PDF superior The influence of extensive reading on EFL students’ motivation and vocabulary learning: A case study at a private University in Ecuador

The influence of extensive reading on EFL students’ motivation and vocabulary learning: A case study at a private University in Ecuador

The influence of extensive reading on EFL students’ motivation and vocabulary learning: A case study at a private University in Ecuador

On the other hand, Kondrat (2009) states that "reading skills serve as a foundation for writing”. She argues that effecti ve reading skills give people the opportunity to learn new information about the world, people, events, and places, enrich their vocabulary, and improve their writing skills. Likewise, she affirms that reading enriches the inner world of a person, improves grammar and spelling. Furthermore, she observes that avid readers not only read and write better than those who read less, but also they process information faster. Additionally, as Davis (2003) states "Reading is fundamental to function in today's society". He asserts that there are many adults who cannot read well enough to understand the instructions on a medicine bottle, advertisements, news bulletin, maps, warning signs and so on. In the same way, the author adds that nonreaders or poor readers often have low opinions of themselves and their skills. They can perform poorly in other subjects because they cannot read and understand the material and so tend to give up. Consequently, the author believes that reading is essential in daily life and in developing a good self-image.
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Autonomous curriculum and EFL motivation and learning, the effects of autonomous curriculum approaches on motivation and learning in EFL - a colombian case study at the Universidad de los Andes

Autonomous curriculum and EFL motivation and learning, the effects of autonomous curriculum approaches on motivation and learning in EFL - a colombian case study at the Universidad de los Andes

In addition, we can see that learning style may also have played a role in the perception of task structure here. The few students who complained about group-oriented tasks self-identified as more “independent” learners. One said, “To be honest, when class activity concentrates on group dialogues or mate chats (partner conversations), I tend to lose concentration or interest. It might be my personal style of learning, but I naturally search for more structured material such as discussing on a reading, or issue. [I] have trouble learning through role play” (Post Unit 1 Survey, February 20th, 2012). The literature on learning styles goes into this concern of individual differences though the main point here is that some learners prefer to learn through interaction while others do not (Gass & Selinker, 2008). Several other students, apparently for their respective learning styles, also found certain group work demotivating (DA 13 , CA, JU, Focus Group May 23 rd , 2012). Again, this perception seemed to have less to do with the task at hand, and more to do with the structure of these tasks. On the other hand, many students commented that it was precisely the cooperative nature of the games and skits that motivated them.
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183 Lee mas

Contextualized materials focused on CLIL for inference making in reading at university level

Contextualized materials focused on CLIL for inference making in reading at university level

The conclusions of this Research focus on three main aspects. The first one concerns the issue of contextualization. The study showed that the local context has a strong influence when designing materials. Contextualizing materials brought benefits not only for the teacher researcher but also for the students. The fact that the students were familiarized with the setting of the designed materials facilitated their engagement in the learning process. Besides, considering the students’ suggestions made them feel important in terms of the appropriation of the materials and their sense of belonging towards the local context. The use of different Bogota’s landmarks was a valuable resource because it showed that teaching in an EFL classroom not only refers to the megacities or the hegemonic publishing houses, but to a wide variety of sociocultural realities including the Colombian ones. In this sense, the contextualization of the materials allowed to link on the one hand, the information provided by the students, as its principal source, and on the other hand, the academic goals proposed by the teacher.
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115 Lee mas

Creating Conditions for students to flourish: a Case study of Capabilities developed through a non formal learning community in a Collegiate university

Creating Conditions for students to flourish: a Case study of Capabilities developed through a non formal learning community in a Collegiate university

Nevertheless, there was evidence of the core group developing skills and functionings that contributed to their freedom to achieve well-being and agency. For example, they had experience planning and organising events; they went through several phases with this and learned about setting aims and objectives, the logistics of the planning process and the work involved in publicising activities. They developed team working skills and learned to compromise on their ideas and work through problems that arose. Each mem- ber of the core group substantially improved their understanding of the issues concerning refugees, as well as other issues arising from the cine forum and workshops. These were all areas they had a prior interest in and this allowed them to deepen their knowledge. Through discussion with others and work- shops from external facilitators, they also had the opportunity to critically reflect on a diverse range of issues. The degree of their critical reflection varied, but in general there was evidence that some of the group members were challenging taken-for-granted assumptions, although that was less clear for other participants, and to some extent there was a sense that the activities ‘preached to the converted’ and few other people engaged with the activities. Where they did, they were rarely encouraged to think critically. The group did also raise funds, and were clear that this was not their main objective and that awareness and understanding were more important. Nevertheless, this opened a dialogue with local organisations and allowed them to consider the impact of these funds on the well-being of others.
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18 Lee mas

A case study of collaboration among the ESP practitioner, the content teacher, and the students

A case study of collaboration among the ESP practitioner, the content teacher, and the students

In Dudley-Evans & St John (1998) we detect a clearer specification of the content teacher's role in the field of English for Specific Purposes, that is to say, the role of collabor[r]

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Conducting action research projects in a teacher preparation program

Conducting action research projects in a teacher preparation program

This research project was conducted within the Action Research approach (Kemmis & McTaggart, 1995; Stenhouse, 1975; Elliot, 1991) with a small group of teacher trainees whose research projects were carried out in public High, Middle and Elementary schools between 2004 and 2006. All of them followed four stages: To develop a plan, to improve what is already happening, to act to implement the plan, to observe the e ects of action in the context in which it occurs, and to re ß ect on these e ects as a basis for further planning, subsequent action, through a succession of cycles. The trainees’ research process was followed up by means of class observations, informal talks, life stories, autobiographies, diaries, transcripts, interviews, questionnaires and surveys administered by the authors who were part of the advisory team, in both the Modern Languages program and the Master’s Program in English Didactics at the University of Caldas. Data were collected and triangulated from di erent sources: the teacher trainees themselves, their advisors, head teachers and administrators, and the di erent data collection instruments and artifacts involved in the implementation of the research procedures. Di erent times were agreed to meet and discuss the areas of interest with participants and non-participant subjects, among which, the end of each semester was of crucial importance as part of the Þ nal or intermediate evaluation of the practicum in both the university and the schools. Data analysis was conducted by means of segmentation and categorization (Quintero et al., 2007; Spradley, 1980) on a qualitative approach basis. The Case Study Approach
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The impact of mistakes at the micro level of pronunciation on the assessment of English Phonetics and Phonology II students' oral performance”

The impact of mistakes at the micro level of pronunciation on the assessment of English Phonetics and Phonology II students' oral performance”

level features, both segmental and supra segmental is important or very important because it is the basis for the production of macro level features. One of them supports her opinion by asserting that it is impossible for an EFL student to reach intelligibility or communicative effectiveness without producing vocalic distinctions or consonant clusters, or without assigning appropriate prominence to an utterance, for instance. In a similar line, another teacher claims that students‟ recurrent mistakes at the micro level of pronunciation usually cause them to fail during Phonetics and Phonology II exams. She supports her claim by stating that even though the production of segmental and supra segmental features is not the main focus of the course, students‟ fluency and intelligibility are seriously affected by these errors so students who make many micro level mistakes are not effective at the time of putting the message across. Moreover, she adds that as these students do not study English just to communicate with other English speaking people but to become professionals of the language, they may probably be pronunciation models in the future, so they should aim at improving their pronunciation as much as possible both, at the micro and macro level.
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115 Lee mas

Vocabulary knowledge in the production of written texts: a case study on EFL language learners

Vocabulary knowledge in the production of written texts: a case study on EFL language learners

The research studies of Francis & Kucera (1982), Hwang (1989), Hirsh & Nation (1992), Hwang & Nation (1995) and Nation (2001), just to name a few, recognize the importance of the lexical profile and report remarkable conclusions. Although, each research study analyzed different types of written corpora, the aim was to determine learners’ lexical profile and the percentage of coverage provided by high and low-frequency words in different texts. The results revealed that while the words of type k1 and k2 had the highest percentage of occurrence in the corpora, the academic words reached the lowest percentage, behind the off-list words. The research analyses conclude in the necessity of looking for specific strategies and methodologies to teach vocabulary in order that learners can improve both, the comprehension and the production of the target language. That is, the mastery and knowledge of vocabulary directly influence in learners’ language performance. In fact, it is estimated that second language learners need more than 95% of the vocabulary to understand written texts (18); hence language instructors should pay more emphasis on reinforcing the learning of vocabulary in language learners rather than on grammar structures of the language. Thus, language learning should ‘focus on form’ and not ‘focus on forms’ (19).
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17 Lee mas

On the pragmatic function of anglicisms in Spanish: a case study

On the pragmatic function of anglicisms in Spanish: a case study

As already stated, although publications on anglicisms abound, the works dealing with their usage and functions – particularly on their pragmatic function – are really scarce. In a pioneering article on the functions of anglicisms in contemporary Spanish, Rodríguez González (1996: 109) remarked the importance for his analysis of two of the three functional components identified by Halliday in the semantic system of language, namely the interpersonal and the textual functions, due to the fact that they seem to have a more pragmatic nature than the ideational or referential function. According to Halliday, the interpersonal function has to do with the usage of certain linguistic units or structures that somehow can mark social or personal relationships. This function is performed by those words or expressions which are syntactically marked and have emotional connotations. It usually happens that when they have not been completely integrated into the language system or are still not recognised as such, borrowings are very prone to develop this emotional meaning, which expresses certain feelings or attitudes such as irony, dispraise, snobbery or affectations of some sort. Rodríguez González gives some clear examples of this type of terms that he considers to be evaluative, such as the anglicism gay, which is used in Spanish to mean ‘homosexual’, and líder for ‘boss, guide’. As explained by this author, what is special about these terms, in contrast to their Spanish equivalents, is that both have certain positive and pleasant connotations, which the latter do not have. In these and many other cases, what seems obvious is that the foreign nature of the anglicism contributes to soften or to hide the harshness of some concepts, performing a sort of euphemistic function, particularly in the case of those words related to the underworld (drugs, prostitution, organized crime, etc). On the other hand, and beyond the stigmatized areas, it is easy to see the prestigious connotations that English loanwords tend to convey in specialized languages such as those of advertising and computing.
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17 Lee mas

Collaborative Learning and Autonomy in EFL University Students

Collaborative Learning and Autonomy in EFL University Students

The process started by analyzing the data the researcher collected in her field notes. The researcher collected the notes after each lesson and, at times, she had to handwrite them and transcribe them later at home due to the time factor and class periods at the institution. They were digitally stored in a computer file. In the same way, the researcher analyzed and reflected about the information gathered trough the video recording of the first and last implementation session. For analytical purposes, the researcher created two digital folders in which each session was transcribed. Each instrument provided specific characteristics that were selected and classified according to the units of analysis mentioned above.
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An EFL students’ case study in written grammar errors and mistakes when learning English as a foreign language

An EFL students’ case study in written grammar errors and mistakes when learning English as a foreign language

With regard to obtaining good results in this research study, it was claimed the help of some valuable instruments such as, students’ questionnaire, teachers’ questionnaire, and a narrative passage which helped us to collect the required information. The questionnaires on the teaching process of grammar was applied to both teachers and students, it included questions related to activities in the classroom in order to find information about errors and mistakes. The questionnaire consisted of nineteen questions which are divided into single response, multiple choice and opened questions. On the other hand, the narrative passage consisted of a question “What are your expectations for the future?” so students had to write 100-150 words in length, taking into account that the narrative passage was analyzed
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105 Lee mas

CURRICULUM DESIGN AND TEACHING THEORY OF MENTAL HEALTH EDUCATION IN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

CURRICULUM DESIGN AND TEACHING THEORY OF MENTAL HEALTH EDUCATION IN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

mainly adopt solutions like self-support, seeking help from friends, teachers or parents, psychological counseling and psychotherapy. 87% of students think they have psychological stress and problems. When asked how to face psychological stress and problems, 39% of students solve them by themselves, because they dare not directly face their existing psychological problems, do not want their inner thoughts to be known by others, and prefer to choose self-support and self-control. Although self-control can relieve psychological stress to some extent, students usually do not have a proven and scientific way to deal with emotion and stress, so it is not conducive to solving psychological problems in many cases. 31% of the students like to turn to their good friends for help when they have stress and psychological problems. They can get relieved by speaking to their friends. 4% of the students would tell their families so that they can be instructed. Many times, when students have psychological problems, it is difficult for them to ask for help from their families because they do not want their families to worry about them. 13% of the students would take the initiative to seek help from teachers, mostly for issues about learning and roommate relationship; only 3% of the students choose to go to the university's psychological counseling center for counseling, which means that the students do not know enough about the university's psychological counseling, or the mental health education system is not well publicized or not professional enough – as a result, it is not taken seriously by the students. It can be seen from the way students solve psychological problems that there are serious deficiencies in the coverage, professionalism and systematization of mental health education in the university.
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7 Lee mas

The Influence of Lifestyle and Built Environment Factors on Transport CO2 Emissions: The Case Study of Autonomous University of Barcelona

The Influence of Lifestyle and Built Environment Factors on Transport CO2 Emissions: The Case Study of Autonomous University of Barcelona

In 2013 the UAB community was asked to participate in a personal, travel demand survey online. The survey was hosted in the university intranet and was available to be answered online for the whole university community for several weeks. An informative banner was set in the University webpage to encourage participation. In total 5,814 respondents filled out the form, a 12.5% response ratio and a low margin error of ±1.29%. Results were weighted according to its distribution by gender and role at the university, in order to balance the sample to the universe of study. This travel demand survey has been carried out six times since 2001. It provides valuable information, not only because it is a faithful reflection of movement patterns in a unique area such as the UAB campus, but also because it is a longitudinal study over a 13- year period. 4 The survey was structured in four main blocks: (i) general socio-demographic questions, such as age, gender and car availability; (ii) daily mobility habits, such as number of trips or number of hours at the UAB; (iii) usual transport modes and modal choice; and (iv) other questions. For the evaluation of the received enquiries, respondents were required to provide details about their professional activity, such as residential location, role at the university (student, academic staff, administrative staff) etc.
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Fun based learning to improve vocabulary in students of eighth basic grade at unidad educativa Almirante Alfredo Poveda Burbano  Salinas province of Santa Elena  school year 2018 2019

Fun based learning to improve vocabulary in students of eighth basic grade at unidad educativa Almirante Alfredo Poveda Burbano Salinas province of Santa Elena school year 2018 2019

At the beginning some students present some problems to recognize words before studied, first they start looking all the words that was appearing in the projection and they tried to remember the meaning of them. Then the assigned teacher starts to ask about the meaning of those words and the result was the students’ only sees between them, and they did not know what to answer. Time late the teacher made students repeat the words and show some images that show the meaning of the words, and the students react satisfactorily to the methodology. After that the teacher asked the students if they want to play a game, but the game was focused in the new vocabulary they acquired. So, the students were agreed, and the teacher explained the rules for the game.
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163 Lee mas

The influence of working memory on vocabulary learning

The influence of working memory on vocabulary learning

As Ghazal (2007) stated, the process of learning a new language involves learning language strategies in order to facilitate the comprehension, storage, and retention of the new language. Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLS) as Hamzah, Kafipour and Abdullah (2009) roughly defined are the actions taken by learners in order to aid the learning process of new vocabulary. He declares whenever language learners need to study words, they use one or many strategies in order to do so in a conscious or unconscious way. Schmitt’s (1997) taxonomy, in addition, divides VLS into discovery and consolidation strategies. The former are those which contribute to the discovery of the meaning of new words, that is to say, learners gain knowledge of a new word whether by guessing from L1 cognate, using context, reference material or even asking someone else. Consolidation strategies, conversely, include memory strategies such as repetition of words through writing and speaking, using lists and also cards, and any other action learners use in order to facilitate retention of new words (Sanaoui, 1995). Barcroft (2009) observed learners also make use of metacognitive strategies in which language learners assess and manage their own vocabulary development.
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83 Lee mas

Applying metacognitive strategies for vocabulary acquisition through learning portfolios

Applying metacognitive strategies for vocabulary acquisition through learning portfolios

According to Chamot (1996), metacognitive strategies include four levels. These are: (1) Plan, this is the preparation stage before beginning the task. Here students identify what they must do, identify their objectives and chart a course to reach their goals. (2) Monitor, this is performed while working on the task. Here the students check their progress in order to assess how they are doing. This way, they will recognize if an adjustment is necessary or if they should continue forward with what they planned in the first stage. (3) Evaluate, this is the last activity, conducted after completing the task. Here, students evaluate how well they accomplished the learning task, how they have used the learning strategies and whether they were effective or not. Depending on the outcome of these assessments, the students then decide if changes are necessary the next time they are confronted with a similar task. Finally, (4) Manage, learners will look for opportunities to practice. Throughout this study, students were encouraged and guided in walking through these steps to facilitate their formulation of an ongoing self- assessment.
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ANALYSIS OF CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING METHODOLOGY IN THE VOCABULARY LEARNING PROCESS AT FIRST OF BACCALAUREATE CLASS ¨A¨ IN THE UNIDAD EDUCATIVA PCEI DE FORMACIÓN ARTESANAL ¨CRUZADA SOCIAL¨ FROM RIOBAMBA CITY, DURING THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2018

ANALYSIS OF CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING METHODOLOGY IN THE VOCABULARY LEARNING PROCESS AT FIRST OF BACCALAUREATE CLASS ¨A¨ IN THE UNIDAD EDUCATIVA PCEI DE FORMACIÓN ARTESANAL ¨CRUZADA SOCIAL¨ FROM RIOBAMBA CITY, DURING THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2018 2019

In addition, CLIL use is a requirement established in the curriculum guidelines. Nevertheless, in Unidad Educativa PCEI de Formación Artesanal ¨Cruzada Social¨, CLIL was rarely applied since its use was considered unnecessary. Both teachers and students were concerned about grammar, thus they did not have the chance to be immersed into the foreign language. Sometimes when students desired to know some terms related to their major, they asked for the word translation, so teacher said the word in English and Spanish but students did not realize the use of the expression, and also teachers did not foster neither practice nor production in real contexts. Marsh and Frigols (2012) said that language is the vehicle to go into content. CLIL could motivate students to discover their talents or interests. So, when they ask about a word or term associated to their major or interests, there must be an integration of fields to enhance their cognition and language vocabulary in order to get a potential content and language development.
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44 Lee mas

Reading strategies to promote literature in a virtual enrivonment for EFL learners

Reading strategies to promote literature in a virtual enrivonment for EFL learners

● Predicting: For students to be good readers, they should set and objective in order to have motivation and a purpose for reading. Based on students’ experiences and previous knowledge about certain topics, students are able to make predictions about future events and situations that might happen, formulating ideas while reading (Block & Israel, 2005). This strategy also allows for more student interaction, which increases student interest and improves their understanding of the text (Oczkus, 2003). It is important to compare the outcome in the actual text with the prediction process as it will lead the learner to improve his understanding. If students are not given a chance to make predictions, if will be difficult to improve the reading comprehension. (Duke & Pearson, 2002). There are some activities in order to predict information such as using the pictures, the table of contents, the titles in the book, the keywords presented at the beginning, using a diagram or graphic, making predictions about certain specific parts of the book and sharing with classmates the ideas in order to compare and evaluate predictions.
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32 Lee mas

Enhancing vocabulary learning through two different techniques from a PPP approach

Enhancing vocabulary learning through two different techniques from a PPP approach

The teacher started the class doing a little warm up about school supplies. She presented some digital flashcards about a girl showing what she carried to school, through these flashcards the teacher asked to students what was the name of the object that the girl showed, and they answered to this. Later, the teacher remembered the name o these school supplies with the song and video they saw at the beginning of the semester, just to do a very clear review of the topic. After this introduction, the teacher gave to students a worksheet that included all the vocabulary learned (prepositions, colors and school supplies), while students did that, the teacher called students in groups of five to and activity in which they had to understand a description but now orally. There was a placard with three objects drawn on it: a chair, a desk and a box. Aside, there was printed images of all school supplies vocabulary. The teacher said a sentence to each student and they had to put the school supply indicated on the right place (prepositions). This was made in three round per student, each student had 2 chances of doing it right. Only fifteen students were assessed because of time.
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100 Lee mas

Motivations of Higher Education Students to Enrol in Bilingual Courses

Motivations of Higher Education Students to Enrol in Bilingual Courses

Some participants (15%) propose ideas to increase their self-competence and self- efficacy in bilingual courses to avoid frustration and anxiety derived from the lack of understanding of what is going on in the classroom. Their suggestions cover different aspects like receiving glossaries of key concepts in L1 and L2, subtitled scientific videos, clear guidelines for each class to avoid getting lost, summaries, etc. They also express the need to start with simple concepts and then move to more complex ones combined with a careful selection of courses: “Starting a subject in English which is difficult in itself makes the bilingual experience quite frustrating” (Student 226). As can be observed, most of these suggestions attribute responsibility for their own self-confidence and self-efficacy to others rather than to themselves. This coincides with results obtained by Studer (2015) and Studer & Konstantinidou (2015) which conclude that students do not tend to think critically about their contribution to self-confidence and level of competence, rather they attribute reasons of their lack of self-efficacy to others like lecturers and/or course design. However, some students also praise their personal ability to overcome frustration and give advice that they consider useful for students, suggesting that they should exploit to the fullest extent what they consider to be academic skills, like effort and changes in self-organisation, confidence in performing well, socializing with others to mediate learning when coping with difficult tasks and communicative situations, lessen anxiety, etc. This last view supports Bandura’s (1986: 391) concept of self-efficacy as “people’s judgements of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances”. The types of motivation underlying the students’ views in this field show their need to move from their present self to an ideal L2 self but, involving also a revision of the other-ideal and other-ought to gain agency in their learning practice. More studies might be necessary to analyse the connection between the students’ level of self-confidence and self-efficacy and their success in bilingual courses.
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14 Lee mas

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