Unlike the work at the University, in this secondary school level the teacher is constantly reviewing and analyzing concepts and topics proposed to students, doing exercises, tests, etc. and correcting their mistakes. It is not necessary for him to remark mistakes in GWRP; this constitutes a part of the adaptation to this educational level. We prefer much more to focus on the amusing and attractive aspects of topics studied, the difficulties they have met and how they can apply these topics to real life or some problems beyond class. The second adaptation is related to the weekly control of the student´s learning process. In this level the control will be carried out at most after each topic unit for both students and lectures not become overload with excessive work.
Students hand in the GWPR for feedback at the end of each unit topic (five in total). In each paper students discuss and solve some questions and problems that I proposed related with the more relevant concepts learned. Some questions are intended to encourage students to think about and review concepts learned in earlier units of the same subject, or in other subjects, in a different context. I try to select questions and problems using examples from the research literature. I tell the students that the problems they are solving are related to real chemistry performed by chemists working on interesting and important research lines ranging from biological chemistry to the properties of materials, with great social implications in different fields such as health and pharmaceutical industry. I have become convinced that encouraging students to analyse problems systematically is an important factor in increasing their overall intellectual skills and promoting an active and participative learning. Moreover, GWPR help personalise the learning experience providing a continuous and formative method of assessment. Feedback from students has been extremely valuable in making clearer to me certain misconceptions about the learned topics such as conformational effects on reactivity or acid and base catalysis.
As mentioned above there are two alternatives to carry on the approach: a) the professors ask students to find information about a particular topic, or b) the method is directly applied to the usual GWRP. In both options the works written by the students can reach differentlevels depending on the academic course they are studying. Students of the first year are expected at least to locate and report the literature information. Second year students could develop more analytical and evaluative skills whereas third year and fourth year students would be expected to seek a range of information resources and understand and apply the legal and moral values which are attached to the use of information .
This innovative pedagogical approach has deeply contributed to the development of the student learning process and consequently been reflected in our teaching practice. The outcomes of the GWRP activity do not depend upon how much students have been studying but upon the level of comprehension of the knowledge we have shared with them. Therefore this strategy is very useful to prove the efficiency and quality of our teaching practice which leads us to continuously improve our way of teaching. Over several years, we have shown our results both in internal meetings in our University and in International Conferences, our colleagues have been caught up by our enthusiasm, which promotes their involvement in our model. Thus, different academics and organizations have adopted our reflective pedagogic strategy. The most recent incorporation of this approach has been implemented by selected academic staff at De Montfort University (DMU), Leicester (United Kingdom). This versatile methodology is being tested in a new university educational environment using a student cohort with a different set of characteristics and academic context compared to previous cohorts.
GPSS is designed for the sub-area of discrete simulation systems, which basically means that each simulation is controlled by a finite simulation clock that changes discretely. For each clock change ( tick) the system being simulated updates its status, cascading to all entities in order to be ready for the upcoming clock change. This behavior affects both permanent entities (facilities, storages, chains) and temporary entities (transactions). Hence, a simulation run can be decomposed as a sequence of clock changes and entity updates associated with those changes. Each component of that sequence represents a snapshot of the simulation in a precise clock time. This concept leads to a different way of interpreting a simulation run, based on the analysis of entity changes during running time. Even though this might not be very useful for real simulation analysis, it clearly helps students understand how the simulation advanced and what really happened in each advance: how the clock moved forward, which entities existed in each clock time, what they were like and how they interacted with each other. It is of particular interest that this model also helps to understand the transaction scheduling system inside the system chains, which is a particularly problematic topic. The previous concepts were implemented by making major changes to the GPSS interpreter and the simulation engine to enable them to take full snapshots of the simulation during runtime. Snapshots are taken each time the system clock changes and they are queued in an in-memory data structure as the simulation runs. It must be considered that snapshots are quite heavy in memory and CPU terms, since they represent the whole simulation graph, composed by all model entities and its relationships. Once taken, each snapshot is persisted in a relational database system (RDBMS) for further analysis. Persistence is also a heavy task that involves saving all entities to a relational database and it is handled by a concurrent thread that maps objects to tables and stores them in the DB in disk.
“Below average” students. Johnson (1997) proposes that human relationships are the most critical factor in student resiliency. Miguel is not resilient a student because he does not succeed academically in school despite the presence of adversity. In addition, with Miguel, it was difficult to collect all the information, his parents did not attend the meeting, and he did not present his diary or attend the weekly sessions. In this specific case, there are more risk factors than protective factors that affect Miguel’s academic outcome. Finally, resilience comes from supportive relationships with parents, peers and others, as well as cultural beliefs and traditions that help people handle with the inevitable problems in life. Wright and Masten (2005) argues that “every child capable of developing a resilient “mind-set” will be able to deal more effectively with stress and pressure, to deal with everyday challenges, to develop clear and realistic goals to solve problems” (p. 4).
New Tech Odessa High School (NTO), as a learning organization, embraces an innovative pedagogy: networked computer assisted PBL instruction. This constructivist educational approach, along with an effective, professional, collaborative school learning culture, is designed to develop deeper learning: master core academic content, critical thinking, problem solving, growth mindsets, communication and collaboration skills to prepare students to thrive and succeed in post-secondary education, career and civic life of the 21 st century global economy. At NTO, learning is a means to an end, not an end in itself. Learners are encouraged and motivated to move from a passive role to become active participants in creating, self- directing and self-assessing their own learning and understanding. Facilitators and administrators participate in comprehensive professional development, and receive coaching and training to learn and guide the students’ learning, and therefore, teach them how to become lifelong learners.
The IMS-LD standard (ADL, 2002), which is based on EML (Hermans et al., 2004), tries to describe the aspects more related to the learning process in itself, such as sequencing or role playing. The first step in preparing the design of the data mining subject as a unit of learning (or a sequence of them) according to the IMS-LD recommendations is to specify all the roles in the scenario defined by learning process. There are two main roles: learners and staff. In a first stage, all learners will share the same role (i.e., no sub-roles are defined yet), while staff is partitioned in three sub-roles: tutors, teachers and managers, following the UOC pedagogical model. With the introduction of collaborative work, though, it will be necessary to define sub-roles for the student role. As Williams (2003) stated in his study, there are some skills related to different roles, thus different roles and competences can be established according to such skills. The second step is defining the activities performed by all the roles and sub-roles defined in the previous step. Currently now, the teaching plan is the document in the UOC pedagogical model where most of this information can be found, but there are also a lot of hidden interactions between all the sub-roles (specially the staff ones) that must also be thoughtfully described in order to simplify the learning process and ensure its complete tracking. The next step is defining the environment (or the structure of environments) where the learning process occurs, that is, the virtual classroom within the virtual campus framework, which includes other resources such as the digital library or the agenda, among others. All the available learning resources are defined in this section. It is important to define here the variables which will be used for categorizing students, especially those which measure the navigational patterns followed by the students along the academic semester (Mor, 2004). Finally, all the relationships between roles, activities and the environments are defined as methods, which include activity structures, play roles and conditions (for personalization purposes).
In this work, a web-based interactive learningenvironment (ILE) for GPSS is presented. The ILE was built upon an intuitive graphic user interface (GUI), based on dialogues and visual aids and a simulation engine improved for learning purposes. As with most web applications, no installation process is involved since the whole application can be exposed through a web server. In addition, the application architecture – split into several layers based on the client-server model – enables the ILE to be plugged into other web systems, in particular Learning Management Systems (LMS) such as Moodle (Moodle, 2012) Sakai Project (Sakai Proyect, 2012) and LRN (LRN, 2012). Models created on the client side of the ILE can be sent to the simulation engine on the server for its execution. The engine handles everything related to code parsing, interpretation, simulation running and report generation, keeping the client lightweight. Last but not least, for each simulation run, the server registers all changes as different simulations’ snapshots which are kept in persistent media. Thus, students can fetch snapshots of their simulations and analyze in deep detail how the whole model – or even a particular model entity – progressed during execution time. The following section shortly reviews some previous modeling and simulation related publications as well as current GPSS implementations. Next, in the Methodology section, some issues related to GPSS learning are explained and the most important aspects of this work are introduced. Then, the application is presented and its implications related to those issues are described, followed by a section with some important notes about the development and its advantages. Finally, suggestions for future work have been included in order to offer a wider point of view of the project.
Nonherbivorous prey incidence is positively associated with chain length and thus yields a direct index of chain length. It should be highlighted that the use of this index brings a conservative estimate of variation in trophic po- sition of predators because nonherbivorous prey may in- volve different trophic levels (e.g., primary or secondary carnivorous species). In addition, the effect of energy on food chain length should be stronger in the shortest food chains than in the longest ones (Yodzis 1993), and vari- ations in the shortest chains are those that our index is more prone to detect. Further, precipitation and the in- cidence of nonherbivorous prey are monotonically related with the variables they represent (rainfall and trophic po- sition, respectively) and thus convey a robust estimation of the functional association between the original variables (Arim and Jaksic 2005). The large difference in body size between invertebrate and vertebrate prey implies differ- ences in their energetic value to predators. The analysis based on individual prey without considering these dif- ferences may overestimate the effect of small invertebrate prey. To minimize this potential bias, we analyzed the in- cidence of nonherbivorous prey for the complete set of prey and independently for vertebrate and invertebrate prey.
Performance in team sports is the result of a dynamic and interactive process between two opposing teams. The aim of this study was to examine the performance of volleyball players executing terminal actions (i.e. serve, attack, block and counter-attack) in terms of match quality. Three hundred and seven sets were selected randomly from U14s up to Olympic level and analysed according to type of match: balanced (strong vs. strong, and weak vs. weak teams) and unbalanced matches (strong vs. weak). The variables analysed were: competition category, frequency of use and coefficient of efficacy for each technical–tactical action, and way of execution in terms of match quality. A K-means cluster analysis was performed to divide teams into two groups according to quality (stronger or weaker teams). The change between the types of match was estimated by means of effect size at 90% confidence intervals. Few and small differences between balanced and unbalanced matches were found. Most changes were related to play style, and happened in balanced matches and in initial age categories. The findings may be useful for coaches, physical trainers and match analysts when evaluating team performance and designing plans according to competition demands and players’ stages of development.
The translation of the colloquial and spontaneous nature of slang would pose a difficulty for professionals adopting one approach or the other. Every language includes a series of slang terms that only know a certain group of speakers. Therefore, any type of text containing a large amount of slang terms will require the use of certain techniques on the part of the translator to solve the difficulties derived from the slang translation. Peter Newmark (1988) established two different techniques in order to approach the slang translation: (1) through semantic translation, by which the translator tries to keep the content and form of the source text. Consequently, the main translator´s barrier is to make the readers understand the message of the original text in a foreign context; and (2) through communicative translation, by which the translator tries to produce a target text that makes readers feel in the same way as those readers of the original text, keeping its cultural value. However, when performing this type of translation, the translator has to be careful with the distance that exists between the source text and the translated text, avoiding an interpretation away from the original piece (Newmark 1988).
In reference to juvenile unemployment, the author points out the following psychosocial consequences: lack of hope in the future and lack of ambitions, expectations and plans; inactivity, apathy and boredom; loss of self-confidence; abandon the search for a position and a diffused hostility against the community. The guiding principles and the ambitions learned through family and school socialization gradually cease to exist. Thus, youth seem to be a population that is more and more at risk and which should be assigned top priority both in research and social policies.
(1) identificar y entender los contenidos loca- les que conforman un texto; (2) comprender cómo se articulan las partes de un texto para darle un sentido global; y (3) reflexionar a partir de un texto y evaluar su contenido” [(1) Identify and understand the local content that makes up a text; (2) understand how the different parts of a text are articulated in order to give it global sense; and (3) reflect on a text and evaluate its content )] (ICFES, 2016c, p. 4). In this way, the reading is assessed using a comprehensive and reflective approach, which allows the student to create cognitive processes focused on the processing of the information from its interpretation, argumentation and purposeful critique.
After that, I decided to study English as a career for three reasons. The first was because I believed that learn a new language would be a good opportunity in my life to know other cultures, interact with other people and get a good job. The second was, many of my family members are teachers, that is why I am a teacher too. I thought that teaching English would be fantastic and I was not wrong. The last reason was, my secondary school teacher. He was one of the best teachers that I had. I liked the way he spoke, the strategies he applied to teach. He was fun and I wanted to be like him. When I began to study English I used to translate word by word and I used the memorization. This took me many hours and I could not learn much. But now, I prefer to read books, watch movies, videos, listen to music or practice with my friends. One of the most difficult things I faced when I started learning English was face my fear of making mistakes. I did not want to speak English because I believed that I could mispronounce the words or express my ideas in a wrong way.
The problems in both urban and environment are those that originate from the increase of urban growth and are the result of the deterioration of environmental conditions. As a place of population growth, commercial and industrial activity, cities concentrate energy and resources use and waste generation, to the point where both manmade and natural systems are overloaded and capacity to handle are overwhelmed. Therefore intends to develop a methodology to analyze the urban-environmental aspects in detailed scale and subsequent verification and justification in the different spatial scales of the city. This type of approach will enable the integration of information in each of the levels of study. The development of this research allows to verify and to substantiate homogeneous areas with differentlevels of vulnerability atdifferent spatial scales of the city and detailed information and qualified at the time of making it possible to propose policies and actions for urban planning today. Keywords: urban-environmental aspects – homogeneous areas of vulnerability.
The purpose of this study was to identify some strategies that allowed teenagers from tenth grade in a Bilingual School to improve their reading comprehension skills using English literature in a virtual learningenvironment. We were able to design a unit where we included several strategies that we analyzed and described, focusing on the reading skills, like inferring, predicting, motivating, making connections, designing diagrams, understanding literature, visualizing, and critical thinking and so on. Activities are presented in an innovative way, because the whole reading plan can be used as a complement of the presence based modality classes but it is helpful to be develop as an independent area too. For the design, we use different apps for making students competent not only in language but in technology as well. Some of the apps we proposed are: calmly writer, Speakpipe, Padlet, Prezi and Canva.
❖ The continuous formative assessment, as part of the teaching and learning processes, provides the teacher with information that can be used to assess whether or not the children have met the objectives. At the same time, the information obtained from the everyday teachers’ assessment can help with the planning of experiences that match the children’s achievement and will help their progress.
Karaoke is very useful in teaching of English language, students like to hear the songs and read the subtitles or the lyrics songs at the same time they will pronounce, since its implementation affects very much in learning English language. Also, learning many interesting words of the different songs exposed, even when the student does not understand the tone of pronunciation, however, the word on the screen helps to memorize them. The development of karaoke is carried out by means of an electronic device designed especially for those people who prefer to maintain anonymity, being in this way a social phenomenon for several decades and at present. In the same way the author Shuker (2009), explains that "karaoke means to people like singers and listeners: combines musical technologies at the same time, personal experiences and memories". (p. 191)
The instruments used, allowed for student feedback through class discussions in the beginning of each semester, a learning style multiple choice test online called What’s your Learning Style? 20 Questions (n.d) was given on the first day of class, questionnaires consisting of multiple questions at the beginning of each semester and one at end of each semester and assessment activities to monitor the student’s advancement in learning the tasks and new information given were also administered. The questionnaire given out on the first day was called The Importance of English and was made by the English professor of the group participating in the study. It asked students about their reasons for taking English, why the students think it is important to learn English, strategies used in previous English language courses they attended, personal opinions about those courses and if they think being proficient in English will help them in the future. The questionnaire given at the end of the course was called Games and Various Strategies Used in Class and their Importance. This was also created by the professor of the course where the investigation took place. It asked questions about what teaching strategies the students felt they learned the most from, what types of activities they enjoyed, and personal opinions about what and how they learned over the semester. These questionnaires were a combination of ideal, interpretative, hypothetical and provocative qualitative research questions. The teacher also shared information with other teachers and received feedback from different professors teaching the same level of students, but not teaching to their specific learning styles or using games in the classroom as a motivational and learning strategy. Through these investigative instruments the professor was able to gather sufficient information to create conclusions and obtain results for the research that was conducted.