the difference when teaching. Likewise, environment impacts theteachingprocess. Indeed, seating arrangement and class size enables the teacher to build a positive surrounding for stu dents‟ progress. On the other hand, social environment factors can influence effective learning. Moreover, teachers should prepare materials a ccording to their students‟ abilities.
This research was carried out in five publichighschoolsinthe city of Machala. Three institutions have a morning schedule and the rest have a night schedule. In each institution three teachers were interviewed and observed during their classes. This gave a total sample of fifteen teachers from which nine teachers work inthe morning and six of them work inthe night. Also, fifteen students from eighth basic to third senior year participated in this investigation. Learners who attended classes in morning highschools were all teenagers between twelve to seventeenth years old. On the contrary, students from night highschools were young adults who worked in different places and whose ages were ranged between 18 and 20 years old. All learners’ social and economic
resource to catch students‟ attention. As analysed no teachers used this type of resource to teach lessons which do not allow thelearningprocess to be completed successfully. Lightbown & Spada (2006) also expose that other people who can be called aural learners, seem to learn better by hearing sounds or explanations. However, taking into account the observed classes just one teacher used a CD recorder to teach the lesson, duringthe time the lesson lasted students were aware of the topic and they get involved in it with no difficulty, since they enjoy doing this type of tasks where they receive oral input of different accents a part form the instructor. As a result, the lack of resources usage or the lack of frequency in using them is preventing them to master the use of the abilities mentioned before.
education is the growing use of extra devices by which educators establish and connect accuracy concepts, and understanding. Among the many devices available for teachers, there are visual aids. The most common form is real objects, or better known as realia, pictures or photographs, maps, diagrams. Investigators suggested thatinteaching we ought to appeal to the mind generally through the visual and hearing sense organs, because researchers believe that possibly the 85 percent of learning is captivated by these senses. But not all publicschools are privileged to have access to these devices. This may vary according to the institution, location and perhaps even the quantity and type of resources available to teacher. It has been point out thatin some poor areas, teachers have to improvise and create their own home made resources in order to continue teaching. And if the teacher’s budget is limited, he or she can always rely on tools, such as the dictionary which is a very accessible tool. The black board is an additional piece of equipment that teachers may use, even though they might feel that is standard piece of equipment, (Wood, 2011).