The WeeklyReflectionPapers as innovative tool has been implemented during three academic years, which allowed us to have a global overview about the influence produced in the learning process. Once the team of professors analysed the results, together with the analysis of the students questionnaires and despite the heterogeneity of the subjects taught, the existence of several common points were found. Figure 1 shows these results, expressed as a SWOT scheme (3).
A group of lecturers from diverse areas of knowledge of the University of Alcalá have implemented an experience of teaching innovation based on “reflective diaries”. The students hand in to the lecturer every week their “WeeklyReflectionPapers” (WRP), in which they schematically express the most important ideas related with the topic presented during the classes of the previous week. They must include their reflections about the aspects they found especially interesting. After having applied this tool for some academic years we introduced a modification called “GuidedWeeklyReflectionPapers” (GWRP), where the professors suggest a series of questions on which the students must apply the most significant concepts studied each week. This modification enhances student’s motivation, encourages them to achieve more significant and reflective knowledge and generates interest in emergent topics.
Due to the characteristics mentioned above we have to adapt the guidedweeklyreflectionpapers to this level. One of the goals we intend to get is that students reflect about what they are learning and how they are learning it. We ask the university students to make a formal scheme of the main concepts learnt on the topic whereas in the secondary school level we prefer the students don’t to make such a formal work. The expected way to do the work should be reflect, in a written way, merely which concepts have been more impacting or interesting for them as much as the difficulties they have found in the understanding of this impacting concepts.
2.2.4 Human Histology (written by Marta González- Santander. Dept. Medical Specialities) The Histology is a science which deals with the study of the structure and function of biological tissues, integrated within the human body as cell populations. It's a basic discipline that relates the cellular with the macroscopic level. More in depth, it is the scientific field that provides the necessary information for the descriptive knowledge of human body architecture and puts it at the service of pathological processes and the clinic practice. This subject is sustained in the progress of the scientific knowledge carried out within other disciplines like embryology, genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, physiology, etc... In addition, currently, it forms the basis behind a new discipline called Tissue engineering. If we know how we are specifically built, we can design artificial biological tissues for medical use with a therapeutic and rehabilitative projection in response to the current demand of the society of the 21st century. It is necessary to know deeply the structure of healthy tissues (including not only the variants of the state of health but of renewal, regeneration, repair, degeneration and ageing phenomena) in order to apply this knowledge when studying the pathological processes. Human histology is a subject of the first year of the new Bologna Degree in Medicine along the second semester, once the students have obtained the necessary knowledge in the discipline of Biology developed previously. In this context the "GWRP" tool in my subject, is intended to achieve the objectives outlined above in the general methodology, through following implementation strategy: My students have to write a brief, clear and complete summary at the end of the unit topic taught. The student must include the most relevant concepts and establish a relation among them. They can perform it as traditional scheme or they can develop a conceptual map. Besides, I propose them several points for reflection: comparative structural diagrams, conceptual or interaction questions, or short questions about clinical applications. Finally a personal reflection and a self-assessment on their work will be required.
Knowledge has to be developed firmly based on reflections and thoughts as much as evidence. Being conscious of this principle, our innovation teaching group from the University of Alcalá has developed a reflective pedagogical approach called GuidedWeeklyReflectionPapers (GWRP) and implemented it since 2007. In this approach students hand in to the lecturer their “weekly work”, in which they schematically express the most important ideas related with the topic presented during the classes, and their reflections and comments on those aspects which they found especially difficult or interesting. Moreover students have to apply the concepts developed during the week to solve some questions or problems proposed by the lecturers to find solutions to real life situations and to explore beyond the walls of the classroom to discover where in the world around them they can find application of the material presented by the lectures.
and 18:00 h. The site closest to the shoreline was 1.8 Km from the coast (8 m depth), and the farthest 28.5 Km, over the shelf slope, where the bottom was at 800 m. Between 5 and 6 sampling sites were GPS positioned along each transect, with the number of sampling sites depending on the topography of the shelf. The offshore sites were separated by 3 Km, whereas the inshore sampling sites were 1 to 2 Km apart. Adjacent transects were between 7.5 and 11.0 Km apart. In our analyses of spatial pattern the shelf was arbitrarily divided into three zones: inshore (within 6 Km of the coast), midshore (7 - 18 Km from the coast), and offshore (more than 18 Km from the coast). Zooplankton was collected using 1 m diameter standard nets, 400 µ m mesh, fitted with TSK mechanical flowmeters. At each site, two simultaneous oblique net tows were made from 20 m depth to the surface at the lowest speed of the vessel (1- 2 knots) for a period of 30 minutes. The collected plankton was preserved in a 5% formalin solution diluted in seawater and saturated with borax. From two to three water samples for the analysis of dissolved inorganic nutrients, and chlorophyll a were collected with Niskin samplers from the upper 20 m of the water column at each site (usually 0, 10, 20 m depth). Plankton and water samples were processed as indicated for the weekly samples. Laboratory methods and data analysis: Each zooplankton sample was entirely sorted for fish larvae and then subdivided in a Folson splitter as far as 1/64 until the last two sub- samples had approximately 2,000 to 3,000 individual plankters. Organisms in both sub- samples were counted and sorted into major taxa and their density per cubic meter was calculated. The dry weight of zooplankton samples was obtained after the entire plankton sample, megaloplankton and micronekton removed, was rinsed with distilled water to remove salts and the preservative, oven-dried at 60°C for 24 hours, and weighted by means of a balance (precision ± 0.1 mg). For chlorophyll analysis, membrane filters with the phytoplankton were ground with a Teflon
En la desintegració a baixa consistència (3-8%), la major part de l’energia subministrada s’utilitza per a mantenir en moviment grans quantitats de líquid i no per a la separació directa de les fibres. Amb la desintegració a mitjana i alta consistència l’efecte de desfibratge es millora pel fregament entre fibres, molt més efectiu gràcies a la proximitat dels grumolls fibrosos. Treballar amb púlpers a baixa consistència té altres desavantatges importants entre els quals destaquen l’elevat consum d’energia, l’alta fragmentació dels contaminants i la poca eficàcia dels reactius químics ja que la velocitat de difusió és molt més lenta. L’estalvi aconseguit desintegrant a consistències altes (15-18%) respecte a unes consistències del 4-5% oscil·len al voltant del 20-35% d’energia elèctrica, 40-70% de vapor i 20% de productes químics (Koffinke, 1983; Hamilton, 1987; Merrett, 1987; Carré, 1995a,b,c,d). Degut a això, des de mitjans dels anys vuitanta la tendència de la indústria de destintatge de papers recuperats ha estat convertir els púlpers de baixa consistència en púlpers discontinus de mitjana i alta consistència.
Moral conventions are formed gradually out of hard-won experience. They are collective considered judgments, the outcome of reflection and mutual deliberation over time—and sometimes across cultures—which confer on them a certain presumptive authority. This presumption places a burden on anyone who proposes to violate them. Michael Walzer describes a set of conventions with this status, known collectively as the rules of war. These conventions honor a certain idea of human dignity, acknowledged even in the midst of some of the most horrible things done by one human being to another. Walzer does not derive these conventions from abstract philosophical principles, but discerns them through close study of actual controversies, specific war-time cases—events that evince human compassion as well as hostility, solidarity as well as depravity. 10 The rules of war are an apt example of what I have in mind because, while pervasive and entrenched, they are not undisputed. Deliberation continues. Today, reflective people wonder, especially, whether the existing conventions are adequate to the new reality of non-state terrorism (or asymmetric warfare, as it is called).
Through reflection about the situation of today’s so- ciety and the spiral in which we are placed of fast-pa- ced rhythm, we see how in our day to day it costs us to attend to all the stimuli that we receive and often this becomes a lack of Empathy for the difficulties of other people or the problems of the world; fruit of a lack of pause, reflection and conscious perception of our surroundings. We have lost the feeling of both physical and spiritual connectivity and we have re- placed it with digital connectivity. As a result of this reality, iom is born.
Aportando otra muestra de las vicisitudes por las que atraviesan en la actualidad los autores para lograr la publicación de sus trabajos, en (Singer, 2007) el autor reconoce que tales problemas lo han desalentado para continuar publicando y declara haber encontrado varias alternativas, al menos para autores que no deben publicar más en journals para obtener promoción académica. La principal de ellas consiste en publicar en el servidor arXiv o en cualquier otro lugar en la web. Sin embargo, esta novedosa modalidad ya enfrenta su primer desafío: el plagio. En (Feder, 2007) se explica de qué modo los papers sometidos a arXiv serán comparados con los 400.000 existentes –y en aumento- mediante un procesador automático que detecta el solapamiento de textos. Los autores serán notificados con mensajes del tipo “su artículo posee un x % de solapamiento con el artículo Y”, destacándose que “las personas deberían saber que no está bien robar. Tampoco está bien publicar su propia basura una y otra vez ... El hecho sorprendente es que la gente somete a la misma base de datos donde encontraron (lo que copiaron)”.