La digitalización como proceso irrumpe en todos los ámbitos de la vida humana sobre todo en la dimensión social y comporta cambios en las formas de comunicarse. “La comunicación profesional está cambiando dramáticamente en la era digital” (Porter, 2017, p.1), como disciplina y profesión experimenta transformaciones originadas por el imparable avance tecnológico. En los ámbitos donde el comunicólogo se mueve se eliminan, crean y modifican los roles tradicionalmente asignados a un profesional formado en las filas universitarias: medios de comunicación, agencias de publicidad, organizaciones y otros espacios que demandan servicios comunicacionales. La digitalización es caracterizada según Scolari, Mico, Navarro y Pardo (2008) por la aparición de soportes textuales y dispositivos de producción y distribución basados en código binario, intercambios de información a través de redes, nuevas formas de organización en la producción, convergencia de lenguajes y formas nuevas de crear y transmitir datos. No representa solo un cambio de formato, sino que plantea una reconfiguración de los medios en donde el usuario es quien dicta los temas y contenidos (Jódar, 2010).
of online presence. The article analyses how various public museums and collections in Catalo- nia made use ofthe internet as a way of interacting with the public. Our study analyses email, webpages and social networks, and includes all the Catalan centres, with special attention given to those of most relevance. The results show how there are still great variations in the online presences of Catalan museums and collections. There is a significant number of institutions without a direct presence onthe internet, while others are very active. Email is the most com- mon tool, despite not being used to interact with the public. Use of webpages is relatively wi- despread, while the presence on social networks is still very limited, as regards both the number of institutions present and the amount of content published. This is an element that influences the number of followers each centre has and theimpact they can generate by this means.
Few studies have addressed the topic of learning informational competences from an empirical perspective and in an integral manner that agglutinates the different dimensions involved, especially the combination ofthe affective and cognitive aspects of learning. In line with the latest trends in the evolution of information literacy (IL), and its redesign as metaliteracy, mainly derived from the ideas put forward by the ACRL Board (2016), there is a need for a renewed picture ofthe relationship between individuals and information. Moreover, a more holistic and inclusive perspective is required. Yet the subject of IL is so comprehensive that this paper is self-restricted to the communicative- disseminating behavior of individuals in relation to information, since this is probably one ofthe areas that have received less attention within the wide range of IL-related tasks. The case of future professionals in the different Social Sciences (SS) disciplines is a special one from the point of view ofthecommunication-dissemination of information, since these tasks play a key role within theprofileof SS activities. To this end, this study addresses a number of degree courses restricted to the SS.
The processes described above define a public sphere that is far more crowded with social actors, facts, opinions, and beliefs (Sorrentino, 2008), which makes it difficult to identify the best strategies to make oneself visible. Of course, this is also the case for institutions and political actors, who have to handle their per- sonal communication and to elaborate strategies allowing them both determining a coherent identity that proves successful in such a rich communication flow, and circumscribing the defining discourses of their identity to those deemed ac- ceptable and envisaged. Thus, communicative skills become a negotiable resource through which one may define one’s relationship with their context. Every subject has to define their own visibility grounding it not just on what is said and onthe immediate reaction to it, but rather, onthe need to accumulate representations ofthe self aimed at defining a personal reputation that might give them credibility and reliability.
publishing costs from the reader to the author, i.e. the author’s institution or funding body. There are also increasing numbers of so-called hybrid journals offering both reader pay and author pay solutions. Another model currently being experimented with foresees a critical mass of journals in a specific area moving towards open access, under the sponsorship of a consortium of funding bodies. An example is the Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics led by CERN, the European Organisation for Nuclear Research. At present, open access journals account for about 10% of total journal output.
Agriculture intensification in Europe has contributed to land use changes in other countries. For instance, livestock intensification in Europe has increased the demand for protein rich products, which in turn has led to increased soybean production in South America, with associated negative environmental and social impacts. Promotion of grain legume production under the current CAP may help to reduce the EU’s dependency on soybean imports from the Americas and, therefore, alleviate such negative effects. In the last decade, energy markets have formed a significant driver in the overall trend of large-scale land acquisition in some developing countries. A clear link can be established between the EU bioenergy policy and European companies’ keenness to acquire agricultural land in developing countries, especially those in Africa. This also entails that the development of conventional biofuel production has an impacton access to natural resources, such as land and water, and often leads to an increase in land concentration to the detriment of smallholder farming practices (Diop et al., 2013).
The group of Viennese artist WochenKlausur 23 seems to have a clear vision of how to achieve the transformation of structures from within with their idea of ‘concrete intervention’. This group of artists is one among others working on collaborative practices in art, that take political action as a way to build different forms of organization and infrastructure. WochenKlausur, founded in 1993 by Wolfgang Zinggl, can be translated as ‘weeks of closure’, which responds to their way of working, occupying a space –usually an exhibition space– for a given time. During that time, the place is reconverted into a studio where they develop a research project and interact with the public as well as with experts in the topics they are studying. This kind of antechamber work normally leads them to what they call ‘concrete intervention’. In 2013 they were called to participate in the exhibition Economy, organized by the Centre for Contemporary Arts (CCA) in Glasgow, with a social project in the area of Drumchapel, one ofthe poorest in Scotland. The initial display, both in the form of occupation ofthe exhibition space and ofthe process that followed, was a circulation ofthe knowledge, experts and tools necessary for (in this case) a group of unemployed women to learned how to start their own fast food business. If we think in terms of infrastructure as posed by Latour, a network of connections where space is produced by the interaction of all its actors, Wouldn’t collectives such as WochenKlausur be working from within and transforming the joints between connections that form the infrastructure? In a way, they would be reconnecting actors and mutating the structure from its intermediate spaces (and actors). The interstice, then, would be a way to re-inhabit the structures and modify them from within, leaving aside the possibility ofthe outside. Recalling Rogoff, it is a kind of work that will bring together.
This is an interesting opportunity because Gaia is going to provide accurate geometrical distances to calibrate both the zero-point and the slopes ofthe diagnostics adopted to estimate individual RRL distances. Spectroscopic RRL abundances based on ground-based measurements ( Magurno et al. 2018 ) will pave the way for an empirical calibration ofthe PLZ relations. This means the opportunity to determine distance, reddening, and chemical composition ( metal, helium ) for ﬁ eld RRLs that are simultaneously available for optical ( BVRI ) and NIR ( JHK ) mean magnitudes. Note that this approach applies to RRL in nearby stellar systems and, in turn, the opportunity to investigate the helium-to-metal enrichment ratio currently adopted in evolutionary and pulsation calculations is universal. We thank our anonymous referees for the constructive comments. M.M. acknowledges partial support from Premiale 2015, “ MITiC ” ( PI: B. Garilli ) .
In this regard, we observe that the United Kingdom is the leading country in terms ofthe number of active entities by far, being this figure approximately five times bigger than Germany, Spain or France. As some authors and consulting groups have emphasised, the implementation ofthe regulatory sandbox in 2015 is one ofthe primary circumstances explaining their success. If we are able to confirm that the increase in the number of Fintechs and funding rounds have a positive effect onthe level of competitiveness and efficiency ofthe British banking system, the employment of regulatory sandboxes would be a very recommendable policy for each country who wants to benefit from technological disruption and financial innovation. Besides that, it could also be a motivating topic for future research to study how the Brexit’s economic and financial consequences will affect their FinTech sector.
for solar telescopes) due to central obscuration, dic- tated by the optical and mechanical design. This affects the characteristics ofthe perfect optics in a few ways: firstly - it simply blocks incoming light by the amount corresponding to respective detail’s size, thereby reducing the aperture effective area; secondly - it alters the shape ofthe PSF; and thirdly- it contaminates the focal plane by the light scatter- ing and diffractive effects onthe respective elements (baffles, spiders etc) (Kuhn & Hawley 1999). For pure annular apertures the parameter ε = d/D is used to describe the order of central obscuration. Here d and D are, respectively, the inner and outer diameters ofthe annulus. In some cases the obscu- ration can be relatively big and may significantly change the PSF characteristics. This is especially the case for survey telescopes where ε can reach 0.4 - 0.6. Typical examples of different class instruments are the Pan − Starrs (D = 1.8 m, ε ≈ 0.57), SDSS (D = 2.5 m, ε ≈ 0.52), VISTA (D = 4.1 m, ε ≈ 0.41) and LSST (D = 8.4 m, ε ≈ 0.61). In such cases the final (telescope + seeing) PSF may also be changed noticeably and hence the optical power ofthe tele- scope.
Ultimately, all states face a wall to continuation of their power. People “create” a state either as something better than the perceived coercive alternative or as an expression of their collective will and consciousness. Once created, states do all they can to maintain if not grow the power they receive from the people. They introduce symbols, like flags, to attach the people to the monster that is the state. They socialize the people from early ages with national anthems and solemn pledges. They ritualize behavior with state sanctioned holidays to create greater allegiance. But, ultimately, states are also victims. Thought it may sound strange, states, those artificial legal and social beings with monstrous powers to take life, liberty, and property, are also deeply vulnerable. States must confront the wall that is the large unknown of what goes on inside people’s heads.
So, here we have the sources of some potentially large problems: social prestige, money and power. These questions are obviously not new, but the Bologna process has been taken as the best chance to change everything. In particular, some ofthe ‘Ingenieros Técnicos’ schools and ‘Colegios’, and some ‘not-regulated’ engineering collectives, propose a single type of engineer, a 4-year Bachelor, with all the legal rights concentrated on this Bachelors level. What about the Masters? Well, they do not care much if the Masters is a one-year or a two-year degree, as long as it has no legal rights associated with the degree itself (just academic implications).
The GAO report itself notes some of these effects, such as price reductions and advertising associated with sales of counterfeits. Consumers may be aware that the counterfeits are of lower quality. Even so, these consumers would not buy the original product because of its high price, so they seek a product that is more affordable but that, nevertheless, can enable them to enjoy a certain status. This practice can have negative consequences on brand image ofthe original, whose customers see how their exclusive and expensive products are not really so unique. However, as Grossman and Shaphiro indicate (1988), piracy may also have positive effects because it can mean a form of publicity for the original brand and make the latter look even more exclusive to its products and customers. Peitz and Waelbroeck (2006) agree with this argument. They consider that piracy maybe welfare- increasing, in particular because it leads to market expansion (providing information about the characteristics and value ofthe product and facilitating the purchasing decision) and because selling physical products that are complements to the information goods mitigates negative effect of piracy on profits. Nevertheless, for Minniti and Vergari (2010) the market expansion effect, that allows firms to reach new costumers, occurs in emerging markets. Onthe contrary, in mature and widespread markets, firms prefer to be protected from piracy.
The studies that have been carried out have shown that organizational learning affects competitive advantage (Jashapara, 2003), as well as financial and non-financial performance (Bontis, Crossan & Hulland, 2002; Dimovski & Skerlavaj, 2005; Jiménez & Cegarra, 2006), and plays a part in the tangible and intangible benefits of strategic alliances (Simonin, 1997), the unit cost of production (Darr, Argote & Epple, 1995), and innovation (Verdu, Llorens & Molina, 2005). Consequently, organizational learning capability (OLC) emerges as an essential competence for organizations that are capable of evaluating their environment in order to identify opportunities, threats and pressures for change, developing strategic competences through learning.
Juan Ramón's problem was that although he refused to publish any of his early work without having revised it, each step backwards gave him the inspiration to create something new. As a result, he created more and more: “Por una cosa que depuro, creo veinte./Así que mis borradores me ahogan. Y necesitaría yo tres vidas normales para dar la obra que tengo ya, sólo la que tengo ya./Por otro lado, mi concepto estético y ético no me permite publicar mis libros hasta que tengan la máxima perfección que yo sea capaz de darles” (“For each thing that I polish, I make twenty./Therefore my drafts crush me. And I would need three normal lifetimes to finish the work which I have already, only that which I have already./Onthe other hand, my aesthetic and ethical concept does not allow me to publish my books until they have the greatest degree of perfection that I am capable of giving them”). 37 Once again, this tendency towards amplification reminds the
To my friends from MEPI. Thanks for this year, I will never forget our first outings and the last ones, our study hours, and the meetings in my apartment, are the most incredible people I have come to know, and I hope that our friendship lasts despite the distance. At a professional level, my tutor Luis Martin Blazquez, who always had the time and dedication to teach me when I had no idea what he was doing. Placido Ostos is a great professional that I have learned and admire. Placido, I hope to become like you and be able to return the favor in the same way that you did with me, to my professor ofthe master, José Pablo Chávez, who opened the door even though I did not have time to eat and I was enlightened a little with this work, and especially my director Luis Olmos, who had the patience throughout the year to cheer me up, give me feedback, give me advice onthe subjects, thanks Luis for your time.
Universidad ORT Uruguay 20 Another service that can be paid sending a text message involves deliveries from suppliers to retailer stores. Until recently, payments were done through a magnetic card (held by the retailer) and a POS reader (carried on delivery trucks). Such technology has many downsides (POS readers are expensive to acquire, costly to maintain and operate, while the logistics of emitting cards are also costly), as opposed to the use of mobile money. A rollout of this system considers a ‘prepaid’ variant where the shopkeeper, that has cash money to pay for the delivered goods, can ‘digitalise’ this by making a deposit. The actual system is carried out using a card issued and administered by a non-banking national institution - Microfin – focused on providing financial services to MSMEs. The firm has received technical support from a Peruvian bank (Mibanco) since its foundation in 2008. As of today, the system is being re-designed in order to substitute the card by mobile money, a project that is also being supported by STRO that has provided with technology and know-how. SMS payments would render unnecessary for all actors within the chain of delivery to carry cash, which is not only important from a safety point of view but also in terms of efficiency, transparency and control (real-time information on transactions is available for the microfinance agency, the shopkeeper, the truck-driver and the supplier).
There is now finally an increasing body of research that explores the dilemma brought about by the modern introduction of impartiality and neutrality as standards of interpreting (Baker M., 2010). The established civilian guidelines are a recognised and firm foundation for ethical considerations, but their explicit and unquestionable demand for neutrality may be confusing and misleading in settings of crisis and war (Snellman, 2016). Why does it matter? It hinders the professional interpreting community accepting military interpreters and lin- guists as colleagues except when they are in danger (Kahane, 2007) and, consequently, it hinders the professionalisation of those working for the military whether in intelligence gath- ering, during peace keeping or conflicts. It is clear that as Probirskaja (2016: 207) states, “[t]he picture ofthe neutral, impartial interpreter who simply interprets does not suit the war context in any way”. Nonetheless, military interpreters’ apparent partiality or non-neutrality (Cowley, 2016) as such should not be perceived as a negative or unacceptable attribute.
Francisco Gonzales, Chief Executive Offi- cer del Banco BBVA (2018) señala: “Con la revo- lución digital habrá más riqueza y bienestar, y menos desigualdad, después de cada revolución industrial, siempre se ha creado más riqueza y más bienestar para toda la humanidad”. Se- gún el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo BID (2018) en su publicación Fintech América Lati- na 2018, se identifican 1,166 emprendimientos Fintech a lo largo de 18 países de América Lati- na, aunque 5 países concentran el 86% del total de la actividad Fintech de la región: