PDF superior Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools, made in El Carmen, Manabí, during the 2012 -2013 high school period

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools, made in El Carmen, Manabí, during the 2012 -2013 high school period

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools, made in El Carmen, Manabí, during the 2012 -2013 high school period

English language, it will not motivate students to improve their English knowledge. For this reason, they always find many ways for their students to understand what they want to communicate or transmit during their English classes. Some of these forms are mime, drawing stick figures, and examples that help students remember the new words, phrases, idioms, or whatever. Nonetheless, two of the fifteen observed teachers (20%) pointed out that they do not use only English during their classes but also Spanish because they guarantee that the mix of both languages help students get engaged with the different topics.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

from classes with thirty one or more students. 29,99% are taken from classes with a student population of twenty six to thirty. 6,66% of the results are taken from classes with sixteen to twenty five students. The last results were taken from the first period in a night high school, where classes began only with five students and it ended up with twenty. The difference is because of that many students did not attend classes at the first hours. Teachers said that these cases are very common because most of students work during the day (or they say that they work) and they cannot arrive on time for the first hours of class, the assistance of the students is verified during the second hour of class.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian Public high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian Public high schools

catch up students’ attention. Also, Dobbs (2001) explains that the board can be used to provide learners a sensory experience as follow: when teachers write on the board, visual learners are benefited; kinesthetic learners enjoy writing on the board; and competitive styles are strengthened when students write on the board and others do it simultaneously on their notebooks. Videos are described by these authors as a type of material that students understood easily because of visual contents. In addition, overhead projector is a material that allows teachers and students to share information using transparencies. Other materials are worksheets which can be home made and students can use them in pair or group work. Finally, the authors explain that computers provide teachers with computer assisted learning programs but it is necessary to know how computers work in order to use them effectively.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching- learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching- learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

can see, most public school teachers have a bachelor teaching degree, however, this does not mean they have a good English level or that their knowledge about teaching is wide. During the observed classes, a low English level and a poor pronunciation was evidenced. Teachers speak English with a strong accent and with lots of hesitation. Most teachers made mistakes such as wrong grammar structures and inappropriate tenses. A lack of vocabulary was also evidenced as they repeated the same words over and over while teaching. The question is how a person with a degree in English teaching has such a low level and how can they be teaching English. Well, it is because university English teachers also have a very low level and consequently, the English teaching-learning process is being affected by this low teacher quality since, as we know, learners pick up languages as they are taught and if a teacher teaches wrong the student learns wrong. Plus, since most teachers were taught the same way in the university, they all have about the same English level. Therefore, there are not many options to choose from and those teachers were and are being hired.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Nowadays English is a language widely spoken all over the world, but this is not what really makes it so important; it is used as the official language in commerce, education, diplomacy, international business, technical and technological activities of any kind. Jo anne Welling, an English expert in ESOL teaching, teacher’s trainer specialist, and a Cambridge ESOL examinator, who has lived in Ecuador for several years and has acted as the Cambridge Exams Coordinator for Ecuador, highlights the importance of English a s the “world language”, she says that “whatever career you choose, you are going to need a little bit of English at least to get by, for your training and for your travel needs” (Welling, 2012).
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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

established the Communicative Approach as the most distinguished, accepted norm in the area of language teaching and learning. Since, the National English Curriculum Guidelines (2012) identified the essential goal of the current curriculum design that is to help students build up their communicative language skill throughout the concern of the following assumptions: Language is a system for the expression and conveyance of meaning, also its primary function is the interaction and communication. As well, the structure of language reflects its functional and communicative uses and it is important to know that the primary units of language are not merely its grammatical and structural features, but also categories of analytic, functional, and communicative meaning as exemplified in discourses.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Tsai (2008) did an interesting research based on the belief that observing existing classroom practice could bring fourth insights into improving a language teacher’s instruction. The purpose of the current study was: first, it attempted to conceptualize through classroom observations the activity structure and instruction patterns of an EFL class in a junior high school in Taiwan to identify the existing problems. Second, it tried to seek out feasible interventions to improve the class and evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions take in different research questions. The methods of data collection in this study included videotaped classroom observations, the classroom observation protocol, the post-study interview with the teacher, and the post-study questionnaire to the students.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching - learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools, estudio realizado en 5 colegios públicos de la ciudad de Cuenca, provincia del Azuay, en el período Abril - Agosto 2012

Factors that affect the English language teaching - learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools, estudio realizado en 5 colegios públicos de la ciudad de Cuenca, provincia del Azuay, en el período Abril - Agosto 2012

Another good point that it is essential to mention is that according to the interview made to the teachers, the majority of them got a B2 level in their language proficiency. They knew how to answer the questions made; however, some of them have little grammatical errors and need to enhance their vocabulary. Just the teacher with an English master ‟ s degree got a C2 level in its language proficiency. He actually understood well and answered all the questions from the interview. He did not hesitate at all. He had a fluent vocabulary. And he did not have any grammar error.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

After the scientific information that supports this research was obtained and organized into the literature review, five public high schools around Quito were chosen. Once the high schools authorized the researcher to make the observations, three teachers were chosen in each high school to be observed and get data for their class. Those teachers had to fill a questionnaire in order to know their point of view about factors that affect the English teaching-learning process in their place of work. Also, one student in each observed class was selected to fill a survey; those students were picked randomly from all of the pupils in each observed classroom. The students´ questionnaire was about how students feel in class, how technological resources are employed by their teachers, what they think about the space they have into the classroom.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools.

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools.

interviewed teachers have an English bachelor ‟ s degree; 40% of the teachers have an English master degree; and 7% of the teachers have other type of degree such as doctor or engineer. During the interview, the group of teachers with an English bachelor ‟s degree explained that they studied English for an average of six years at different language institutes in the place they live. The time while teachers have been teaching English varies according to the years of experience, some of them have been working in the field during 10 year; others for 20 years; and others for 6 years. Those teachers expressed that the easies skill to teach is reading. It was not possible to continue gathering information about other aspects such as advantages or disadvantages of teaching English in Ecuador or the benefits of staying more time in an educational institution due to the fact that an important proportion of teachers has a A2 level and they were not able to give accurate answers in the interview.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching - learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching - learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

educational field. Kizildag (2009) investigated the problems and challenges encountered by English language teachers teaching at public primary schools in Turkey such as having a poor institutional planning, instructional methods, and socio-cultural problems. This study concluded that the problems and challenges identified by the school teachers in Turkey were highly interrelated. It appears to be that one problem results into another through a chain reaction, giving as a result, ineffective teaching and learning activities. It is well documented that foreign language teachers start over from the beginning during each academic year. They re- teach what they had taught the previous year due to the limited use of language in context and learners eventually forget what they learn.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

However, this was hardly done by most of them during the observed lessons. For instance, from the needs considered in the present study (age personality-attitude-aptitude- motivation-and learning styles) the mostly considered by the educators was age, since no one of them brought in topics that were not related to their pupils´ age or too difficult for them to understand; in this respect most of the educators were aided by the workbooks they use, which as being developed by professionals, have their content quite properly selected and sequenced; nonetheless, some educators had developed their own syllabuses or modules, so they have been the ones who have selected the topics, materials, and activities according to the age range of their pupils.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools.

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools.

As it can be seen in the graph 12, all the teachers (100%) answered that they have 31 or more students in their classes. During the observations, it was possible to notice that in some courses, there were more than 40 students, being classes too crowded to teach successfully, and being difficult for teachers to walk around the classrooms to check student s‟ work. Besides, it was observed that the teachers had to speak aloud to get the students attention, and in some cases, it was necessary to repeat the instructions wasting time; this was because the students who were sitting at the back of the classroom could not clearly listen to the teacher.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching – learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching – learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

It is necessary to mention that some studies about this specific topic had been conducted in many different countries: to mention a few of them, Saricoban & Sakizli (2006) discovered that Iranian Seminary students face some factors that constitute enormous barriers in the teaching-learning English language process. For example, they point out that teachers who approach classroom management as a process of establishing and maintaining effective learning environments tend to be more successful than teachers who place more emphasis on their roles as authority figures and disciplinarians. Tabatabei (2012) recognized three different aspects: The frequency of classes is high, there are more important subjects for students to study, some students do not have enough self-confidence, and there are difficulties in understanding when they listen to in English. Finally, Dubin & Olshtain (2000) agree on the fact that creating materials is a highly specialized craft, one that seems to be perfected through immersion in the activity itself.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching - learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching - learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

classrooms of various sizes, etc. to enhance the understanding of classroom ecology. Lang, another researcher, in 2002 carried out an exploratory case study in an interim school in Washington D.C. The purpose was to determine how teachers mediate their physical environment and change their work plans due to their classroom space. The research involved thirty one high school teachers. In this exploratory case study data were gathered through questionnaires, observations, and interviews. During the process, the amount of teacher personalization to their classrooms was recorded in notes and photographs. One conclusion of this research is that teachers altered their classroom spaces and/or adjusted their routines to meet their pedagogical goals. To lead to the allocation of adequate space for arrangements furnishings and equipment, Lang suggests that a deeper collaboration between teachers and administrators should be necessary.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching - learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching - learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Clarity in the explanations, instructions and directions related to concepts and ideas about subjects referent to a lesson in the classroom are explained in Nath & Cohen (2012) where is established that students will be able to fulfill their tasks as long as clearer are the instructions given by the teacher; it is suggested that directions are best explained in a whole class format instead to a fewer groups ensuring the reception of the instructions. It is always useful to ask students to repeat the orders and reiterate them again as many times as necessary. In order to get students to perform their tasks properly it is advisable to explain every stage of the activities avoiding errors and missing details.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching - learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching - learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Sariçoban and Sakizli (2006) examined the factors and solutions for successful classroom management. According to these authors , learners‟ characteristics, school environment and teachers‟ features are factors that affect classroom management. On one hand, learners‟ characteristics gui de class management. For instance, age, personality, attitude and motivation make the difference when teaching. Likewise, environment impacts the teaching process. Indeed, seating arrangement and class size enables the teacher to build a positive surrounding for stu dents‟ progress. On the other hand, social environment factors can influence effective learning. Moreover, teachers should prepare materials a ccording to their students‟ abilities.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

This research was carried out in five public high schools in the city of Machala. Three institutions have a morning schedule and the rest have a night schedule. In each institution three teachers were interviewed and observed during their classes. This gave a total sample of fifteen teachers from which nine teachers work in the morning and six of them work in the night. Also, fifteen students from eighth basic to third senior year participated in this investigation. Learners who attended classes in morning high schools were all teenagers between twelve to seventeenth years old. On the contrary, students from night high schools were young adults who worked in different places and whose ages were ranged between 18 and 20 years old. All learners’ social and economic
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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools.

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools.

resource to catch students‟ attention. As analysed no teachers used this type of resource to teach lessons which do not allow the learning process to be completed successfully. Lightbown & Spada (2006) also expose that other people who can be called aural learners, seem to learn better by hearing sounds or explanations. However, taking into account the observed classes just one teacher used a CD recorder to teach the lesson, during the time the lesson lasted students were aware of the topic and they get involved in it with no difficulty, since they enjoy doing this type of tasks where they receive oral input of different accents a part form the instructor. As a result, the lack of resources usage or the lack of frequency in using them is preventing them to master the use of the abilities mentioned before.
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:Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools.

:Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools.

education is the growing use of extra devices by which educators establish and connect accuracy concepts, and understanding. Among the many devices available for teachers, there are visual aids. The most common form is real objects, or better known as realia, pictures or photographs, maps, diagrams. Investigators suggested that in teaching we ought to appeal to the mind generally through the visual and hearing sense organs, because researchers believe that possibly the 85 percent of learning is captivated by these senses. But not all public schools are privileged to have access to these devices. This may vary according to the institution, location and perhaps even the quantity and type of resources available to teacher. It has been point out that in some poor areas, teachers have to improvise and create their own home made resources in order to continue teaching. And if the teacher’s budget is limited, he or she can always rely on tools, such as the dictionary which is a very accessible tool. The black board is an additional piece of equipment that teachers may use, even though they might feel that is standard piece of equipment, (Wood, 2011).
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