We thank Dr. Oliver S. Flint, Jr., National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Insti- tution, for bringing these newand interesting polycentropodids to our attention. Maria Lourdes Chamorro-Lacayo, University of Minnesota, provided valuable assistance in determining the identity of the new Polyplectropus and sharing her views on polycen- tropodid relationships. We thank Dr. Roger J. Blahnik, University of Minnesota, for his helpful comments during the preparation of this manuscript. We also appreciate the com- ments of two anonymous reviewers. The senior author gratefully acknowledges the sup- port of the Center for Field Biology, Austin Peay State University, for support during trips to Minnesota to work on Neotropical polycentropodids. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. 9971885 and 0117772. Additional support was provided by the University of Minnesota Insect Collection under projects AES MIN-17-014 and 017. This support is gratefully acknowledged.
Chao of the Institute of Statistics, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, in honor of her support for conservation of Fundacion EcoMinga, whose Rio Zuñac Reserve in Ecuador now protects the site where this species was originally discovered. It is also appropriate to name this species in honor of Dr. Chao for her groundbreaking work on the estimation of the number of undetected species in an ecosystem, and for her other important work on the mathematics of biodiversity.
including a petiole 2–9 mm long, conduplicate, with two ribs parallel and close to the entire margin of the blade, mucronate apex, with an apiculus nested inside the leaf, 2.0–2.8 mm wide. Inflorescence loose, erect to suberect, terete, flexuous, distichous, successively few-flowered raceme with up to two translucent saffron-colored flowers, raceme up to 115 mm long; borne by a slender peduncle 11–25 mm long arising laterally from the ramicaul; floral bracts thin, acute, conduplicate, to 1 mm long; slightly deflexed pedicels 2.5–5.5 × 0.18 mm. Ovary smooth, short, ridged with 6 ridges, to 0.45 × 0.30 mm. Sepals translucent saffron-colored sometimes centrally suffused with lilac and intense sulphur-colored at the apex with clavate cilia at the margins, one veined, elliptical; dorsal sepal ovate and concave in the lower half or third, 1.6–2.6 mm long, with an acuminate apex, 0.6–
that grows up to 2 cm including the inflorescence (vs. 6 cm tall), a denser and shorter inflorescence which is up to 1.3 cm long (vs. a stingy inflorescence up to 5 cm long), with 1.0-2.0 mm long pedicels (pedicels 2.5-7.0 mm long), with less than 5 mm between each one (distance between pedicels 2.0-5.0 mm long), and smaller flowers with sepals and petals up to 2.3 mm long (vs. up to 3.5 mm long), and the lip up to about 1.5 mm long (vs. 2.5 mm long). From the Guatemalan type material of P. oxyglossa, P. catiensis can be distinguished by the shorter (2.2-2.3 mm), shortly acuminate and marginally glandular sepals (vs. sepals 2.5 mm, long acuminate, glabrous), the petals and lip are longer, subequal to the sepals, the petal margin is glandular, while the lip is elliptic, and completely glandular-hirsute, especially near the apex (vs. sepals and lip 1.5 mm, much shorter than the sepals, and are glabrous, the lip is ovate- lanceolate). It might well turn out that none of the Costa Rican material can be referred to P. oxyglossa. In that case the larger species found in the Central Cordillera should be referred to as Platystele schulzeana (Schltr.) Garay, described from La Carpintera. For the time being we only segregate the easily distinguished and morphologically constant P. catiensis, and point out that the name P. oxyglossa has been applied to two different species in Costa Rica. A few Brazilian species have been placed under synonymy of P. oxyglossa, but from what we have seen they are most likely not the same species, and certainly are not the same as those found in Costa Rica. The recently described Platystele paraensis Campacci & da Silva has the typical general flower morphology of the P. oxyglossa complex, and is as tiny as P. catiensis. It can be distinguished by the single flowered inflorescence, the sepals that are long caudate, that have an orange mid-vein and are much longer than the lip, which is apically yellow-orange. Flower morphology and size is similar to Platystele psix Luer & Hirtz, however the Ecuadorian species has cellular-pubescent sepals and petals. Another similar species occurs in Panama andEcuador, Platystele taylorii Luer can be however recognized by the lip that is long acuminate and exceeds the glabrous sepals. 6. Platystele sylvestrei Karremans & Bogarín, sp. nov. TYPE: Costa Rica. Cartago: Paraíso, Orosi, Tapantí,
We are grateful to the Monoil Project, Dr. Oliver Dangles, IRD in Ecuador. Dra. Jenny Ruáles, director of the project Escuela Politénica Nacional. The Shuar community at Santiago, Province Morona-Santiago. The Secretaría de Educación Superior, Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación de Ecuador. The Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito. The Viceministry of National Defense in the person of General César Merizalde Pavon who authorized our accommodation and logistics in Battalion 61, Colonel Manuel Hernandez, Colonel Valeri Vásconez Battalion Commander BS-61 “Santiago”, who gave us the generous and friendly hospitality in its facilities, Sergeant Fidel Cugushi who was our guide during the expedition to Morona- Santiago Rivers. Carlos DoNascimiento, Jonathan Armbruster, Donald Taphorn and Nathan Lujan made very useful comments, and kindly reviewed the English. For the loan of specimens, we are grateful to Jorge Brito and Jonathan Valdiviezo-Rivera at the Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad – INABIO, Quito. Pablo Israel Arguello and Vladimir Carvajal López at Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, EPN, Quito, helped with verification of the localities and took the photos of the specimens, respectively. The study was carried with research authorization No. 04-2015-Investigación-B-DPMS / MAE and the mobility permit MAE-DPMS-2015-28.
Introduction. There are more than 50 speciesof Scaphosepalum Pfitzer (Luer 1988, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1998a, 1998b, 2000, 2009, Pridgeon et al. 2001, Endara et al. 2011, Chase et al. 2015, Valenzuela Gamarra 2015, Karremans 2016, Karremans et al. 2016, Baquero 2017). Scaphosepalum species are recognized from other members in the Pleurothallidinae mainly by the osmophores at the apex of the lateral sepals, sepaline tails of variable length, and the non-resupinate flowers (Luer 1988, Pridgeon et al. 2001, Endara et al. 2011, Karremans et al. 2016). The known species with long, fimbriate, spiculate, sepaline tails are Scaphosepalum fimbriatum Luer & Hirtz, S. zieglerae Baquero and S. beluosum Luer (Luer 1988, Baquero 2017). A species that shares these characteristics but is much smaller in size compared with S. zieglerae and S. beluosum, and differs from S. fimbriatum in lip morphology, was discovered close to Quito and is described here.
based on: 1. Body and skull measurements. 2. Coloration patterns of the pelage. 3. Arrangement and length of the color hair bands of dorsal, lateral, ventral nuchal, and gular patches. Body and cranial measurements, and some color patterns of the newspecies, Sylvilagus varynaensis, were compared with those of the closest relati- ve groups such as S. brasiliensis (fromVenezuelaand Brazil), S. b. meridensis from the Venezuelan paramos, and three of the most representative groups of S. floridanus (S. f. continentis, S. f. orinoci, and S. f. valenciae). Most of the values recorded for these parameters were significally higher for the newspecies (P < 0.005; Stu- dent “t” test). Cluster and principal components analysis of the data recorded for cranial characteristics indica- ted that S. varynaensis is the largest and darkest of the known Venezuelan rabbits, with a broader elongated skull and a different arrangement of the color hair bands.
una nueva combinación en Acianthera para Pleurothallis aberrans. Se confirma la presencia en el país de
Barbosella orbicularis y Myoxanthus speciosus, registradas anteriormente con base en registros dudosos, y
las dos especies se ilustran con material costarricense. Warmingia margaritacea se reduce a la sinonimia de Warmingia zamorana, una especie previamente conocida solamente del Ecuador. Se describe una nueva especie, Epidendrum zunigae. Esta especie es similar a E. guanacastense y E. isomerum, de los cuales difiere por las hojas estrechas, lanceoladas, las flores verduzcas, con la mitad apical de la columna morada y el clinandrio blanco, los sépalos 11 mm de largo y el labelo cordiforme, agudo, bicalloso y amarillo crema, el cual es algo convexo en posición natural.
With few exceptions, the more abundant speciesof Euglossa in Mexico and Central America were described by Moure (1965, 1968, 1969, 1970) if they had not been named by earlier authors. Of the abundant species wruch have remained nameless, one was not collected until the use of cineole as an attractant, and the other had been confused with another and similar species. Of the other fivespecies which are to be described here, none is represented by a large series of specimens. In mast cases, an effort has been made to obtain more specimens, and in each case, the effort has met with very limited success. Further collecting in other areas or at other seasons, or the use uf new chemical attractants, may result in the rapid collection of larger series, but it seems likely that larger series of these species will only gradually become available. We have not, to be sure, exhausted the Euglossa fauna of Mexico and Central America. The speciesof some groups are only very rarely attracted to cineole, vanillin and other known a!tractants, and there may well be large populations of such bees that are as yet unsampled. 1 know of a few unique specimens, each of wruch probably represents an undescribed species. After trus paper had been written, 1 obtained a good series of a very distinct new Euglossa
Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) aquasalis Curry 1932 ha sido reconocido como un im- portante vector de malaria en toda la costa No- roeste y Noreste de Sur América; desde Pana- má hasta Ecuador en el Pacífico (Moreno y Berti 1997), y desde Guatemala hasta el sur de Brasil, incluyendo las Antillas Menores y Tri- nidad y Tobago en el Atlántico (Faran 1980, Flemming 1986). En Venezuela, A. aquasalis presenta una distribución en los estados An- zoátegui, Aragua, Carabobo, Delta Amacuro, Dtto. Federal, Falcón, Miranda, Monagas, Su- cre, Trujillo, Yaracuy y Zulia (Sutil 1980); sin embargo, es en el estado de Sucre donde tiene mayor importancia como vector de la malaria.
E xisten 7 especies del género Loeselia L. (Polemonia- ceae), todas crecen en México; sin embargo, seis de ellas (L. ciliata L., L. glandulosa (Cav.) G. Don, L. greggii S. Watson, L. mexicana (Lam.) Brand, L. pumila (M. Martens & Galeotti) Walp. y L. ramosissima (M. Martens & Galeo- tti) Walp.) se extienden más allá del territorio mexicano. El género se distribuye desde el suroeste de los Estados Unidos de América (Arizona y Texas), Centro América hasta Sur América (Colombia y Venezuela). El centro de diversidad parece ser la depresión del Balsas en el suroeste de México, donde se reportan ocho especies endémicas (Porter y John- son, 2000; Porter y Steinmann, 2009).
on a color transparency (G. Escobar 147, Dalström photo archives) presumably from Colombia. Collections have also been made by C. Fernández et al., near Andr é s Bello in Táchira at 2500 m, but the whereabouts of any preserved specimens is unknown (color photo in “Orquídeas nativas del Táchira, by César Fernández; C. Fernández 450).
towards the apex, transversely bilobed, filiform, 2.5 × 0.5 mm, the lobes equal in size and shape, falcate- oblong with the apex rounded, minutely pubescent, ciliate along the margins. Lip purple, orange towards the margin, bilaminate, the blades narrowly ovate to elliptic-oblong, the apex long pubescent, curved towards the column, 2.5–2.7 mm long, ciliate along the margins; the connectives cuneate, oblong, the body thick, densely pubescent, rounded, connate to the middle of the column; the appendix conspicuous, thick, pubescent, ovoid, bilobulate at the apex. Column cylindric, to 1.5 mm long, the anther and the stigma apical. Pollinia two, ovoid, basally filiform. Anther cap, magenta, obovate.
With a careful analysis of the type specimen of W. zamorana as well as of Ecuadorian material cultivated from the Zamora-Chinchipe region, we conclude that the characters used to separate W. margaritacea from W. zamorana are inconsistent, and both species should be considered conspecific. Johansen (1992) stated that W. margaritacea can be distinguished from W. zamorana by the coriaceous, lanceolate, subfalcate leaves, the pauciflorus inflorescence, the rhombic petals, the rigid column appendices and the self-pollinated flowers. However, this set of features were also observed in living specimens of W. zamorana fromEcuador. Morevover, Johansen stated that the flowers of W. margaritacea are pure ivory and pearly appearance, contrasting W. zamorana as having a yellow lip callus (Dodson 1989), but the callus of all the examined Costa Rican records is bright yellow in color (a photograph is given in Pupulin 2005). The serrate petals and the three-lobed lip with a bilobate yellow callus were also observed in both Ecuadorian specimens from Zamora and Costa Rican material collected at CATIE. Although we have still not found a wild population of this species outside of CATIE, some plants have been collected growing in Cupressus lusitanicus trees.
Elytra 1.33 times longer than wide, 1.58 times longer than pronotum; sides diverging slightly on basal two-thirds; acuIriinately rounded behind; most striae moderately but distinctly impressed, punctures small, deep, spaced by less than diameter of a puncture; interstriae three times wider than striae, punctures half the width of strial punctures, uniseriate, spaced by five times their diameter; interstriae 10 strongly, acutely elevated to level of metacoxae, continuing as a less elevated line to stemum 5; declivity steep, convex; almost flat on central half, strial and interstriál punctures as on disc, except c1oser, · striae slightly more impressed. Vestiture consisting of interstrial rows of erect bristles, and much shorter strial and interstrial hairlike setae, · mostly in rows; vestiture most abundant on oeclivity;
anthesis, the inflorescence peduncle elongates twice or more its original size, evident even in herbarium specimens), (4) basipetal floral development (with flowers growing from the inflorescence apex to its base), (5) andromonoecious inflorescence (with male flowers distinctly smaller (up to 300%) than hermaphrodite flower (Berry & Calvo 1991, Vargas 1997, and Trujillo pers. obs.), and (6) growing between 3300 to almost 5000 m.a.s.l and mostly in wet puna/paramo high- andean bogs fromVenezuela to Argentina/Chile (world’s record by Myrosmodes pumilio (Schltr.) C. Vargas, observed in Peruvian Andes and in bogs from Chile, Novoa, Vargas & Cisternas, in prep.).
distribution patterns of the Teagueia species in the upper río Pastaza watershed. Almost all of these 28 Teagueia morphospecies appear to be restricted to a 30km x 20km block of forest bisected by the steep valley of the Río Pastaza, an important tributary of the Amazon. Extensive botanizing in the páramos and high cloud forests along the Quito-Baeza road and the páramos of Pisayambo (Parque Nacional Los Llanganates) north of the Río Pastaza failed to turn up any of these species. South of the Río Pastaza, we have found only two species on the Guamote- Macas road (70-90 km south of the Río Pastaza) and no species farther south. There are however many unexplored high mountains in the Llanganates range and between the Río Pastaza and the Guamote-Macas
Lupinus is a genus presenting a rapid radiation along the Andes, comprising about 85 species (Hughes & Eastwood, 2006). It is thought for this genus, and for many other páramo groups, that colonization in the Andes was from similar montane habitats in North and Central America and not from adjacent land at lower elevations (Hughes & Eastwood, 2006). The genus splits into two clades in the New World, one predominantly in the lowland eastern part of the continent and the other corresponding to high elevation habitats along the western part including the Andean radiation (Hughes & Eastwood, 2006). Andean clade displays a variety of growth forms (figure 1), which in combination with other adaptive strategies (e.g. dense leaf, inflorescence pubescence, dwarfism) helps the plants dealing with Páramo environment (Luteyn, 1999; Hughes & Eastwood, 2006; Drummond et al., 2012).
Ground color of alcohol-preserved speci mens pale straw color. Five large brown bars or oblique blotches on upper body; markings most intense along midline of body, usually reaching dorsal midline as paler brown "saddles", but only last bar extending onto lower sides and ventrum. First and second bars each often appearing as elosely approximated double bars. First bar below first dorsal and anteriormost rays of second dorsal fin. Second bar below posterior half of second dorsal fin. T hird bar under anterior one-third of third dorsal fin. Fourth bar centered below third dorsal fin. Fifth bar most intense, forming circular blotch on caudal pedunele and basal scales of caudal fm. Several dark markings on head: an oval spot behind eye and more diffuse blotch below eye, a dusky patch mostly along border of preoper ele and more prominent blotch on lower oper ele, scaled area at base of pectoral rays dusky. Proximal half of orbital tentaele dark.