The results analyzed inthe Discussion Section indicate thatthe perception of colleagues’ opinion about Wikipedia and the perceived quality ofthe information on Wikipedia play a central role in our model. Though previous studies had already emphasized quality concerns as one ofthe main determinants for faculty practices and attitudes about Wikipedia, colleagues’ views were not considered particularly important. Our model supports a remarkable influenceof colleagues’ perceived opinion on the quality assessment ofWikipedia articles: the more one thinks colleagues share a positive view, the more articles are perceived to be of better quality and the more Wikipedia is found to be useful. Usefulness is in fact directly conditioned both by quality perception and by the social image it is believed to have. Finally, colleagues’ opinions are also directly affecting the intention to useWikipedia for teaching purposes. All in all, colleagues seem to act as strong role models for most faculty members on this issue, which may also be a consequence ofthe resilient peer culture within academia and science.
In fact, theuseof cooperative learning, project work and group work in postsecondary education is now actively encouraged by the EHEA Bologna Process, since learning is both and individual and social activity. However, there is no research that has looked at the effect on the quality of student-student interactions, particularly with respect to late, late immersion CLIL. We have very little information about how highereducation students interact and learn from one another in this context, insights which would help to find strategies that can help professors to help students overcome the limitations ofthe classroom environment, which does hamper interlanguage development. Moreover, the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) and the European Space for HigherEducation (ESHE) emphasize an active students’ role; as Dieter Wolff notes CLIL is about “learning by construction, rather than learning by instruction” (as quoted in García, 2009, p. 213), and we can get a feel for the extent to which the essence of CLIL is realized in practice and energize it by considering the following four questions that Mehisto, et al. (2008, p.211) suggests:
instruction followed by the collection ofthe required data, an interpretation and an analysis ofthe results were conducted to draw many conclusions. From these, it was acknowledged that a majority of English teachers working in New York State school districts hold masters or higher degrees in English education. Most teachers in New York schools are well-trained and employed current methodologies based on communicational and group procedures for second language instruction. A great number of classrooms are spacious and well equipped with advanced technologies. Student’s perception ofthe learning process is optimistic and motivated. It can also be stated that institutions are involved in teachers’ and learners’ progress. Hence, in general, these factors had great influence on the results of English teaching and learning and in most cases, with outstanding outcomes.
The students were given approximately 15 min to write the composition and were asked to use approximately 150 words. Finally, a group of students were chosen randomly from each group to perform an oral activity. The researcher called the students one by one and asked them to leave the class (where the instructor continued teaching) and follow her into a separate area in order to perform the activity. An important conclusion that can be reached from comparing the findings of this study and previous studies on the time factor is that time increase is generally, whereas time concentration alone usually leads to more modest gains. Still, those gains are superior in many L2 areas to those obtained by learners attending programs that distribute the hours of classroom practice over long periods of time. In adult classroom EFL, the knowledge that learners need to acquire in their classes has to be practiced (or retrieved) regularly in order for such knowledge to become retained.
Nowadays, there are many benefits of using technology inthe classroom especially as students become increasingly digitally literate. This increasing focus on technology usein a classroom and the different ways that today learners communicate have impacted how computers and any other technological device are used inthe classroom in order to prepare students to meet the demands ofthe 21 st century. In fact, these technology tools have also been used to extend classroom communication outside the classroom. In others words, today with a single laptop, an android phone, a projector and an internet connection a teacher can make the class more enjoyable, save time, thus giving students authentic and meaningful learning experiences. As a result of it, students gain an awareness ofthe importance and the value of communication.
Graph 20 shows that thirty seven percent of teachers are monitored once a month, the nineteen percent of them once a week and the forty four percent of them without a specific date, some teachers mentioned that they are monitored every day and others mentioned two or three times a month. Wallace (1995) mentions thatthe supervisor is the authority to evaluate theteaching process and to give better alternatives for teaching, the observation provides teachers the necessary support and feedback with the purpose to help teachers to understand how to get better results in their teaching process. It offers the opportunity to assess the progress of both teachers and students, and often provides an indication of what to re-teach or practice further. Wallace (1995) also describes general supervision that refers to what might be called the ´administrative´ aspects of supervision or ´out of class´ supervision. It is therefore concerned with such issues as curriculum, syllabus and the overall management structure ofeducation both outside and within the school. Clinical supervision, on the other hand, is concerned with what goes on inside the classroom. It refers to contact with teachers with the intent of improving instruction and increasing growth.
On the other hand, in other observed classes, the teachers taught their classes just according to the contents ofthe course book, but without preparing extra activities for them. Among this group of teachers, it was observed that none of them had a written lesson plans. However, when they were surveyed about their lesson plans, all of them answered that they had prepared them in advance. Thus, it is important, as Fink (2005) states, theuseof lesson plans. This author defines them as “the instructor’s road map of what students need to learn and how it will be done effectively during the class time.”
What teachers acquire abroad will help them to improve their knowledge intheuseof methodologies and approaches which play an important role intheteaching- learning process. Richards & Rodgers (2001) express that for some scholars Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) goes beyond the mere putting together grammar and functional teaching. Although this thought is not shared by others who believe that it is simply theuseof techniques that make students work together. What it is agreed is that this method connects two groups in an action/reaction process, that is, one side creates a situation that commits the other side to interact.
Griffith and Kocsis (2010) suggested that there are seven essential parts in lesson design: title, pre-assessment, objective, techniques and sequencing, motivation, evaluation and follow-up, and classroom management. The title allows to know and give an overview about the lesson. The pre-assessment means that teacher has to know the students’ prior knowledge on the subject before continuing with the lesson. The objective draws on that teacher must have a clear purpose about how to teach English appropriately and how to get students to capture his explanations. Additionally, teacher has to bear in mind that each lesson almost always has secondary goals. It means that teacher has to have students develop skills about vocabulary, listening, speaking, and writing. The development of social skills like teamwork and politeness, and the development of a quantitative thinking are important too. On the other hand, theuseof techniques and sequencing provide a great help to teacher. These include activities, demonstrations, questions, and reinforcements. Theuseof audiovisual aids, materials, grouping, etc., are also used here. Following with the parts of a lesson design, the motivation is very important. The motivation means that teacher has to motivate students by looking for attractive activities since through these ones, students will be able to learn the lessons more easily and quickly. Into the lesson design, it is also
The Ecuadorian Ministry ofEducation (MinEduc, 2012) indicates thatthe English language has multiple purposes such as communicating, reading, writing, and as well as getting scholarships, travelling to universities abroad, and getting a high level competence. Moreover, The MinEduc outlines a Communicative Approach distinguished as the most recognized and accepted norm for teaching and learning English nowadays since it helps students to improve their communicative language skills. Furthermore, The MinEduc reveals that English language teaching and learning is widely taught and is no longer viewed as the property of English speaking countries. It means that English is the language of globalization used for international communication, commerce trade, science, media, and pop culture. Additionally, it is necessary to comment thatthe TOEFL has been approved by The MinEduc (2012) to evaluate the students’ language skills. As it is known, the language skills are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The MinEduc also promotes the evaluation of teachers so that they can offer students a better English teaching approach.
teachers should note thatthe important thing in utilizing instructional materials is not how many of them are utilized in a lesson but how well they are arranged to be able to bring about better learning effectively. There are also other essential resources for the continued success of students which can arouse the students‟ interest during the class. Teachers can use, for example, visual aids, such as whiteboards or chalkboards, charts, maps, flash cards, and calendars. Presentation tools such as bulletin boards, audiovisual equipment, and overhead projectors are also utilized frequently along with multimedia displays and computers which have become popular teaching aids, but overhead projectors still have a place inthe classroom.
education and updated technical classes appropriate to their level of learning. It is necessary to consider that if teachers are more qualified, students will have more opportunities to receive higher quality education. It would be beneficial that a great deal of private high schools teachers may have access to scholarships offered by the Ecuadorian government. As stated by Woolfolk (2007, p.15) “Most teachers, with experience, hard work, and good support, may experiment with new methods or materials and focus on the students´ needs”. Moreover, teachers should
As it is illustrated inthe graph above, the 93% ofthe sample (fourteen teachers) use whole-group activities to teach their lessons in large classes. Harmer (1998) mentions that it is much easier for students to share an emotion such as happiness or amusement in a whole- class setting. Inthe same way, teachers think that students can become more productive and get easily involved intheteaching process if they work in groups; since sharing their own ideas in a group can help them to come up with their own conclusions. Likewise, students claimed that whole group activities allow them to interact with their classmates and to obtain productive lessons because the activities are enjoyable and varied; they like to participate inthe classroom and they also enjoy developing the activities proposed by the teacher.
The second study was carried out by Khamkhien (2010) to determine how gender, motivation, and experience in English learning affect Vietnamese and Thai students’ language learning. To gather the necessary data, participants were evaluated with a SILL test designed by Oxford and they also answered some questionnaires in order to know their English background. The results showed that motivation was a significant factor that influenced students’ choice of learning strategies. Inthe same way, female students reported to have better strategies than males. Finally, Vietnamese students performed better in communicative strategies than Thai learners because they were taught to use Communicative Language teaching. In conclusion, the researchers considered that motivation was the most important factor affecting students’ choices in language learning. Therefore, the i nvestigators recommended teachers to take into account students’ motivation in order to design learning tasks.
considered appropriate for teaching English. However, while supplementary materials were based on exhibitions for the whole class such posters containing vocabulary, computers were used only by the teacher to look up for meanings on internet. All this affected students` learning since students could not gain access to computers in order to look up meanings of words rapidly, they had to look up them inthe dictionary instead. Then, two more teachers stated that they used teaching resources according their students´ ages. It was observed that these teachers had selected appropriate teaching resources for the lesson such; flashcards for teachingin 8 th of basic, or medicine articles with many pictures for teachingin 2 nd undergraduate. Students got more motivated and eager to repeat each single word after the teacher when flash cards and pictures were showed. Although these materials were used in less than ten minutes, students asked the teacher to show again the pictures in order to remember the words easier. Therefore, it is clear evidence thatthe more teachers use resources such supplementary materials in classes, the more eager students are to learn vocabulary.
However, inthe observed classes it was found that teachers placed more emphasis in studying and following the contents and activities from the book, which are mostly resolve individually than group activities. However, in few classes was observed group work and group presentations, although the instructions were not clear, causing confusion and disorder. Therefore, the data expressed on the graph does not agree with the field observations, because the activities carried out in class did not involve, inthe great majority ofthe cases, group interaction. On the contrary, students were limited to individual performance. If there was any effort of group work, it was only in a couple of classes. In addition to this, inthe student’s questionnai res, it was found that most of them consider that their teachers make use
Larsen and Freeman (2004, p. 18) suggest thatthe purpose of language learning is communication; therefore, students need to learn how to ask questions as well as how to answer them. Richards (2001) agrees with most of characteristics that Larsen and Freeman (2004) state. This author defines as a main characteristic of this method theuseof vocabulary and forming of sentences. For example, students must write many sentences using the new vocabulary that teacher explains during the class. While doing this activity they can remember the meaning and in what context they can use these new words. According to Richards (2001), this method was successful between 1980 and 1990 in private schools where parents could pay for well-qualified teachers that obtained their degrees inthe best universities around the world in comparison with public schools, where parents could not pay a lot of money to hire a teacher with the same level of knowledge.
One hundred percent of teachers according to the questionnaires use whole-group activities for the students to interact with the whole class, to encourage fluency, to explain new ideas, to play some motivating games and to summarize a lesson. Cooper (1993) suggested that students learn more from whole class teaching which involves explanations and questioning techniques. Using whole class activities teachers organize students in such a way to make all of them participate together. The larger the group more variety there is in ideas, opinions and experiences which can contribute to the learning process. Whole class activities ensure teacher’s access to all students. It works
In eliciting, the main point ofthe class has to be inferred; many activities can be use d to achieve the class’ purpose being the most useful role-plays, guessing games, among others. In correction, accuracy in students is promoted since the main goal is to promote communication skills. This technique emphasizes the correction of mispronounced words known as mistakes which normally happen because students do not have clear idea ofthe meaning of new words or when they are not sure about the proper situation to use this vocabulary. Furthermore, Gower et al. (1983) state that correction is an essential technique that teachers must use if they want to avoid learners to get accustomed to making mistakes as if it were normal. These authors suggest that teacher be careful when correcting mistakes to prevent students resulted demotivated. Managing Learning
Followe rs of this method think that “by analyzing the grammar and by finding equivalents between the student’s language and language to be studied, the students will learn how the foreign language is constructed” , Harmer (1998, p.30). For this reason special attention is given to the deep analysis of grammar rules. Students are often asked to translate sentences and texts, and to memorize vocabulary through bilingual list of words which is a very tedious experience for them. It is known that learners use translation as way of understanding the language at various stages of learning, but concentrating in grammar only; as stated by Harmer (1998), does not give students opportunities to activate language knowledge.