PDF superior Factors that influence the English language teachin g-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teachin g-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teachin g-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Carhill, Suarez and Paez (2008) examined in adolescents immigrant students that social factors affect English language proficiency outcome considering the effect of the social context factors on English language proficiency varies as a function of home, exposure to English, or school quality factors. This study was made in five years using interdisciplinary and comparative approaches, mixed methods, and triangulated data in order to document patterns of adaptation among recently arrived immigrants. To measure the English language proficiency, the subtest of the BVAT was used because it represents the best measure available at the time of students´ linguistic competitiveness in school with English speaking peers. It was individually administered to participants in English by bilingual RAs (research assistants) in the 5th year of the study. The test measures conceptual knowledge of academic English including discrete lexical meaning, lexical relations, and conceptual relations. Standardized fixed-choice question formats were used to measure the parental education with help of RAs in the language of the parents´ preference at home. To measure the English language use, the demographic interview embedded in the BVAT was utilized. To determine the school quality, three indicators were used: the school ELA proficiency, the school poverty rate and the school minority representation rate.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

the teachers handled this trouble by being quiet and then by raising a little bit their voice until they got the attention of their students to continue with the EFL lessons. In relation to timing, 22% of the teachers considered the time for each activity in the class because they let the students know the time they had to complete a task. It means that in the observed classes, timing was determined by the activities done because the teachers let the students know how long a task was going to take. An important point to note about timing is that Maxom (2009) mentions that it is necessary both to tell the students how long they have for a particular activity and to let them know before the time is up . What this author mentions about this point was considered in the observed classes because the teachers told the students the time allotted for an activity and let them know when the time was going to be up.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Amy (2003) states that teachers are coordinators outside and inside the classrooms and at this point their main objective in the classroom instruction is to encourage the students to use the target language with native speakers outside the classroom. Additionally, time is very important in the learning process in order to ensure the students spend only the time needed in each task, in this way the time is not wasted; the teacher should bring an alarm clock to the class to give the students a time limit when they are working on tasks. Furthermore, feedback is very important in the learning process; its main purpose is to achieve the improvement and self- awareness. The teacher has a great responsibility because by providing continuous feedback students will be benefit; for example, they can evaluate their progress and success. There are different forms of feedback such as giving tutorials to the students, extra homework, projects and others.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Additionally, Richards & Rodger (2001) state that CLT is based on a group of significant tasks. In this method the students participate in an environment of collaboration and exchanging of information where the teacher guides this activity but it results a bit difficult for the students with lack of grammar knowledge. Kiymazarslan (1995) and Richards & Rodgers (2001) state that the natural approach is based on natural principles for language acquisition through three stages: Pre-production stage, early production stage, and the speech emergent phase. NA focuses on the exposure or input instead of practice. This method uses the language in communicative situations without the use of native language. Moreover, the students are not asked to talk until they are ready to do it but they receive and perform different commands.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

On the other hand, Harmer, J. (1998) mentioned that there are many forms of arranging the class, these are: circles, separate tables, orderly row, and groupings. The first, circles, a circle of desks puts every student in the front row. Second, orderly row imply teachers working with the whole class. Some activities are especially designed to this kind of organization: explaining a grammar point, watching a video, using the board, demonstrating text organization on an overhead transparency which shows a paragraph, for example. It is also useful when students are involved in certain kinds of language practice. If all the students are focused on a task, the whole class gets the same messages. Third, grouping mean putting desks in small groups so that students face each other. This is ideal for group activities. Groups can be dynamic, changing based on the activity, or constant. Form groups carefully by mixing students with differing strengths and weaknesses, genders and skill levels. It is occasionally beneficial to form skill groups with students of similar abilities.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

teachers should note that the important thing in utilizing instructional materials is not how many of them are utilized in a lesson but how well they are arranged to be able to bring about better learning effectively. There are also other essential resources for the continued success of students which can arouse the students‟ interest during the class. Teachers can use, for example, visual aids, such as whiteboards or chalkboards, charts, maps, flash cards, and calendars. Presentation tools such as bulletin boards, audiovisual equipment, and overhead projectors are also utilized frequently along with multimedia displays and computers which have become popular teaching aids, but overhead projectors still have a place in the classroom.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

It could be said that nowadays teaching is focused on the communication and interaction as a main activity in the learning process and in its later phase, it appears the grammatical rules and translation exercises. First listening and speaking and then reading and writing take place. It is easy to understand this choice because young students prefer to interact with each other through activities such as games and conversations even though some of them are not prepared to hold a conversation. Both enthusiasm and energy of students should be used by teachers to connect them with the text to teach on any given day.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

relationships with others. All individuals need to get help from one another. Thus, cooperative learning models stress group dynamics and encourage healthy and positive relationships with peers. Aronson (1980) holds that cooperative learning skills can be readily transferred and applied by students in real situations beyond the classroom, producing positive and productive interaction between peers that is essential to learning. And for the development of socialization, he says that, in learning tasks, each individual student must interact with other teammates, the result being the students' active involvement in cooperative efforts. This implies that cooperative learning is a very powerful instructional method. In this sense, it is very common that teacher places dedicated students into those groups with low participation. All students should participate, however, it is a problem for introverted learners who prefer to work alone because their learning style is more independent. According to Rodgers (1988), some of the features of Cooperative language learning includes the creation of positive relationships among students, the attractive and interesting tasks that provide an
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Harmer (1998) states some of the principal learning skills that may be affected by a large number of students; even though for listening comprehension or reading lessons, class size is not a real obstacle, for speaking and writing lessons do present serious problems because teachers do not have enough time to check all of the activities, and due to the group is really big, classroom management will become a real problem for the teacher, especially if it is an inexperienced teacher. Regarding this topic Snow (2006) also states that the main purpose of speaking practice is to have students work in pairs and small groups rather than having dialogues with the teacher and in big classes; they may not have the opportunity to make sure and check if students are in fact using the language while they are not near them. He also claims that concerning writing classes, correction may become a big issue for teachers, since they will have to respond to each piece of writing done by the students.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Communicative Language Teaching is paramount because it is an approach in which students work together to develop aspects of a language they would like to learn. In this approach, the teacher acts as a counselor and a explains while the learner acts as a collaborator. Sometimes this role can be changed. The goal of this method is to develop communication. Hymes (1972) coined this term in order to contrast a communicative view of language and Chomsky’s theory of competence. Additionally, this approach establishes procedures for teaching the four language skills that recognize the interdependence of language and communication. According to Richards ( 2001:73), Total Physical Response is a language teaching method built around the coordination of speech and action; it attempts to teach language through physical activity and the main objective is to teach oral proficiency at a rudimentary level and teach basic speaking skills.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Finally, Richards and Rodgers (2005, p. 219, 220) describe the Content-Based Instruction as an approach “in which teaching is organized around the contents or information that students will acquire, rather than around a linguistic or other type of syll abus.” The authors make allusion to a statement given by Krahnke (1987: 65) who points that CBI presents unlimited occasions for teachers coordinate the interests and needs of students with interesting and meaningful contents; also CBI gives practical advantages for teachers and course designers. Therefore, the authors mention to Brinton (1989:2) who observes that CBI uses activities in class that are equipped to stimulate students to think and learn through the objective language, moreover the learners have to study and learn several skills which prepare them for academic activities.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Teachers gave their reasons of why yes or why not taking into account the level of the students. Teachers who answered yes to the question said that if they did not teach according to the level, students would get some empty spaces in the knowledge they should have; other teachers said that it is not recommended challenging students with a basic level or beginners to do more complicated tasks, and others tried to work according to students levels to push them to improve their abilities, sometimes using TBLT that Richards and Rogers (2001) observed that tasks promote communication and authentic language use in second language classrooms
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

The observed classes were exactly aiming to follow the course book, filling the gaps in the workbook, reading aloud the answers and writing on the board some missing words. Real communication did not take place at all. When a change from the old school of teaching grammatical structures to an interactive process of communication came about, and pertinent activities were developed in order to accomplish it, as stated by Richards and Rodgers (2001), communication was the principal goal of this approach; nevertheless, the interviewed teachers were not aiming to fulfill this need completely. The classes were not interactive and the teachers hardly procured all o f the students’ participation ; the main effort was to fulfill the lesson plan, which in turn, did not contemplate interaction. Communication took place on the way; consequently, the teacher’s answers did not correspond to the class development.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Richards & Rodgers (2008) described the Total Physical Response (TPR) as an English teaching method that uses coordination of speech and action as a way to teach language making the classes full of physical activity. They suggested the possibility to link the TPR to the “trace theory” of memory in psychology that is based on the idea that the more frequently a memory connection is traced, the stronger the memory association will be and the more likely it will be recalled. A similar opinion of TPR is presented by Reilly & Ward, (1999, p.98) who claimed that TPR was useful with very young children who found easier learning through direct experiences using all five senses, and did not yet understand abstract concepts. These two researchers concluded that getting the children to actually do or mime what they wanted them to do was really important, especially when they were very young.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

corresponds to the 87% the teachers, considered that the appropriate number to teach English is 16 – 25, because it is easier to work, they can have more control of the class, English language can be taught more personal, and the teacher can realize the progress of the student, they can see students´ needs and give them all the necessary feedback to improve knowledge. In the same way, Davies & Pearse (2011) state that the basic principles of teaching English are the same for groups of fourteen, forty, fifty, or sixty learners. But it is obviously more difficult to achieve good results in very large groups. Some of the problems can be observed in communication since the learner may not be able to see or hear the teacher well, and the teacher may want to see or hear all the learners well. Besides, it is very hard to know all the learners and their names, the learners do not make individual practice, there are too many pairs or groups to monitor, it would become very difficult to give learners individual feedback on written work.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

The teacher’s role in the classroom is ch anging. Traditional methods of instruction such as the chalk and talk are no longer relevant or engaging for twenty first century learners. The transition of pedagogy is happening fast and teachers need to be accomplished Information and Communication Technology (ICT) users, modelers and instructors. Teachers need to speak the language of their learners and model to them using natural, safe and ethical means and interactions. Teachers should use a good pedagogy. The Online Encyclopedia Britannica (2008) provides a definition of pedagogy: “the study of teaching methods, including the aims of education and the ways in which such goals may be achieved. ” This definition describes how we need to approach teaching ICTs and how learners learn them.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

English is one of the most spoken languages in the world. It is used in different environments such as businesses, education, organizations and traveling. That is why many people are learning English as a foreign or second language. However, when teachers do not use appropriate methods, techniques and materials, students may not learn it effectively. Thus, the main topic of this research has to do with the different factors that influence the teaching-learning of English as a foreign language. In order to develop this study, it is necessary to obtain theoretical support about themes related to this topic like the importance of teaching English in Ecuador, teaching methods, managing learning, lesson design, class size, classroom space, seating arrangement, teaching resources, classroom observation, learning styles and language aptitude. Also, there is information of previous studies which were carried out at different educational institutions referred to the factors affecting foreign language teaching and learning around the world.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

One hundred percent of teachers according to the questionnaires use whole-group activities for the students to interact with the whole class, to encourage fluency, to explain new ideas, to play some motivating games and to summarize a lesson. Cooper (1993) suggested that students learn more from whole class teaching which involves explanations and questioning techniques. Using whole class activities teachers organize students in such a way to make all of them participate together. The larger the group more variety there is in ideas, opinions and experiences which can contribute to the learning process. Whole class activities ensure teacher’s access to all students. It works
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Abu-Rabia (1996) conducted other a research to determine how students’ attitudes and cultural backgrounds affect their reading comprehension of familiar and unfamiliar information in their first and second language. Eighty three students from two intermediate schools in southern Israel participated in the study. Most of the participants in both schools were from families of low socioeconomic status, and they studied English 5 hours a week. The method used was quantitative. Data was collected through reading tests and questionnaires. During the research process, the participants completed a 15-rain pretest about the stories they were to read in the investigation. A week after the pretest, the participants were administered a 20-rain questionnaire to assess their attitudes toward learning English. The reading tests were administered 2 days later; each group of participants received one story a day for 3 days.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

suitability of his resources for teaching English. Although the teacher is himself or herself the most important resource in class, using adequate teaching materials can support learning and increase student success. When teachers were asked about this issue they expressed shared reasons to support their answers. First, using these resources helps teachers to keep the students´ attention. Learners focus on what is being taught and they are involved in the lesson topic. Second, language skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing can be better developed by manipulating or exploring these resources. Third, when students´ senses are stimulated through interesting elements, they fell motivated to learn a language. Fourth, teachers found it easier for them deliver instruction and that were relaxed to students. Finally, some teachers indicated that they used technology and other materials because of the availability in their schools.
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