At first, the change agent and course providers considered outcomes of six pilot courses in order to re-invent the course concept. In this context, the notion of re- invention refers to the degree to which the original self-directed learning concept was changed in the process of development and adoption. Since most participants were unfamiliar with the learning concept, the general information about the courses had to be revised in order to foster realistic expectations about the learning activities. In addition, the learning tasks had to be revised before they were used in a two year trial period (Table 1).
Many people have identified the contradictions and tensions in the current system but the solution is not clear. There may also be lessons from initiatives outside education about the difficulties of operating in local or regional manner in order to achieve difficult targets (Brown and Fisher, 2007). In the education section working locally has sometimes led to isolated examples of excellence but the cross over to other situations is inhibited by barriers of agreement and practice, and financial implications that are hard to judge. In a recent paper Wiley (2010) presents the case that openness offers an essential part of the future of education and that “the more open we are, the better education will be”. Openness, as demonstrated in OER, works in those areas where it is more efficient to remove the barrier of cost and restricted practice. If content and methods are willingly made available then the rationale for protecting and limiting choice changes.
The validity framework presented by Messick (1989) explicitly identifi es social consequences as an integral aspect of the validity argument. In addressing the intent of assessment and accountability systems, Haertel (1999) remarked that the distinction between intended consequences and social consequences is not clear because their primary purpose is to improve educational outcomes for all students. Cronbach (1988) considered consequences as prominent in the evaluation of validity by suggesting that negative consequences could invalidate test use even if they were not due to test design fl aws. When examining the impactof assessment programs designed for school accountability, the consequences should be evaluated with respect to not only the assessment, but also the accountability program in its entirety. The validity of the system as a whole needs to be evaluated in terms of its effects on improving instruction and student learning, and therefore a fundamental aspect of validation is to examine whether these benefi ts are an outcome of the use of the system. When specifi c outcomes are central to the rationale for the testing program, the evaluation of the consequences is central to the validity argument. Linn (1993) argued that the need for consequential evidence in support of the validity argument is “especially compelling for performance-based assessments… because particular intended consequences are an explicit part of the assessment system’s rationale” (p. 6). Examples of such intended consequences include improved instruction in student engagement in problem solving and reasoning. In addressing the consequences of performance assessments, Messick (1992) argued that evidence should address both the intended consequences of performance assessment for teaching andlearning as well as potential adverse consequences bearing on issues of fairness, and that it “should not be taken for granted that richly contextualized assessment tasks are uniformly good for all students… [because] contextual features that engage and motivate one student and facilitate effective task functioning may alienate and confuse another student and bias or distort task functioning” (p. 25).
Lifelonglearningand teachers’ self-effectiviness. Effective teachers should believe in his or her capability to strongly influence students’ performance andlearning methods, even among those students who may be difficult or unmotivated (Guskey and Passaro, 1994). Self-efficacy enhances motivation, affects the amount of effort and persistence that a person devotes to a task and, on workplace environment, improves job satisfaction. By examining the relationship between self- efficacy and the continuous teacher’s training, this paper’s overall aim is to demonstrate how attending training courses, post-graduate diplomas or master’s degrees helps to increase teachers’ sense of efficacy. Moreover, the impactof precariousness on self-efficacy will be analyzed going through the variables influencing teachers’ perceived self-efficacy.
With regard to contexts where empirical evidence was generated, it must be highlighted that most studies focused on the educational level of secondary education, in spite of interesting analysis observing the combinations of formal learning in class with informal learning activities complementary to the school. This situation aligns with the trend identified by Zawacki-Richter and Latchem (2018), whose paper revisiting 40 years of research in educational technologies found that most empirical research had been conducted on this educational level. It is evident that studies analysing the continuum between formal and informal learning in higher educa- tion and adult education, as well as vocational educational training are still needed. Moreover, most research dealing with professional learning focused on teachers’ professional development (TPD), with studies investigating formal learning processes within TPD activities; this result can evidently be connected to the facilitated access to formal contexts oflearning (such as school and teacher education). This picture appears to show that the full potential of the concept of LE remains unexploited. From the background literature analysed, it was made clear that people adopt technologies to flow across several experiences oflearning, cultivating relationships and curating resources, and analyses focusing mainly on formal spaces show a very limited picture of these lifelonglearning continuums. However, the research analysed to date does not seem to pro- vide strong evidence for research applications produced by educational interventions that make use of the concept oflearning ecology. It seems clear that there is a need for further research to identify patterns that could lead to better educational designs in several fields—materials, resources, applications, guidance, etc.—across digital and physical contexts oflearning to pro- mote the visibility and development of LE. In fact, since most studies are exploratory and obser- vational, the analysis is limited to describing or explaining an existing LE, and this is the case of studies with good alignment (even if there are no research applications, but the ontological and methodological principles are in line with each other). However, the poor alignment observed in many studies seems to show that the concept is adopted only as an initial metaphor.
The purpose of this paper is to assess the interrelations between learning orientation, innovation strategy, relationship orientation and economic and social performance in the management of cultural organizations such as museums. We first provide a review of the literature addressing the main constructs involved in the research: learning orientation, innovation, relationship orientation and performance and we detail the model’s hypotheses reflecting the interrelations amongst the proposed variables. Building on extensive literature, a model is developed and empirically tested using survey data collected from 491 European museums in Spain, France, Italy and the United Kingdom. Data are analyzed through structural equation modelling. In the present study, evidence is found to support the positive and significant link between learning orientation and internal (organizational innovation) as well as external (relationship orientation) changes in museums. Further, we find that organizational innovation and relationship orientation aid the introduction of greater technological developments in these organizations. We also find evidence to support the idea that learning orientation, innovation strategy and relationship orientation impact the economic and social performance of museums. Findings clearly show that achieving organizational objectives through learning processes necessarily entails the introduction of internal changes –innovation-, and external relationships –relationship orientation.
role in helping to achieve this country’s aspirations. This is based on labour statistics for the year of 2016, 64.7% (5,652,560) of the total number of working residents is made up of workers from the SME sector compared to 3,079,678 workers from the large industrial sectors. This is understood because the larger number of workers come from the larger number of SME companies which is 907,065 of them compared to 13,559 large companies. (Economic Census, 2016). Many researchers such as Holcombe (1995), Chandler (1998), Otero and Rhyne (1994), and latest by Ahmad Zahiruddin et al, (2012) agreed that SMEs are the main ‘driving engine’ of economic growth and hence, it act as stimulants towards reducing poverty and unemployment of a nation. Although this issue exists for more than half a decade in Malaysia, there is less detailed study on the involvement of SMEs’ employers on lifelonglearning programs to their workers, the status of their collaboration with Higher Learning Institutions (HLIs) and the impactof LLL programs among SMEs employer.
These changes represent progress in terms of Ecuador’s education system, which is vital to the country’s development. According to Walker (2012), “Education is a crucial element in having a good life… and it has an instrumental value in generating economic opportunities and achieving human rights (p. 181). However, there are still many improvements that need to be made to the education system. One area that is lacking in the current system is an emphasis on lifelonglearning. The second objective of the National Development Plan relates to the improvement of citizens’ capabilities and their potential, and states that “quality education favours the acquisition of knowledge for life and favours individual and social achievements.” This objective has not yet been pursued in terms of a strong orientation policy in lifelonglearning. It will be important for the government of Ecuador to make changes in order to work towards fulfilling this objective due to the evidence that lifelonglearning is a crucial aspect of human development, as will be discussed in continuation.
“A comprehensive new European approach to valuing learning is seen as a prerequisite for the area oflifelonglearning, building on the existing right of free movement within the EU. Proposals focus on the identification, assessment and recognition of non-formal and informal learning as well as on the transfer and mutual recognition of formal certificates and diplomas. Information, guidanceand counselling is addressed mainly at European level, with proposals that aim at facilitating access to learning through the availability of quality guidance services. This communication contributes to the establishment of a European area oflifelonglearning, the aims of which are both to empower citizens to move freely between learning settings, jobs, regions and countries, making the most of their knowledge and competences, and to meet the goals and ambitions of the European Union and the candidate countries to be more prosperous, inclusive, tolerant and democratic.” (Commission of the European Communities, 2001a)
24. In many cases, the raw resources needed for energy generation are located far from where the energy will actually be used. Because of this, energy planning and energy policies are often developed and implemented at scales from regional to global, through bilateral or multilateral collaboration. The potential impacts of such projects can be manifested over correspondingly large geographic scales and across political or administrative boundaries, affecting both individual wetlands and networks of wetlands. International collaboration in strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and integrated resource planning can help to ensure that the potential impacts of energy plans and policies on wetlands and wetland ecosystem services are addressed in regional-scale and global-scale energy sector activities.
9. Attempting to increase energy security and economic development as well as reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has been cited as an urgent global priority (Resolution X.25, Wetlands and “biofuels”, 2008), and there is increasing global attention to the use of low-emission and renewable sources of energy, including biofuel production. Whilst the Contracting Parties have recognized the potential contribution of the sustainable production and use of biofuels for the promotion of sustainable development and the achievement of Millennium Development Goals, they have also noted the potential negative environmental and socio-economic impacts of unsustainable production and use of biofuels (Resolution X.25).
Broadly speaking, the delivery of second corrected versions was perceived as useful for learningand understanding, perhaps because, differently from the usual dynamics of these kind of online courses, these second versions did not have the purpose of evaluating students, but of helping them in their learning process. In other words, even though the students’ final goal was to improve their grades, the purposes of second deliveries were; firstly, to have students notice the gap between their production and the appropriate target language (an important aspect to be discussed later in this paper). Secondly, it was important to enhance the teaching presence through the feedback provided and, thirdly, to change the focus of the learning experience from summative assessment to formative assessment. These factors are to contribute to learners´ joy and appreciation of the learning experience of the second language, both known as key elements in any pedagogical approach which aims at being a successful one. However, as expressed by a certain percentage of students (Figure 15), second versions were also perceived as an additional workload, which was not justified when the amount of errors did not seem significant, an issue to be considered by the facilitator when deciding which activities merit a second corrected version and which do not.
The results presented in this paper are in line with the current body of empirical evidenceand the theoretical discussion regarding the effects of aggregate fluctuations on household welfare. In a middle-income country like Argentina, even deep crises have essentially no negative effect on schooling outcomes (if anything, they have counter- cyclical effects), but can result in a decline in health status as witnessed by the increase in maternal and infant mortality and low birth weight. In terms of Ferreira and Schady’s (2009) framework, substitution effects seem to limit potential school dropout, while income effects appear to dominate for health outcomes. As in Baird et al. (2009), these results are asymmetric over the business cycle: Downturns exhibit much larger effects (in absolute value) than positive shocks. Also as in Baird et al. (2009), the estimated effects of aggregate fluctuations are partially due to the presence of a very large contraction (2001-2002) in the period under analysis.
or lazy. The child of a friend of mine, born to a sixteen year old single mother, living on benefits in a council flat, told me that he is: “blamed every day for anything that goes wrong … I used to be naughty and lazy, but I’m not any more I try really hard and my teacher’s still horrible to me – I hate him”. Working class students, due to the different cultural capital they bring to school, are often labelled more negatively than middle class pupils. Teachers expect middle class children to perform well in school, and so place high expectations upon them resulting in high achievement. Working class children however are often not expected to do well by their teachers, and so less expectation is placed upon them – or even the expectation of ‘failure’. Rosenthal and Jacobsen (1966) undertook considerable study into the concept of the ‘self fulfilling prophecy’ (S-F-P). That is, if a child is expected to achieve by others, they will. If on the other hand they are expected to perform badly, they often feel incapable and so act in the spirit of the S-F-P by means of failure (cited in DiMarco, 2002a).
The curriculum theory adopted by a particular educational system is also likely to influence the place of formal guidance within it. Nicholas (1983) distinguished three models: European classicism, in which objective knowledge is pursued for its own sake, and the search for wisdom, truth and beauty is regarded as the highest form of human activity, which should not be sullied or tainted by the practical world; Marxist-Leninism, in which the political purpose of schooling is to act as an agent in the production of the new Communist society, inculcating the skills, knowledge, attitudes and behaviour which will be needed; and liberal-pragmatism, in which schools are seen as servicing the needs of the individual, in his or her pursuit of freedom and social mobility. Formal guidance would seem likely to have very little place in relation to European classicism, a limited and highly directive place in relation to the Marxist-Leninist model (as already noted), and a much more central though less directive role in relation to liberal-pragmatism. This helps to explain why careers education has been able to establish a place within the curriculum more readily in some countries (e.g. the USA, Denmark, Netherlands, and realschulen in Germany) than in others (e.g. France, and gymnasien in Germany).
In CMPGs, playing time is adjusted to the classroom time available (Susaeta et al., 2009); in this sense, it is necessary for characters and elements on screen to have distinctive traits that stand out (color, shape and action) allowing for quick recognition and differenti- ation between them (Cheng & Yeh, 2009), thus boosting learningand playability (Sundar, Xu, & Bellur, 2010). Emotional proximity between the player and his/her character improves when the player has the possibility to choose his or her character’s distinctive traits. This im- proves teamwork as well as discerning actions in the game according to role (Dickey, 2007), which supports the fantasy of the game (Amory, 2007; Hinske et al., 2008). A clear distinc- tion of the elements on the screen allows a delimitation of the quests, linking the narrative structure with the elements that compose, characterize and differentiate the many scenes of the virtual world (Lim, 2008). Additionally, adequate design of on screen elements and char- acter animation stimulates positive emotions in players (El-Nasr, M., Aghabeigi, B., Milam, D., Erfani, M., Lameman, B., Maygoli, H., & Mah, S., 2010). The use of a large screen improves element recognition and the participants immersion in the virtual world (Bao & Gergle, 2009). The appropriate use of the entire screen improves video spatial abilities of diverging or multiple attention (Greenfield, 2009). This is aided by the three-dimensional design of the images and their relevance to the players’ culture, which improves subjective immersion in the game (Dede, 2009).
“Information and Communication Technology (ICT)” has transformed over time and is a promising tool for improving the learning process. The core aim of the research study is to evaluate the possibilities of teaching andlearning in a virtual learning (networked) environment where both teachers and learners transform. This study relied on a literature review for forming a conclusion about the issue. The review of different articles revealed that ICT focuses on providing quality education, distance learning, low-cost learning, feedback option, and the option to record the session. The negative elements are that the connection may break due to poor internet, noise issues, inability to receive questions properly during the lecture, poor engagement with virtual learners, and deficient examination evaluation. Teachers and learners can transform by considering both the positive and negative sides of the ICT and having a back-up to avoid interruption in the learning session. It is concluded that the advent of smartphones, computers, laptops, and applications like Zoom, YouTube, Facebook, and WhatsApp video is transforming conventional teaching practices. The most common software is ‘Zoom’ in the current environment that encourages the learners to take sessions online. However, it also has drawbacks that have already been discussed. Hence, it is concluded that teachers and learners should consider both benefits and drawbacks of ICT when utilizing a virtual-learning session.
Conduct a scoping review of technical aspects of relevance to the Ramsar Convention in the finance, banking, investment, insurance and other economic sectors, with a view to developing enhanced understanding of the implications for wetland-related policy and decision-making of economics-based approaches to investment and insurance risk analysis, tradeoffs, incentives, perverse incentives, modeling, forecasting, water and wetland commodities pricing, hunting and harvesting in wetlands, trade in wetland products, flood risk management, floodplain planning controls, health costs and benefits, and other aspects, taking into account evolving perspectives on valuation of wetland ecosystem services, having regard to opportunities for raising awareness of wetland issues in the financial sector.
From the capabilities approach set by Nussbaum and Sen (1993), quality of life would imply a person’s ability to make valuable acts or achieve valuable states of the individual. In cohesion with this, people may be capable of: a) living like a normal human being, b) having and maintaining body health, c) moving freely with bodily integrity, d) having freedom of usage and expression of their senses, their imagination and their thinking, e) having feelings and emotions that are not destroyed by fear, abuse or negligence, f) forming a conception of good, and taking part in critical discussions in this regard, g) interacting with their peers, h) living concerned of their relation- ship with nature and the environment, i) having fun, playing and enjoying spaces for recreation, and j) having control of their own political as well as the economic and social environment 65 .