1. Information-gathering: students-conducted surveys, interviews and searches in which students are required to use their linguistic resource to collect the information. Through, these types oftaskstudents performed as investigators by conducting class interviews and surveys, in which they analyzed the information and shared the findings. 2. Role-play: Activities in which students are assigned roles and improvise a scene or exchange based on given information or clues. In these students were ask to make a video conversation by role-playing two people talking about their hobbies, and then share the experience. 3. Task-completion: in this type, puzzle, games, map-reading and other kind of classroom tasks in which the focus in on using one‟s language resource to complete a task. Thus, students performed this type oftask by playing snake and ladder board game in they had to answer questions about their past to advance and win the game. 4.Reasoning-gap: This involve deriving some new information from given
In our country for example, there are not many schools or universities, which put methods, techniques or learning strategies into practice in order to develop communication skills. Furthermore, a few researchers have paid special attention to this topic in our country. In Peru, adolescents, under 18, represent 35% of the country's total population. An important figure that represents the generation that will be integrated into the world of work in the coming years as the protagonist of the country's change and development. Recognizing and strengthening Secondary Education to train young people has been a primary concern for the Government so these young people could be able to cope and deal with the demands and opportunities they encounter in their path. It is also necessary to create greater opportunities for adolescents to continue their vocational training or to enter the workforce.
A fter the analysis and interpretation of the results of this study, it is important that educators and policymakers facilitate professional development in educational institutions to ensure that teachers became aware of the effectiveness of new strategies, techniques and learning about their implementation in the classes. In addition, it is necessary to provide mentorship to fellow Ecuadorian educators who wish to implement the MI theory in their English classes. Moreover, educators and policymakers need to be committed to creating an internet blog where teachers from Ecuador and all around the world reflect on and share their experiences using various teaching techniques in the classroom. Additionally, students from the Cornelio Crespo Toral School achieved a significant increase in their language performance skills of 24.04%. This average is relatively low compared to their personal appreciations of the TBL worksheets.
29 This is a complex decision and to make efficient groups it is crucial to know the students and base the grouping criteria on different aspects (Slavin, 1995). In this case, the teams were made at the beginning of the intervention and taking into account three essential factors: the different levels of English, the friendships, and the sense of initiative they had. There were five outstanding students in the class who had a very good level of English and it seemed obvious that if those students had been put together in the same group, they would had got better results than the others, so they were separated into different teams. Then, with regard to the rest of the group, the relationships among students were the main aspect to keep into consideration. During the period of familiarisation with the group, it was observed that the class was divided into two closed subgroups that did not interact between them and there were also two students that were not part of any of the groups. Therefore, based on the work of Simazoe and Aldrich (2010) all students were mixed with classmates they never interacted with, in order toimprove the learners’ social skills and, as a consequence, the class atmosphere. And the last criteria was that all the groups had to have at least one member with certain sense of initiative who could enhance the others’ motivation when doing the tasks at the same time that they acted as a kind of leader. Moreover, it is important to mention that, following the instructions of Slavin (1995), the groups were formed with 4 or 5 members. So, it was also possible to work in pairs in some of the activities.
fundamental mode oflearning and explicit teaching of reading should be integrated by all teachers in all subjects, the second principle points out that all students can and should be taught reading texts that have the same level of complexity in order to reduce the gap, level that will be one step higher than the most advanced student (avoiding the use of individualized reading levels). This connects to the third principle which sustains that learning happens when teachers scaffold studentsto do learning tasks that are beyond their independent abilities (Acevedo & Rose, 2007). These principles and pedagogy acknowledge Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) which refers to the area of exploration for which the learner is cognitively prepared but requires help and guidance, as well as social interactionto progress and develop new knowledge, this is achieved by adequately applying the following features: collaborative learning, discourse, modelling, and scaffolding strategies. The reading to learn model, also provides teachers with two sets of skills for accelerating learning and reducing disparity namely, a set of skills for interacting with students around written texts, and the second is a set of skills for selecting texts in the curriculum, and to analyze the language in order to plan the lessons (Rose & Acevedo, 2006).
Traditionally, classroom instruction in EFL context has been developed by using methods based on grammatical approach. Teachers assumed that after learning some grammar rules, students would be able to speak. However, some research on lexis has demonstrated that vocabulary is more fundamental than grammar in oral production. (Lewis 1993, Moudraia 2001, Lee 2004) Lewis (1993) argues that lexis is the base of language learning and that mastering grammar is not a requirement for effective communication. Furthermore, Sakale and Seffar (2012) carried out a study in which they pinpointed the significant role of lexis in oral production. They found that the lack of vocabulary competence tremendously affects students’ oral interaction. Then, they suggested training students in the
This paper investigated how young English language learners reacted to the implementationof technological resources in order toimprove their English vocabulary in the classroom. The information and communication technologies (ICTS) were the primary resources are programs to contribute in different ways to the education, especially in the process of teaching – learningof a foreign language like English. It is suggested due the impact of technologies in education, for this reason should be implemented a program that contribute with the development of the different skills in the students; also, toimprove the English vocabulary for a better understanding. In this study, technology options motivated to the studentsto be engaged. However, is important to know that technology cannot be seem as a unique method to teach and learn a foreign language. Also, the teachers are guides of the studentsto keep the interaction between them in the learning process. The participant of this qualitative research, young English learners have been observed through different sections in a constructivist environment, while data was gotten from observations, interviews, surveys and focus group. Vocabulary is essential in the teaching- learning process of English language due to without enough knowledge of people cannot understand what are talking or writing. For this reason, vocabulary is a part of English which could be developed through using technology in class toimprove it. The present research shows the improvement of the vocabulary of the eighth basic grade students from the “Unidad Educativa Almirante Alfredo Poveda Burbano” with the help of an educative software with activities created especially for this study.
a pedagogical approach in which direct instruction moves from the group learning space to the individual learning space and the resulting group space is transformed into a dynamic, interactive learning environment where the educator guides students as they apply concepts and engage creatively in the subject matter (par. 3). Before 2014, the terms Flipped Classroom (FC) and Flipped Learning (FL) tended to be used interchangeably. The term Flipped Classroom is understood as a model of blended learning in which students watch videos or read texts before the class and then do homework during the classroom time (Bergmann & Sams, 2014). On the other hand, Flipped Learning is a pedagogical approach that allows teachers to implement different teaching methodologies in their classrooms, for example combining Flipped Learning with project- basedlearning, tasked-based, inquiry-based or any other active learning methodology, in which student-centered learning spaces are provided to participants. It is important to recognize that many teachers might have been “flipping” their classes (delivering content to study at home and doing homework during classroom time), but this does not necessarily mean that Flipped Learning is happening. This is the reason why the Flipped Learning Network (FLN) composed a definition for this term in 2014, establishing four “pillars” (Flexible Environment, Learning Culture, Intentional Content, and Professional Educator), which, according to the FLN, teachers must include in their practices to engage in Flipped Learning.
The rationale that justifies the present study lies in the teacher-researcher’s interest in analyzing how the incorporation of self-managements skills such as goal setting and task analysis could have a positive impact on a population of B1-B2 students’ listening comprehension level of academic lectures. Prior to considering an intervention, a needs analysis survey was conducted to identify students’ perceptions towards listening as a language skill. It was also evident that students resorted to note taking as their main strategy to deal with long listening tasks, but avoided listening to academic sources given the level of difficulty in terms of vocabulary, speaker’s accent, pace and background noise. Based on these findings, the teacher-researcher decided to include TED-Talk lectures, an online resource well known for its varied high-quality academic lectures as complimentary material in her lesson planning. In addition, sets of power point presentations and listening guides were designed to present the strategies and activities developed to keep track ofstudents’ process and progress. Hence, the main objective of this pedagogical intervention was to answer the research questions in the study and determine to what extent the established objectives were reached.
This subcategory also indicates that interaction with peers allowed studentstoimprove their learning and acquire new knowledge. As cited by constructivist theory, knowledge construction occurs within Vygotsky’s (1962) social context that involves student-student and expert-student collaboration on real-world problems or tasks (Cited in Neff, L., n.d.). Throughout the learning process, students demonstrated different levels of performance and skills. They shared endeavours between expert and less-expert participants in their working group; this reflects back to the fact that, sometimes, students are able to carry out tasks individually, without help, but at other times, they are going to need the help from their peers or even from the teacher. This implies that less advanced students can take advantage of the knowledge of more advanced peers and at the same time, these latter ones can also reinforce their skills and learning. Some thoughts and comments from students and the teacher-researcher supporting these assumptions are:
One project related to the last one mentioned is The Impact that TaskBased Approach has in Oral Production when implemented in a Conversation Club. Herrera Torres and Santamaría López’ (2006) principal objective is to describe and analyze the oral production process through TBA. The conclusion is that when in the class there is the implementationof the TBA in the oral production; the students reflect about their own task. For this reason, this project shows how when implementing tasks where the students can take an appropriation of; they learn and produce orally more. In this case, they are not only tasks, but also a project related to their lives.
● Predicting: For studentsto be good readers, they should set and objective in order to have motivation and a purpose for reading. Based on students’ experiences and previous knowledge about certain topics, students are able to make predictions about future events and situations that might happen, formulating ideas while reading (Block & Israel, 2005). This strategy also allows for more student interaction, which increases student interest and improves their understanding of the text (Oczkus, 2003). It is important to compare the outcome in the actual text with the prediction process as it will lead the learner toimprove his understanding. If students are not given a chance to make predictions, if will be difficult toimprove the reading comprehension. (Duke & Pearson, 2002). There are some activities in order to predict information such as using the pictures, the table of contents, the titles in the book, the keywords presented at the beginning, using a diagram or graphic, making predictions about certain specific parts of the book and sharing with classmates the ideas in order to compare and evaluate predictions.
At this stage, the teacher observed students‟ social strategies performance, and in the middle and at the end of the implementation, the students filled a think aloud record after some activities to record their performance during their interaction with their peers. From Week 3 to week 9 (Appendix G), the aim of each lesson was to have students use the three social strategies while they were interacting in activities such as discussion, debates and simulations. For example, in week 8 the teacher created two large groups (A and B) and each student received a role. Within the groups, students discussed the possible expressions for a telephone conversation based on their roles. Randomly, students got together and performed a telephone conversation. The participants had to use English expressions to insist, interrupt, direct the conversation, hesitate or express uncertainty; therefore, the cooperation with peers, substitution and asking for clarification and verification strategies were intended to be used in class. However, in some classes, depending on the situation given and their immediate need to communicate a message and interact, students were able to use at least two or the three social strategies in each activity.
In his research study, Lee (2009) pointed out the differential effects of CMC interaction in a blended learning environment using technological tools such as text-chat and voice-chat, and face-to-face interactions on university level of ESL students’ vocabulary acquisition. Some aspects of Lee’s study which were considered for the development of this study include whether CMC interaction helps learners acquire new lexical items productively, and whether ESL students find CMC interaction helpful for their English learning. As part of his pedagogical intervention, the author applied pre-tests and post-tests to determine the target lexical items acquired by the students during the process. In addition, the author used a follow up survey from each participant to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the use of computer- assisted language learning (CALL) tasks. One of the results obtained by Lee (2009) indicated that “students tended to acquire new lexical items when they had some background knowledge about the target words or they were negotiating both form and meaning with their partners” (Lee, 2009, p. iv). His conclusions led the researcher to implement similar strategies for the pedagogical intervention.
The pedagogical implementationof this research project was designed based on task-basedlearning approach. The term task has been defined by many scholars, for instance, Long defines task as "a piece of work undertaken for oneself or for others, freely or for some reward. Therefore, examples of tasks include painting a fence, dressing a child, filling out a form, buying a pair of shoes.... In other words, by 'task' is meant the hundred and one things people do in everyday life, at work, at play, and in between" P. 74. On the other hand, Willis (1996) defines task as an activity where the target language is used by the learner for a communicative purpose in order to accomplish an outcome. Likewise, Nunan (2006) states that task is a piece of classroom work that involves students in comprehending, producing or interacting in the target language while their attention is focused on mobilizing their grammatical knowledge to express meaning, and in which the intention is to convey meaning rather than to manipulate form.
considered “any text (printed or digital) or tape which was produced for a purpose other than teaching the target language” (p. 101). Such materials could make students feel interested in the learning activities as they are real life items like magazines, newspapers, poems, songs, user manuals, and brochures. Additionally, Morrow (as cited in Gilmore, 2007) stated that “an authentic text is a stretch of real language, produced by a real speaker or writer for a real audience and designed to convey a real message of some sort” (p. 4). Moreover, House (2008) affirmed that “non-language based authentic materials can be used very effectively to provide repetitive practice of target language. It all depends on how the task is defined” (p. 62). Bearing in mind the positive impact of authentic materials and considering my students needs and interests, I designed and implemented six worksheets centered on storytelling which allowed my fifth-graders to enhance their oral interaction by means of language used in day to day situations.
With regard to the second research question, it can be stated that teachers make use of appropriate techniques and strategies to promote the use of the foreign language, whether individually or in groups. Teachers’ own perception of their work is an important factor in the success of CLIL, as teachers are responsible for providing adequate support by scaffol- ding students’ negotiation of meaning (Bonnet, 2012b:182), and scaffolding is necessary to help students structure and accomplish tasks (Meyer, 2010:15). Teachers deploy an array of activities to attract and maintain their attention, and what is even more important, to accommodate the different learning styles of the students. They carefully plan their lessons in order to provide students with an ideal scenario, reflect on their teaching practice and on the students’ performance in an attempt to polish and improve their teaching. The teacher’s role largely consists of monitoring and guiding the students, allowing them to think and solve the tasks by themselves, in line with the guidelines for the promotion ofinteraction suggested by scholars and researchers (Mackey, 1999; Della Puppa, 2008).
Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment). Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar and routine matters. Can describe in simple terms aspects of his / her background, immediate environment and matters in areas of immediate need. (p. 24) Observation. For this research, observation through field notes and video recordings registered information of the students’ oral interaction during ten sessions in which they were solving different communicative tasks according to the ones proposed by Jane Willis in her Task-BasedLearning framework (1996). This instrument purposefully observed whether students used the foreign language, how they interacted when solving the tasks, and how motivated they seemed towards using English.
The category related to “Students” revealed students’ reflections about their self- perception such as “English is not for me” which may be referred to past experiences with the language that had made them believe that English is too hard and they cannot learn it. Also cultural factors related to the learning and use of English. There was a student who considered that at some point he/she would have to interact with an English speaking person “and why not show them that we are good even with something that belongs to them (their language)”. Many students had suggestions on how toimprove their level; some of the recommendations expressed that they would like “that learning was fun” or their interest in “doing sentences or plays in English” because they consider they learn better; in addition, to learn “to speak and write, because sometimes we just write and don´t know how to pronounce the words”. Another suggestion that appeared several times is the fact that “teachers should be better prepared, and innovate their teaching practices”.
As for the Language Center, this is an opportunity to focus more on interaction rather than textbook based classes. Teachers should implement more activities to develop oral and speaking skills on the students that would help them to get better opportunities and results in a long-term period. Also, it is important to mark that many of the classrooms did not count with TV sets of technological devices to develop the tasks. For this reason, the researcher was forced to bring his laptop to every class and transport a TV set from the coordinator’s office to the classroom. As well, the group had only one space to make use of the Laboratory in the semester and only for one hour. This is not enough time to develop learning processes and achieve teaching objectives and it is suggested to add more sessions for the lab since there are a lot of classroom activities that can be done there.