recommended by Merriam (1998). Data was initially coded to identify emerging themes about the participant’s language use, learning experiences, and affective factors. After that, he identified the recurrent characteristics of his language use and learning, also the individual and social-contextual factorsthat were emerging in relation to those recurrent characteristics, establishing connections between them on the basis of a logical chain of evidence classes, a literacy volunteer’s place, and on other social occasions during which he used English. For purposes of triangulation, the data was collected from multiple sources. A member check was also conducted by taking tentative findings and interpretations to the participant and asking him if they were plausible. As a means of peer evaluation, he frequently asked colleagues to comment on the findings as they emerged. In order to identify the researcher’s biases, the researcher’s assumptions were clarified at the outset of the study. In addition, he found out that Social-contextual factors also influenced his learning and use of ESL includes the following: Lack of contact with native speakers influenced his language-learning,
Savage (1999) proposed that arranging the physical environment of the classroom is one way to improve thelearning environment and to prevent problem behaviors before they occur. Research on the classroom environment has shown thatthe physical arrangement can affect the behavior of both students and teachers and that a well-structured classroom tends to improve student academic and behavioral outcomes (Walker & Walker, 1991). To reinforce this affirmation, Savage (1999) suggests that classrooms should be organized to accommodate a variety of activities throughout the day and to meet the teacher‟s instructional goals, for instance if a classroom is not properly organized to support the type of schedule and activities a teacher has planned, it can impede the functioning of the class as well as limit theteachingprocess and what and how students learn. Therefore, we could conclude that a well-arranged classroom environment is one way to more effectively manage instruction because it causes fewer behavior problems and establishes a good environment.
conclusion is that motivation is the main factor that affects the choice of the strategies, followed by experience in studying English, and gender respectively. Moreover, Kirkpatrick and Jianrattanapong (2012) conducted a research in Bangkok. The purpose of the study was to investigate factors contributing to English learning success of Thai students at the leading high schools in Bangkok. The instrument used for collecting data was a questionnaire. This questionnaire consisted of close-ended and open-ended questions using likert scale with 5 = strongly agree, 4 = agree, 3 = neutral, 2 = disagree, 1 = strongly disagree. The questionnaire included general views on: the English teachers, attitudes to English and culture, the use of learning strategies, outsi de class learning activities, students’ backgrou nd, and personality traits . The questionnaire also included respondent’s information such as personal information of gender, type of school, program, practice, skills, experience abroad, effects from the entrance examination, etc. Kirkpatrick and Jianrattanapong ’ conclusion is thatthefactors leading to success in learning English include teachers, attitudes toward English and its culture, activities outside the classroom, personality traits, and students’ background .
Amy (2003) states that teachers are coordinators outside and inside the classrooms and at this point their main objective in the classroom instruction is to encourage the students to use the target language with native speakers outside the classroom. Additionally, time is very important in thelearningprocess in order to ensure the students spend only the time needed in each task, in this way the time is not wasted; the teacher should bring an alarm clock to the class to give the students a time limit when they are working on tasks. Furthermore, feedback is very important in thelearningprocess; its main purpose is to achieve the improvement and self- awareness. The teacher has a great responsibility because by providing continuous feedback students will be benefit; for example, they can evaluate their progress and success. There are different forms of feedback such as giving tutorials to the students, extra homework, projects and others.
Additionally, Richards & Rodger (2001) state that CLT is based on a group of significant tasks. In this method the students participate in an environment of collaboration and exchanging of information where the teacher guides this activity but it results a bit difficult for the students with lack of grammar knowledge. Kiymazarslan (1995) and Richards & Rodgers (2001) state thatthe natural approach is based on natural principles for language acquisition through three stages: Pre-production stage, early production stage, and the speech emergent phase. NA focuses on the exposure or input instead of practice. This method uses thelanguage in communicative situations without the use of native language. Moreover, the students are not asked to talk until they are ready to do it but they receive and perform different commands.
A teacher in an observed class commented a method that has been successful for her. She teaches with literary works comprising book, CDs, and DVDs. First, students read the book, several pages in each class. Second, they listen to the audio. Third, they answer questions about the topic and draw scenes related to the story according to their interpretation of the theme. Finally, they watch the movie. At this stage the students fully understand the storyline and make corrections in their
Harmer (1998) states some of the principal learning skills that may be affected by a large number of students; even though for listening comprehension or reading lessons, class size is not a real obstacle, for speaking and writing lessons do present serious problems because teachers do not have enough time to check all of the activities, and due to the group is really big, classroom management will become a real problem for the teacher, especially if it is an inexperienced teacher. Regarding this topic Snow (2006) also states thatthe main purpose of speaking practice is to have students work in pairs and small groups rather than having dialogues with the teacher and in big classes; they may not have the opportunity to make sure and check if students are in fact using thelanguage while they are not near them. He also claims that concerning writing classes, correction may become a big issue for teachers, since they will have to respond to each piece of writing done by the students.
The second study was carried out by Khamkhien (2010) to determine how gender, motivation, and experience in English learning affect Vietnamese and Thai students’ languagelearning. To gather the necessary data, participants were evaluated with a SILL test designed by Oxford and they also answered some questionnaires in order to know their English background. The results showed that motivation was a significant factor that influenced students’ choice of learning strategies. In the same way, female students reported to have better strategies than males. Finally, Vietnamese students performed better in communicative strategies than Thai learners because they were taught to use Communicative Languageteaching. In conclusion, the researchers considered that motivation was the most important factor affecting students’ choices in languagelearning. Therefore, the i nvestigators recommended teachers to take into account students’ motivation in order to design learning tasks.
Content-based instruction is also based on the theory thatlanguage proficiency derives from integrating the four language skills: reading, writing, speaking and listening. During a CBI lesson students for example read articles, communicate with each other, write about their findings, listen to others and take notes, thereby using all of the four language skills together. According to Nunan (2003), “this reflects what happens in the real world, where interactions involve multiple skills simultaneously”. Language proficiency involves both social and grammatical understanding; people need to be able to modify their language from formal to informal, oral to written depending on what is required in different situations. It is important thatthe content be interesting and relevant to the students (Nunan, 2003), because they will enjoy lessons more this way and become more motivated. Language is learned most effectively when it is used as a way to pass on information of interest to the students (Larsen-Freeman, 2000). While they learn about a certain issue in a specific language, they also learn practical use of thelanguage. It is easier for language learners to acquire new vocabulary when there are contextual clues to help convey meaning (Larsen- Freeman, 2000). Experts agree that students learn a foreign language better when focusing on specific material instead of continually focusing on the structure of thelanguage itself. However, it might be useful to do so from time to time, building on students' background knowledge of their first language (Larsen-Freeman, 2000). The aim is for students to be able to use and understand the target language without needing to translate everything from, and into, their first language.
In contrast, with this concept Stansfield (1989) states aptitude for learning such as “the amount of time it takes an individual to learn the task in question.” He mentions Carroll (1962) who explains that learner’s aptitude has four cognitive abilities. The first one is phonetic coding which is the recognizing, relationship and retaining of distinct sounds. The second one is grammatical sensivity, where the students are capable to distinguish grammatical functions of words and structures. The third one is the rote learning ability; it is a sort of overall memory where some learners apply it in a different way during foreign language circumstances.
whiteboard or magnetized boards. They use many types of rods; picture packs; the music tape / the CD player; and of course they have a huge variety of textbooks. This is considered by many professionals as the most obvious and most common form of material support for language instruction. But there are also audiovisual aids, videos on DVD format with documentaries on special topics, specific ESL instructional modules; there are others such as audio-visual aids; realia, that consist of objects-food items, cosmetics, tools, and other materials that always add some significant reality to the classroom. Computer assisted languagelearning (CALL): Commercial textbook come with audio-visual and CD ROM plus the computer equipment existing in all institutions are valuable resources for language classrooms, among others. To sum up there are a lot of materials teachers can use in classes. However, the most important thing about resources is that how effectively teachers are able to use them to increase students’ abilities in EFL.
The Natural Method is another term for what by 1900 had become known as the Direct Method. The Modern Language Associatio n in 1901 says about this that “In its extreme form the method consisted of a series of monologues by the teacher interspersed with exchanges of questions and answer between the instructor and the pupil, all in the foreign language. A great deal of pantomime accompanied the talk. Which the aid of this gesticulation, by attentive listening and by dint of much repetition the learner came to associate certain acts and objects with certain combinations of the sounds and finally reached the point of reproducing the foreign words or phrases ” .
Feedback is often given soon after the teacher finishes their class. It can be oral or written, individual or a form of a group discussion. It is used to recognize the students’ strengths and weakness and is open to suggestions for any improvement. Most teachers write down points that they want to refer to later; some like to use charts or other forms of categorization to help them do this. For example, the teacher should give an assessment of an activity, ask the students to explain what they found easiest or most difficult, or what they can remember about the problem and then whether they can put it right. Teachers can also write correct and incorrect words, phrases or sentences on the board and ask the students to decide which is which.
One of the most important aspects during the class is giving instructions, according to Harmer (2007), the best activity in the world is a waste of time if the students don´t understand what it is they are supposed to do and there are two general rules for giving instructions, these must be kept as simple as possible, and must be logical. Harmer also claims that when teachers give instructions, it is important for them to check thatthe students have understood what they are being asked to do. This can be achieved either by asking a student to explain the activity after the teacher has given the instruction or by getting someone to show the other people in the class how the exercise works. Similarly, Dixie (2003), recommends relating teacher´s instructions to: How you want the pupils to participate in the activity or procedure – what you expect them to do and how you expect the pupils to behave in order to be successful in the activity.
conversations in English, watch English language TV shows or go to movies spoken in English, first skim an English passage then go back and read carefully, and try not to translate word-for-word. The participants rarely say or write new English words several times while they are learning English. Moreover, they use each strategy to compensate for missing knowledge almost at the same frequency level. They make guesses to understand unfamiliar English words, use gestures, read English without looking up every new word, try to guess what the other person will say next in English, and use the synonyms of the words they cannot think of.
Another study conducted by Alsayed (2003) aimed to examine some factors and determine their correlation with success in second languagelearning: attitude, instrumental and intrinsic motivation, social background, early first language acquisition and early exposure to the second language. Researchers picked up 50 subjects from the British Council Records on the basis of their IELTS test scores. 25 subjects have gotten mark seven out of nine or above on the exam, and 25 have gotten five and below in the IELTS during the years 2000/2001. The main research tool in the present study was a semi- structured interview that was held with each participant. The interviews lasted almost 10 minutes each. To prevent any inhibition, the researcher took notes and interviewees were encouraged to talk spontaneously. Results were analyzed using statistics to find out the correlation between each variable and the four skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking).
Each part of the lesson must be complete according to the plan so the teacher must tell students how much time they have for a specific activity and they must finish it according to that. Instructions must be clear and logical. Feedback is not possible in all the classes but it helps to correct mistakes. As Spratt, Pulverness and Williams (2005) argue, feedback is really important because it helps learners to understand what their problems are and how to improve their learning. In some classes according to the observations teachers should control discipline in a better way. Tomlinson and Imbeau (2010) claim teachers can control discipline by using direct instructions, monitoring the class, with positive discipline, clear instructions and having the attention of everyone before starting the lesson.
comfortable with the number of students in their classrooms. The rest of teachers representing 37 % of the group of 15 teachers claimed they were comfortable with the number of students they had to work with. This last group has a reason why they said it; those teachers had groups with less than 20 students. There is a direct relationship between the number of students in a classroom and the rate of success a teacher will have in having students learn according to the number of students in a classroom. The reduced number of students gives ample options of activities, as well as a more personalized focus on students’ needs and individual traits to help the teacher teach better. Savage and Savage (2010) claim the teacher-student ratio needs to be considered as well as the student density ratio for a successful class.
From 6 monitored institutions, 2 had smart board systems in the classrooms. It was surprising to find out that it was troublesome for some teachers to work with this powerful resource. Teachers felt that they did not have enough training to use this technology device. Some teachers appeared to be afraid of technology. It was difficult to face and to understand that teachers were provided with these sophisticated devices and even though they were not familiar to its operation so that they preferred to use material that was more familiar to them. This makes evident that teachers who are provided with this resources need to be trained so they can use technology properly and get the maximum benefit from this useful tools which enhance the students’ learningprocess.
Abu-Rabia (1996) conducted other a research to determine how students’ attitudes and cultural backgrounds affect their reading comprehension of familiar and unfamiliar information in their first and second language. Eighty three students from two intermediate schools in southern Israel participated in the study. Most of the participants in both schools were from families of low socioeconomic status, and they studied English 5 hours a week. The method used was quantitative. Data was collected through reading tests and questionnaires. During the research process, the participants completed a 15-rain pretest about the stories they were to read in the investigation. A week after the pretest, the participants were administered a 20-rain questionnaire to assess their attitudes toward learning English. The reading tests were administered 2 days later; each group of participants received one story a day for 3 days.