Yet, for many authors, several inquiries can emerge from classroom observations that can influence directly on teaching procedures, its feedback and implementation of the curriculum. Marshall & Young (2009) mention that three types of classroom observations are optimal. The first is the formal observation, which is previously planned by teacher and administrator. The second is the walk-through observation, which provides a more relaxing experience for both students and teacher and is believed to provide authentic information of the classroom. The last type is called the alternative observation, which does not follow a regular procedure but allows for a more creative option – student portfolio, teacher self-evaluation, etc. Either way, the pros and cons of teacher observations can be carefully analyzed. However, teachers need to be monitored, trained and evaluated in an ever-growing attempt to improve the quality of public education and the accountability of
when playing several games. Flashcards were not used inthe observed classes neither; nevertheless, they are beneficial inthelearningprocess since they provide a more attractive and colorful scene when teaching new vocabulary, students feel more attracted to them rather than black and white images drawn on the blackboard; they can be prepared by the teacher at his leisure according to the topic and can also be used in a variety of activities and games to reinforce knowledge. Magazine pictures may also be included inthe class due to they are also valuable resources for teachers, they are easy to get, accessible to everyone and even cheap, they can also be used in a variety of individual and group work activities. For all of the reasons mentioned above, teachers should implement these resources into their classes as soon as possible.
It could be said that nowadays teaching is focused on the communication and interaction as a main activity inthelearningprocess and in its later phase, it appears the grammatical rules and translation exercises. First listening and speaking and then reading and writing take place. It is easy to understand this choice because young students prefer to interact with each other through activities such as games and conversations even though some of them are not prepared to hold a conversation. Both enthusiasm and energy of students should be used by teachers to connect them with the text to teach on any given day.
On the other hand, scientist Woodward (2001) provides a new viewpoint regarding a more flexible approach to planning that considers modern lesson patterns. Woodward‟s work on lesson planning does help teachers to cast a more critical eye on lesson plans devised by themselves and others. She also argues that teachers have their own beliefs on learningprocess, which influences the way they plan classes. Some of them have a more traditional view, with inflexible procedures determined to ensure the goals can be achieved, resulting a rigid planning. To reinforce this, she describes what she calls „the traditional view‟ lesson plan. Thereby, the more direct experience teachers have with lesson planning, the more they will learn about the importance of this issue. Inthe same way, teachers will be able to notice the importance of reflecting upon their own teaching, planning lessons, either formally for an observation or for their own benefit. Consequently, the main purpose of a lesson plan is to allow the teacher to consider how best to facilitate learningin their classroom. Additionally, this step can give teachers the time and a framework to ensure that they can produce quality lessons.
conclusion is that motivation is the main factor that affects the choice of the strategies, followed by experience in studying English, and gender respectively. Moreover, Kirkpatrick and Jianrattanapong (2012) conducted a research in Bangkok. The purpose of the study was to investigate factors contributing to Englishlearning success of Thai students at the leading high schools in Bangkok. The instrument used for collecting data was a questionnaire. This questionnaire consisted of close-ended and open-ended questions using likert scale with 5 = strongly agree, 4 = agree, 3 = neutral, 2 = disagree, 1 = strongly disagree. The questionnaire included general views on: theEnglish teachers, attitudes to English and culture, the use of learning strategies, outsi de class learning activities, students’ backgrou nd, and personality traits . The questionnaire also included respondent’s information such as personal information of gender, type of school, program, practice, skills, experience abroad, effects from the entrance examination, etc. Kirkpatrick and Jianrattanapong ’ conclusion is thatthefactors leading to success inlearningEnglish include teachers, attitudes toward English and its culture, activities outside the classroom, personality traits, and students’ background .
relationships with others. All individuals need to get help from one another. Thus, cooperative learning models stress group dynamics and encourage healthy and positive relationships with peers. Aronson (1980) holds that cooperative learning skills can be readily transferred and applied by students in real situations beyond the classroom, producing positive and productive interaction between peers that is essential to learning. And for the development of socialization, he says that, inlearning tasks, each individual student must interact with other teammates, the result being the students' active involvement in cooperative efforts. This implies that cooperative learning is a very powerful instructional method. In this sense, it is very common that teacher places dedicated students into those groups with low participation. All students should participate, however, it is a problem for introverted learners who prefer to work alone because their learning style is more independent. According to Rodgers (1988), some of the features of Cooperative languagelearning includes the creation of positive relationships among students, the attractive and interesting tasks that provide an
A similar point of view is exposed by Savage & Savage (2010), for whom high number of students in a space is known as a student density. According to them the high student density in reduced spaces increases levels of anxiety, conflict and social interaction among learners. Moreover, students who do not work well alone tend to misbehave to obtain more attention from their teachers. Therefore, it is exhausting and difficult for teachers to work in overcrowded classrooms because they confront behavior problems and low levels of attention very frequently. In order to avoid that teachers and students feel stressed out in overcrowded classrooms, Mergen (n. d.) indicates, “The room needs a focus for the teacher's instruction and students need to be able to move around easily. The room must be spacious enough to accommodate everyone and allow for reconfiguring desks while maintaining clear lines of visibility ”. Therefore, it is necessary to have enough space for accommodating students without affecting lines of visibility. In addition, the author explains thatthe position of elements inthe classroom must be arranged in such a way that promotes effective learning.
International relationships are constantly opening doors and linking nations and societies; it also presents diverse and creative contributions in economic, educational, cultural, and social fields. Inthe same way, it generates opportunities to get to know and be known around the world. In consequence, different communities had been motivated to evaluate English proficiency levels and programs offered to their population- students, teachers and professionals- in order to take action to improve these; or just to take a step forward inthe pursuit to reach excellence.
Given that every single language-teaching method contributes to teaching a languagein a different and sometimes in an integrated way, just like the communicative languageteaching, the grammar translation method, total-physical response, content- based instruction and task-based instruction do. These approaches are indispensable to know because they provide the teacher with a view of how thelanguageteaching functions, and they can be adapted to teachers` practices based on their own needs. In order to understand the fundamental nature of methods inlanguageteaching, it is good to conceptualize the notion of each method mentioned before, more systematically. One method is the communicative languageteaching, which is best defined as an approach rather than a method. Learners who are taught through this approach are to use language to communicate, which is very important inthe linguistic context as well as inthe social one; that is, communicative languageteaching uses real-life situations that necessitate communication to learn the target language. Quotidian real moments thatthe pupils are probably going to encounter are taken to teach language through this method. Then, its characteristics compile the use of topics which are interesting and daily to them, and because those topics vary, the meaning is thought to be gotten in
observes, as the teacher who is being observed. The student teacher may "over prepare" for a visit by the supervisor in order to show the best of one. The teacher may also feel tense knowing thatthe observer is there to evaluate how well he/she is doing. Teacher may find the presence of supervisor distracts. Teaching is a complex and dynamic activity, and during a lesson many things occur simultaneously, so it is not possible to observe all of them. The presence of an observer inthe classroom sometimes influences the nature of the lesson, making the lesson untypical of the teacher's usual style of teaching, so teacher should discuss this with the observer both before and after an observation.
Another study conducted by Alsayed (2003) aimed to examine some factors and determine their correlation with success in second languagelearning: attitude, instrumental and intrinsic motivation, social background, early first language acquisition and early exposure to the second language. Researchers picked up 50 subjects from the British Council Records on the basis of their IELTS test scores. 25 subjects have gotten mark seven out of nine or above on the exam, and 25 have gotten five and below inthe IELTS during the years 2000/2001. The main research tool inthe present study was a semi- structured interview that was held with each participant. The interviews lasted almost 10 minutes each. To prevent any inhibition, the researcher took notes and interviewees were encouraged to talk spontaneously. Results were analyzed using statistics to find out the correlation between each variable and the four skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking).
students evaluate their success and progress. On the other hand, Nunan (1991) describes a negative feedback which consists exclusively of the teacher repeating the student´s response with a raising intonation. All students, even low proficiency students such as the ones taking part in this lesson have no trouble recognizing this as a phonologically marked cue indicating that an incorrect response has been given. Additionally, time management is an important part inthe development of the lesson, Glasgow &. Hicks (2009) suggest that teachers need to have excellent time management skills students learn effectively; the teacher has to distinguish between time allocated for instruction and engaged learning time when estimating how much time it will take for students to learn a particular set of material. It´s the time
whiteboard or magnetized boards. They use many types of rods; picture packs; the music tape / the CD player; and of course they have a huge variety of textbooks. This is considered by many professionals as the most obvious and most common form of material support for language instruction. But there are also audiovisual aids, videos on DVD format with documentaries on special topics, specific ESL instructional modules; there are others such as audio-visual aids; realia, that consist of objects-food items, cosmetics, tools, and other materials that always add some significant reality to the classroom. Computer assisted languagelearning (CALL): Commercial textbook come with audio-visual and CD ROM plus the computer equipment existing in all institutions are valuable resources for languageclassrooms, among others. To sum up there are a lot of materials teachers can use in classes. However, the most important thing about resources is that how effectively teachers are able to use them to increase students’ abilities inEFL.
About classroom and/or teaching resources, Nagaraj (2005) and Haycraft (1978) say that there are some kinds of didactic resources used inEnglishteaching such as: blackboard, flash cards , picture cards, wall charts ( presenting: grammatical tenses, drills), pictures for oral compositions ( descriptions of stories), overhead projector (save time), slides ( present images), films ( improve theEnglishlanguage comprehension), tape recorder ( practice to improve listening skills), language laboratory (practices through technology), realia (real objects), tape recorder, (listening and reading exercises), television (influential tool).
The main objective of this project is to determine the principal “FactorsthatinfluencetheEnglishlanguageteaching-learningprocessin Ecuadorian private high schools” in order to improve theEnglish education quality in Ecuador. The study tends to achieve B2 teachers English level for the purpose of upgrading their ability inteachingEnglish. The Ministry of Education will offer training programs for teachers who have not reached the standards, which are needed to teach English successfully. It means a B2 level, according to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) (SENESCYT, 2012), which includes six levels of proficiency which range from A1 to C2. A1 and A2 levels correspond to Basic Englishlanguage level users, who are capable to narrate their personal experiences using basic vocabulary and simple tenses. Besides they can interact in a simple way.
On the other hand, Harmer, J. (1998) mentioned that there are many forms of arranging the class, these are: circles, separate tables, orderly row, and groupings. The first, circles, a circle of desks puts every student inthe front row. Second, orderly row imply teachers working with the whole class. Some activities are especially designed to this kind of organization: explaining a grammar point, watching a video, using the board, demonstrating text organization on an overhead transparency which shows a paragraph, for example. It is also useful when students are involved in certain kinds of language practice. If all the students are focused on a task, the whole class gets the same messages. Third, grouping mean putting desks in small groups so that students face each other. This is ideal for group activities. Groups can be dynamic, changing based on the activity, or constant. Form groups carefully by mixing students with differing strengths and weaknesses, genders and skill levels. It is occasionally beneficial to form skill groups with students of similar abilities.
Each part of the lesson must be complete according to the plan so the teacher must tell students how much time they have for a specific activity and they must finish it according to that. Instructions must be clear and logical. Feedback is not possible in all the classes but it helps to correct mistakes. As Spratt, Pulverness and Williams (2005) argue, feedback is really important because it helps learners to understand what their problems are and how to improve their learning. In some classes according to the observations teachers should control discipline in a better way. Tomlinson and Imbeau (2010) claim teachers can control discipline by using direct instructions, monitoring the class, with positive discipline, clear instructions and having the attention of everyone before starting the lesson.
comfortable with the number of students in their classrooms. The rest of teachers representing 37 % of the group of 15 teachers claimed they were comfortable with the number of students they had to work with. This last group has a reason why they said it; those teachers had groups with less than 20 students. There is a direct relationship between the number of students in a classroom and the rate of success a teacher will have in having students learn according to the number of students in a classroom. The reduced number of students gives ample options of activities, as well as a more personalized focus on students’ needs and individual traits to help the teacher teach better. Savage and Savage (2010) claim the teacher-student ratio needs to be considered as well as the student density ratio for a successful class.
From 6 monitored institutions, 2 had smart board systems intheclassrooms. It was surprising to find out that it was troublesome for some teachers to work with this powerful resource. Teachers felt that they did not have enough training to use this technology device. Some teachers appeared to be afraid of technology. It was difficult to face and to understand that teachers were provided with these sophisticated devices and even though they were not familiar to its operation so that they preferred to use material that was more familiar to them. This makes evident that teachers who are provided with this resources need to be trained so they can use technology properly and get the maximum benefit from this useful tools which enhance the students’ learningprocess.
Abu-Rabia (1996) conducted other a research to determine how students’ attitudes and cultural backgrounds affect their reading comprehension of familiar and unfamiliar information in their first and second language. Eighty three students from two intermediate schools in southern Israel participated inthe study. Most of the participants in both schools were from families of low socioeconomic status, and they studied English 5 hours a week. The method used was quantitative. Data was collected through reading tests and questionnaires. During the research process, the participants completed a 15-rain pretest about the stories they were to read inthe investigation. A week after the pretest, the participants were administered a 20-rain questionnaire to assess their attitudes toward learningEnglish. The reading tests were administered 2 days later; each group of participants received one story a day for 3 days.