Much of the smart discourse relates to embedding technologies in built infra- structure, whether it is public transportation infrastructure, public buildings, homes or utilities infrastructure. In accordance with this focus on the built environment, smarttourism literature and practice has also focused on equipping museums, hotels, buildings that are touristic points of interest, and transportation infrastructure such as subways, airports and bus stations with smart technologies (e. g. Chianese and Pic- cialli, 2014; Alletto et al., 2016; Faria et al., 2017; Buhalis and Leung, 2018). Even in the case of Spanish smarttourismdestinations, the emphasis is clearly on buildings and transportation, as illustrated by the website homepage (http://www.destinosinteli- gentes.es/). A Google image search on the IoT also delivers a myriad of logos and illustrations that focus on vehicles, various types of buildings and man-made objects. Only in the context of smart farming, of environmental monitoring such as forest fire detection and weather prediction, and in the case of tracking animals (both pets and wildlife) are references made to natural resources and living beings (Hill, 2016). Such application areas outside of urban contexts are, however, rarely discussed. As such, when smarttourism is discussed, its physical layer is typically conceptualized as buildings and objects that can be easily equipped with sensors, beacons or other types of smart technologies. In contrast, smarttourism infrastructure outside of city-scapes has not been fully conceptualized.
2013a, b, 2014a, b; 2015). Smart specialisation emphasises the need from the outset to consider and make explicit the intended outcomes and results of the policy as part of the whole approach to policy design and delivery. In other words it makes transparent the whole policy cycle whereby policy priorities and choices are based on the best available data and evidence and explicitly linked to intended outcomes, and these data and intended outcomes themselves determine the types of indicators to be chosen for both the ongoing monitoring of the policy and its ex post evaluation. In other words policy interventions and actions must be designed in a way which al- lows for appropriate outcome indicators to be chosen (Rodrik, 2004; Barca and Mc- Cann, 2011) which will facilitate ongoing policy monitoring and subsequent policy evaluation in the light of the policy’s intended goals. The resulting policy evaluations can use a mixture of both quantitative and qualitative techniques (European Union, 2015) and there is already a large and well established literature (Davies et al., 2000; Cratwright and Hardie, 2012; Pawson, 2006; Link and Vonortas, 2013) on policy and programme evaluation and also on specially the measurement of innovation pro- grammes (Gault, 2013; Technopolis and MIOIR, 2012) which also facilitates with the programme design at the outset, linking ex ante intentions to ongoing actions and to ex post policy evaluation. Importantly, all policy evaluations will be made public on the EU website in English so that opportunities for mutual exchanges and learning are maximised across Europe (European Union, 2015). Moreover, such transparency also helps to mitigate against policies being designed or shaped largely by local po- litical criteria or vested interests instead of being based on the region’s capabilities, assets and potential. Funding is also made available specifically to provide weaker regions whose institutional capacity is low to link up and cooperate with stronger regions whose greater institutional resources, personnel and capabilities can be pro- vided to support the weaker regions» efforts at policy design and delivery. This is also an important forms of technology transfer, again aimed at enhancing the institutional capabilities of the weaker regions and also fostering EU-wide policy learning.
In short, the objective and the plot of this work is to develop a tourism market segmentation scheme based on the different types of technological utilities in the destination and their usability by tourists. A Discriminant Analysis will be carried out concerning the territorial destinations considered: Gijón (U) and Taramundi (R). Both will operate as dependent (typical) variables while technological utilities will do so as independent variables. This will substantially differentiate between the demands of technological services in one or another destination and raise a hierarchy of technological priorities for the management of each of them. A second analysis of the use of ICTs by tourists will be approached from logistic regression. Finally, the third topic of the study will be the eWOM effect in the two destinations.
The institution that studies this tourism is Mastercard-CrescentRating, which is the most significant authority on Muslim-friendly halal tourism. CrescentRating has been studying tourist destinations since 2011, and since its association with Mastercard they have been producing the Global Muslim Travel Index (GMTI), which ranks 130 destinations. Of these, 48 destinations are in countries belonging to the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) and 82 are in non-OIC countries. The aim is to evaluate these tourist destinations and rank them from more to less Muslim-friendly based on various criteria and factors, which they adapt according to the needs of the market and the latest trends. To this end, it uses the ACES (Access, Communications, Environment and Services) criteria created by CrescentRating, which provide a guided framework to enable destinationsto better understand the key aspects of halal travel. The four key factors, which are evaluated using quantitative data, are: (1) Ease of access to the destination
These principals are fulfilled through the implementation of measures structured around five basic pillars, namely: the governance and design of the tourism policy; economic performance and competitiveness; employment and human capital; a re- duction in poverty; and the fostering of social inclusion and the natural and cultural sustainability of tourism development (UNWTO, 2013). Within this context, key roles are played by integrated planning (Wight, 2002); innovation —understood as responsible innovation—, proactive research and education (Hjalager, 1997; Wight, 2002; Blauwhof, 2012); the active involvement of residents and stakeholders in the whole process through cooperation and the creation of partnerships (Simpson, 2001; Wight, 2002) and a real long-term perspective which should avoid the simple linear cause-effect relationships and adopt new methods for resolving problems (Fodness, 2016). In parallel with the development of these general principles, initiatives aimed at measuring the sustainability of destinations have proliferated. Currently, there are many proposals of indicators (UNWTO, 2004; EC, 2016) and practical measure- ments related to all spheres —international, national, regional and local—. However, a definition of generally accepted indicators used in practice has not been reached (Önder, Wöber and Zekan, 2017).
Smartdestinations have been characterised by scholars in many different ways. It is generally agreed that they find their roots in the smart city concept foundations. A smart city is defined by Caragliu et al. (2011) as the city in which the «investments in human and social capital and traditional (transport) and modern (ICT) communica- tion infrastructure fuel sustainable economic growth and a high quality of life, with a wise management of natural resources, through participatory governance» (p. 50). Gretzel and Sigala et al. (2015) consider that smartdestinations apply these prin- ciples not only for residents but also for tourists, and highlight the embedment of a technological infrastructure into the physical space of destinations. In a similar vein, the Spanish innovation fostering agency Segittur argues that smartdestinations em- ploy state-of-the-art technology to improve their performance in sustainability, inno- vation and accessibility (Segittur, 2015). These holistic perspectives, while needed, risk being utilised as rhetorical discourse rather than a real and applicable approach. Nevertheless, smartdestinations differential factor and value proposition is an inten- sive use of latest ICTs to improve tourist experiences and destination competitiveness (Buhalis and Amaranggana, 2014). Other definitions of smartdestinations empha- sise different aspects, such as innovation, knowledge transfer and mobility in these contexts. Still, the technological component is always present as a key feature of the smartdestinations. In these spaces, ICTs become transversal and are present in all the elements, in addition to facilitating the dynamic interaction among the different stakeholders (Gretzel, Werthner et al., 2015). A core trait of a smart destination is the use of ICTs to facilitate tourism-related data interchange among the destination stakeholders, in which DMOs are expected to play a critical role (Jovicic, 2017). ICT-based dynamic connection of all stakeholders (Ivars-Baidal, Celdrán-Bernabeu, Mazón and Perles-Ivars, 2017) and intelligent decision making derived from an ad- vanced use of big data (Del Vecchio, 2017; Xiang and Fesenmaier, 2017) constitute key principles of smartdestinations.
The smarttourism city based on efficient use of resources is a very different model. The programmed actions aim to solve urban problems that tourism has previously created which, if not reversed, can severely affect the destination competitiveness. It is a reactive model, which focuses on the applied use of sustainability to solve urban problems that hinder tourism development, but that does not adopt measures in order to reverse tourism growth. Indeed, actions to improve sustainability programmed by this type of tourism destination are based on raising awareness, improving tourists’ experience (mobility, accessibility, safety) and making savings in basic resources for tourism (water, energy, heritage), but making little use of technology. Besides strengthening the tourism experience, those smarttourismdestinations plan acts to improve the quality of the environment and their inhabitants’ quality of life. This is explained by the fact that many actions affect services and areas used by both tourists and residents and because the quality of the environment, which obviously has a positive impact on residents, is essential for attracting tourists. However, actions that require some form of collective organisation (such as governance or mobility) or involve mobilising a complex fabric of economic actors (innovation) are less abundant.
However, every action needs careful consideration, unregulated development might bring high risks. Developing islands might cause problems easily because of their eagerness and lack of experience, such as neglect the protection of the environment while overly pursue the pace of development. When we are talking about the economic benefits brought by tourism, the costs of this activity cannot be ignored. Tourism is in a unique position compared with many other economic sectors in that it has a two-way relationship with the environment. The good environment can be considered as the basis for tourism development, but in reverse, overloaded tourists and excessive tourism activities will lead to resource depletion and environmental degradation. If there are no effective measures, the destination will lose its attraction to tourists and the economy will be at a standstill. Unlike other products, tourism is the ‘product’ that brings customers to the product, therefore when customers consume this product, the ‘waste’ produced at the same time will be left here. The negative impacts of tourism on destinations involves various aspects, of which the environmental impacts is the most significant, such as air pollution, sewage and solid waste pollution, the loss of biodiversity and so on. For developing islands, it is essential to have an awareness of negative environmental impacts that might derive fromtourism and take actions to regulate tourism. Because in some earlier developed islands, tourism has greatly changed their original style, and has brought severe environmental and social problems to islands. Developing islands need to learn their experiences and lessons, to avoid negative impacts as far as possible, thus achieve sustainable tourism development.
Figure 8. Comparison between empirical measurements and 3D-Ray-Launching simulation results. After the measurement campaign within the campus, Radio Frequency (RF) power level estimations for the whole volume of the scenario were obtained with the aid of the 3D Ray-Launching simulation tool. The transmitter element was placed at the same position of the real LoRaWAN gateway (the red dot in Figure 6) and, using the simulation parameters shown in Table 3, a simulation was launched. The comparison between the measured RF power values and the simulation estimations is depicted in Figure 8. As can be seen in the Figure, the obtained estimations follow the tendency of the measured values, obtaining a mean error of 0.53 dB with a standard deviation of 3.39 dB (taking into account the 19 measurement points of Figure 6). The standard deviation is higher than the usual values provided by the 3D Ray-Launching. This effect could be due to size of the scenario (and the chosen simulation parameters such as cuboid size and launched ray resolution), since it is the largest scenario simulated so far by the developed 3D Ray-Launching tool. In addition, it must be noted the fact that measurements were based on RSSI values provided by the motes, which inherently add a received RF power level error. Nonetheless, the simulation results are accurate, and the simulation tool is validated satisfactorily. Regarding the results, it is worth noting the low RF power levels measured in several points of the scenario. The RF power level in many of these points is lower than − 100 dBm, which is the typical ZigBee sensitivity. However, one of the advantages of the selected LoRaWAN devices is that their sensitivity is much lower (in the usual operating conditions, up to − 137 dBm), as can it be observed in Table 4. Thus, the radio link budget for LoRaWAN has a higher margin, which means that longer communication distances can be achieved.
La bandeja de rotuladores SMART consta de cuatro ranuras codificadas por color para las herramientas de rotulador y otra para el borrador. Todas las ranuras cuentan con un sensor óptico que detecta cuando se retiran los rotuladores o el borrador. Puede escribir con una herramienta de rotulador o con el dedo, siempre y cuando una ranura de rotulador esté vacía. La tecnología de la bandeja de rotuladores es inteligente y puede determinar cuál es la última herramienta retirada de su ranura. Si retira el borrador de su ranura y tiene una herramienta de rotulador en la mano, la bandeja supondrá que usted se dispone a borrar. Las luces que se encuentran sobre las ranuras indican qué herramienta se ha retirado en último término.
Sommario: Dal punto di vista della domanda di elettricità, sia gli Smart meters come gli Smart Grid sono convenienti, ma si presume che possano influire sulla salute o invadere la privacy. La salute e la privacy sono beni protetti dalla Costituzione nazionale e dalle norme infracostituzionali in Argentina. Tra questi, si possono prendere in considerazione la legge sulla protezione dei dati, l'accesso alle informazioni pubbliche, il quadro normativo elettrico, l'Argentina digitale, la lealtà commerciale, la difesa dei consumatori e alcune normative in materia di contenuti penali. Questa normativa, presa a titolo di esempio, sembra in grado di affrontare inizialmente l'arrivo di Smart meters e di Smart grid, che sono necessari, soprattutto a vantaggio degli utenti della rete. Tuttavia, rimangono alcune domande e, se del caso, possono essere adottate risposte preventive o, se necessario, anticipatorie:
Por circunstancias especiales que definirá en cada caso la compañía, el sorteo podrá ser declarado nulo o inválido. Específicamente será declarado nulo el sorteo, cuando se compruebe que dichas compras no alcanzaron el valor mínimo de la compra. Se declara inválido la alteración de la factura. ALIANZA SMART se reservará el derecho de solicitar comprobaciones adicionales para la verificar la legalidad de las facturas.
Modifique las propiedades de las herramientas de la bandeja interactiva utilizando la pantalla de Configuración del Hardware de SMART. Usted puede aumentar o disminuir el tamaño del borrador, y personalizar los ajustes en los botones de la bandeja de pluma. Presione el botón de la herramienta a la cuál quiere cambiar su configuración y un cuadro de diálogo para esa pantalla aparecerá.
Del expositivo anterior, puede concluirse que el desarrollo de modelos Smart por parte de las Adminis- traciones Públicas están claramente focalizados en las problemáticas de las ciudades, especialmente en el ámbito de E-Government, medioambiental y energético, a nivel europeo, aportándose a nivel nacional también como herramienta para la consolidación de nuestras ciudades como municipios turísticos. No obstante, se detecta una necesidad a todos los niveles administrativos (europeo, estatal y andaluz) de fomentar un modelo de ciudad inteligente que a través de los diferentes agentes que componen el ecosistema Smart, especialmente las Administraciones Públicas, aborden la definición de un modelo propio que, pasando por la innovación y uso de las TIC´s, permita el desarrollo económico del municipio, apoyándose para ello en diferentes ámbitos que le permitan hacerlo diferencial respecto a otros. A excepción del modelo definido por la unión Europea, focalizado en ámbitos Smart que posibiliten una mejora en la eficiencia de la prestación de servicios y la reducción del consumo energético y de la emisión de gases de efecto invernadero a través del uso de las TIC´s, el modelo definido a nivel estatal y andaluz posiciona claramente a la ciudadanía como elemento vertebral y punto de referencia sobre el que debe construirse el modelo Smart City del municipio basado en el E-goverment.
En cuanto al formato online, Smart cuenta con un canal propio en la plataforma de YouTube, pero no en España, y es a través de la empresa matriz, Mercedes Benz, con la que se dan a conocer los spots nacionales. Son 40 vídeos, subidos desde 2014 y la mayoría de ellos tienen una característica en común, y es que muestra la facilidad con la que se puede aparcar el vehículo debido a su tamaño, el diseño, tanto interno como externo, además de otras variables como el consumo y las aplicaciones del coche. También incluyen alguno de los making of de los spot o eventos de la marca y muchos de ellos han sido adaptados para spots de televisión, de entre 10 y 20 segundos aproximadamente.
condition of effectiveness to deal with the specificity of digital investment support, it is also a source of difficulty requiring conscious and forceful coordination efforts. As the ERDF represents the bulk of the funds addressed to the DAE/DSM objectives, the place-based approach promoted by DG REGIO is a key thrust characterising ESIF support to digital investments. DG CNECT, with a different tradition of “project culture”, also plays an important role in programming and implementation as it supervises the enforcement of ex ante conditionalities and monitors reprogramming in the area. As such, it stamps its mark over ESIF patterns, for example, by favouring broadband development. Other coordination issues in the governance structure are related to the insufficient ‘demarcation’ between ERDF and EAFRD as far as ICT infrastructures in rural areas are concerned and the relative indeterminacy of the ownership over digital skills addressed by the ESF. Finally, there is little formal coordination between DG CLIMA and DG REGIO regarding the use of ICT to address climate change under Cohesion Policy, in spite of the mainstreaming of climate actions in ESIF and the potential contribution of Smart City/Smart Grid projects in this respect.
Tourism is a major source of income in many cities, so that ICT can be very useful for managing bookings via mobile, plus other information of interest in the city with respect to topics of leisure, sport and culture. There are also audio guides using podcasts and applications using cross-selling to provide complementary services to tourists (Colado, et al., 2014). In countries like Spain tourism it’s vital due to the large number of visitors to national territory, so that the implementation of Smart cities can give a good image and attract future tourists. Therefore it’s important that all areas of interest and hotel areas are connected by a good public transport system. In addition, it is also important that the hotel is sustainable and efficient, meeting basic quality requirements (Cebrián, et al., 2012).
The interest in Smart Cities has generated several theoretical discussions, but there is not sufficient progress in the implementation and evaluation of related initiatives. A city that want to implement a Smart initiative should evaluate their needs and establish an integrated approach covering environmental, social and economic aspects (Abella y Ruiz, 2015). Besides, there are rankings based on different attributes related to cities, such as quality of life or environment. So, comparative studies based on the Smart City concept are beginning to emerge ( Berrone et al., 2015; Giffinger et al., 2007; Manville et al., 2015; Neirotti, 2012; Moreno, 2016)