PDF superior he influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Italian high-schools

he influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Italian high-schools

he influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Italian high-schools

20 This research adopted the Ex-post Facto design. The sample comprised all secondary schools and senior secondary school teachers. Five hundred teachers and two thousand students of public schools were randomly selected through stratified random sampling technique. Researchers used instruments developed by themselves called class size pressure questionnaire and teachers’ work quality questionnaire. Teachers filled in the first questionnaire which was made up of demographic data and information on class size. Students replied to the second questionnaire composed by 2 sections. Section A contained demographic data, section B consisted of 18 items which measured the teachers’ work quality in terms of teaching, assessment of students’ academic performance, and classroom control. After experts in the profession ensured the validation, then a test-retest reliability method was applied to get reliability estimate. Data analysis was done using ANOVA.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Students have reported that the environment is less stressful (item 13) because the teacher is not able to ask the same student several questions. This answer could be viewed as a negative finding since students know there is a small chance of being called on more than once; they may not be attentive enough to absorb the lesson. Results show that it was not easy for students to use technological devices, such as cell phones (item 14), in a large class. Almost half of those surveyed, 47.85% rated the ease of use of cell phones in class as unsatisfactory and 25.81% rated it as somewhat satisfactory. These results may be an indicator of teachers exercising excellent classroom management. In items 13 and 14 there is a trend emerging showing us that the students are not stressed. One reason students are not stressed is because they know they will most likely not be asked to answer more than one
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

It is crucial that the institutions not only check these plans, but also give the corresponding feedback to the teacher in order for the plan to be related and goes according to the syllabus, and according to the goals that the institutions have. This is important since the lesson plans contain everything that goes in the lesson, and through these plans the institutions can verify if the classes area accomplishing the curricula expected for that level. During the observations, it could be seen that topics in many cases repeat again and again, it means that the students study for example simple present in second course and in third course this topic is repeated again, this produces that students get fossilized with the knowledge, they do not advance since what they are learning is repeated and repeated. They manifested that sometimes they get bored because they study the same and the same even though they are in a different level. That is why, the government has put more emphasis on controlling the material and the lesson plans of teachers, and this way it can control what teachers are teaching, how, when, etc. this control pushes the teachers to work responsibly with students and take into consideration the topics and activities that can really benefit students.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

On the other hand, there are two groups of students 6% and 3% answered that students do not have the opportunity to build relationships with their classmates because in large groups teachers find problems like different level of attention and behavioral mistakes. It is also proven that there is more interaction between the teacher and the student in smaller groups. In bigger groups the interaction between students and the teacher does not take place. About this topic Wharton & Race (1999) state that English is a complex language and it requires that teachers must structure the work appropriately; students should be comfortable with a simple request to do this in pairs, for a less experienced class, indicate who is to take which role, and give separate instructions for each stage of the activity. At the same time most of the teaching techniques are effective with small groups of students.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

On the other hand, Asher (1969) explains that total physical response seeks to help students in the learning process with the least amount of stress. This method can be the most expressive of all since under this method the instructors use a lot of non-verbal language as a channel to teach the foreign language using the least amount of translation. In this method the teachers use the very first commands as the little kids do when they learn their native language by using graphic dynamics. The use of body language easily steals the show in the process as a didactic tool for example while teaching about the prepositions of space, possessive adjectives, and possessive pronouns, the instructor can play several stances and characters that resemble the topics imparted. However the excessive use of body language can be like a double edge sword because it can make the learners just to wish for entertainment and not specialize on the subject.
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The Influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The Influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

In a English classroom it is common to find a heterogeneous group of students who have different levels of knowledge. Carrasquillo (2001) opines that when in class there are different levels of proficiency, the students need careful planning and organized instructional for each programmatic steps, for their learning. If the teacher carefully selects the content, students will study topics for which they already possess schemata. Using content and context together to understand messages, students develop coping mechanisms for dealing with unknown language in other contexts, ultimately fostering the development of foreign language proficiency.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Seventy one students totally agreed that they feel they can act competitively with other students which correspond to 39% of the population. Fifty two students agreed with this statement, which correspond to 29% of the population. Thirty seven students partially agreed with this statement, which corresponds to 21%. Meanwhile, twenty students disagreed with this statement, which correspond to 11%. In all the observed classes, students were motivated to learn English when the topic was interesting according to their age. When TPR activities were done, they were very competitive and tried to answer any question; however, the physical space was not appropriate for them. When the teacher was doing competitive activities, there was no time to cheat or bother in class; yet controlling discipline was very hard. Harmer agrees with Richards (2001) TPR is a language teaching method built around the coordination of speech and action.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The first step for developing this study consisted in reviewing the literature related to this topics such as; teaching approaches and methods, class size, managing learning, managing large classes, activities for working with large classes, seating arrangement and classroom space, and different levels of proficiency as well as five previous journal studies on correlated topics in order to get enough background information that would contribute to this research process. The information was obtained from several sources as journals, google books, and books from different authors.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Referring to th e whole class interaction, in class discussion or “open” pair work, when two students talk across the classroom under teacher control, giving other students the opportunity to hear, there is no need to change the position of the seats. When all the students are working together in “closed” pairs, without the teacher direct control, fellows need to be able to look at each other. So either gets them to move their chairs slightly towards each other or lift their chairs and work facing someone other than their neighbor, depending on the amount of time the activity is going to take. How the seats are arranged depends on the size of the class, the size of the groups, the types of activity and the styles of the furniture. For many activities dealing with four students per group, the ideal is probably to have the students sit round desks café style, or to remove the desks altogether. If it is possible, move the furniture to make good use of the corners of the room. At all coast, avoid having all members of a group on the one side of the desk. Also avoid separating the members of a group to far, making it difficult for them to talk easily (Gower, Phillips and Walters, 2005).
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

This research analyzed the influence of large classes in the English language teachinglearning process in Ecuadorian high schools. During the field research, five classes were observed to identify the instructional, social, and psychological implications that large classes have on the teaching - learning process. This study was carried out in five public and private high schools located in the city of Jipijapa, in the province of Manabí, Ecuador in 2013. The sample consisted of students from 8 th to 10 th year of basic education, where each class has more than 35 students. The methods used in this research were quantitative and qualitative in order to obtain accurate information about the main implications that influence the English language teaching-learning process in large classes. The results of this research show that the factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process are lack of skills in managing learning, class size, among others. The obtained results will benefit teachers and students who are involved in the teaching learning process because they will have better opportunities in their academic and professional lives.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching- learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching- learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Another study done by Nakabugo, Opolot-Okurut, Ssebbunga, Maani and Byamugisha (2008) consisted in three main purposes: to increase the number of teachers to allow more than one teacher per class, to provide schools with the necessary resources, and to enable teachers to develop the confidence and skills to improve the learning environment in large classes. Some difficulties that this research faced were the limited physical space for movement and interaction, few desks, and limited number of instructional materials. Students learned in such poor conditions and there were also danger of easy spread of infectious diseases such as flu and cough.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in ecuadorian high schools

personality, language attitude, learning style, and other factors. This author also states that heterogeneous classes are everyday reality. Heterogeneous classes afford teachers the chance to meet how challenging and motivating can be all the things they use for the teaching process. However, it is not an easy task to attain that interesting attractions. Within a diverse class there is differing expectations held by individual students. Consequently, teachers should use all their ingenious and creativity planning for these kind of combined group. Furthermore, the author recommends having two syllabuses instead of one. One is the compulsory that teachers have to follow. The other one is the optional which will be used for
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The results about instructional issues show that students’ agreement is 12.12% over disagreement. Thus the majority of the interviewed students agree that teachers present activities that allow students to practice the four basic skills of the English language: speaking, listening, reading and writing. Moreover, those activities also help students to apply what they have learned in class. Even though the classes are large, most of the students are attentive and participate in the class activities which indicates that the chosen activities catch the students’ attention and engage them in the learning process. It is also seen that the class activities give students the chance to work individually, in pairs or groups. Additionally, the seating arrangements used help for the successful development of the different activities, students do not get distracted by doing other subject assignments and they are not allowed to cheat during the tests, so there are not major disciplinary problems in the researched classes. However, it is worthy to mention that students do not get regular feedback, and the activities that require whole class participation such as plays, competitions, debates or games are not being used because of the large number of students. About social effects, the opinions are almost divided. The level of agreement is just 1.08% over the level of disagreement, but the results show that students are able to interact between them and with the teacher and there are enough opportunities for interaction during the different lessons. Besides, students cannot use electronic devices without being discovered by the teacher. On the other hand, the teacher cannot remember all students’ names, and the same student is rarely asked to answer several questions because of the large number of them.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The activities allow to practice listening, speaking, reading and writing. The results drawn in this question show that 43.55 % of students responded totally agree, while a 40.42 % of students marked their answers as agree. On the contrary, 12.54 % of students answered partially agree, while 2.79 % marked disagree and 0.70 % did not answer. These results demonstrate that in large classes it is possible to practice the four skills due to the fact that the activities are varied and most of them follow a sequential pattern where students are to practice the different skills through activities such as pair or group work. Jones (2007) supports these results by saying that reading, listening, writing and speaking can be done in large classes because the number of students might be an advantage to break down the tasks into multiple activities, for instance; from a reading task a speaking activity may come up, etc.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Besides, Met (1999), states that people learn a second language more effectively if they use the language as a means of acquiring information, which will lead to more accurate learning, given that Language is used to explore content, and emerges as students, need to comprehend or produce language related to content. In order to enlarge the perspective about the approaches mentioned above it would be necessary to analyze also Task-Based Language Teaching, which according to Nunan (2004), is an experiential learning based on the use of authentic language and on asking students to construct meaningful tasks using the target language. Such tasks can include simulating visiting a doctor, conducting an interview, calling customer service for help, or finding solutions to a puzzle, reading a map, giving directions, writing a letter, or reading a set of instructions for assembling a toy. In this way, learners can develop fluency and confidence.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

to work with large classes, she gave some general suggestions to manage the class. For example, she proposed to memorize the name of the students of course is a large process, but with practice can be improved, use clear eye contact with individuals may produce a positive engagement, use other systems for attracting the attention of the students, such as hands up, ringing a little bell, use a whistle, to create a way that they speak and interact with a partner or in groups, challenge them to stablish a certain amount of routines, keep students involved from the start of the lesson. Even though Brown (1994) stated that language classes should have more than dozen students enough to provide diversity and students interaction, large classes present some problems such as individual teacher-student attention is minimized, teachers` feedback is limited, and student’s opportunities to speak are lessened. And he gave
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Khaki (2010) focused his study on finding out the very common expectations of students in the classroom where they are learning English at a variety of different paces and besides, the class is large in number of students. The study is mainly focused on six different areas: classroom management, establishing collaboration, range of tasks, giving feedback, classroom English and home assignment. 60 students of tenth grade from government-aided school were selected to get required information. They were sampled using purposive non-random sampling procedure. To collect data, one questionnaire containing nineteen closed-ended questions was developed. This study revealed many findings at a time regarding the expectations of students in large multilevel classes, for example more than 90% of students like to be called by their first names. This study also proves that an English teacher should move all around the class. Sharing experiences like activity is highly preferred by a considerable number of students (40%). It shows that the sharing of experiences of teachers and students highly motivates the students. Besides, this study revealed that more than 90% of students reported that they expected additional activities over which the ones of the textbook. This study also focused that limited use of mother tongue in English classroom it is bearable and accepted, but the teacher should introduce some new words every day in simpler and shorter expression. In case of feedback, feedback at a personal level in the classroom is more preferable. The study reveals that most of the students like challenging activities, neither too easy, nor too difficult. Thus, it is essential to provide different tasks to different students, so that they can adapt them at their own pace.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools.

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools.

In previous studies, Finn, Pannozzo, & Achilles (as cited in Bray & Kehle, 2011) indicate that less than 20 students per class is considered small, and more than 20 is considered a large one. Both authors explained that the fact of having large or small groups in the classroom does not necessarily result in higher achievement or failure rates because there are different factors that are very important in students when learning another language. As a result, what really matters is how well teachers are prepared.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

teachers develop their own style of teaching according to their personality. Gower & Walters (1995) give some practical advice to follow when referring to instructions. They suggest to primary create a center of attention in the student to make sure everyone is listening and watching, to employ simple language and short expressions, and to use language at a lower level than the language being taught. Furthermore, teachers should use visual or written clues whenever possible utilizing real objects, pictures, gestures and mime. Making demonstrations if possible, illustrating what to do; break down instructions if the activity requires a series of procedures, provide simple commands in sections and check for understanding, rather than giving out all instructions at the start of the activity. It is also a good idea to target instructions in the sense of explaining the content only to the students who need it, instead of giving complete directions to the class as a whole. In addition, discipline is a very important issue in the classroom. It depends on a number of factors such as: age of students; evidently children require more discipline than adults. Usually young teenagers are considered to be the most complex when it comes to classroom control. Discipline is intimately related to the causes for learning and student motivation whether they are forced to be in class or whether they are there voluntarily. Class size plays an important role, as it is more difficult to keep an orderly atmosphere in a large class than in a smaller one.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

participants and the end are likely to be left out the conversation with conference table, large portion of participants have eye contact with each other and large table useful for plenary group discussion but cannot break into small groups easily , cannot fit many participants around table and during general discussion, several sub- discussions may form and disrupt proceedings and circle and semicircles of chair, people can relax and interact well , participants able to adopt open poses , no natural top position for trainer , easy to move into various exercises and games and stops people sticking to a specific desk or chair but in this style no flat work surface , no tables on which to rest books or material , no physical barriers , so more openness needed and intimidate shy people . In large groups , participants sit far from these opposite them .
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