TheNETWORK University Cooperation: Strengthening ofthe role ofICTin Cuban Universities for the development ofthe society is a VLIR project that has the aim to develop a national virtual educational network that will share courses material among all Cuban universities. At the same time and together with the virtual educational network, an information management system will be also shared by all Cuban universities. It means that all Cuban professors and students can access theinformation stored in digital repositories and other information storage systems ("NETWORK Activity Programme," 2013). Thenetwork, in turn, is divided into three subprojects: Research inICT related sciences; Open ICT Systems and Management and ICT supporting the educational processes and the knowledge management in higher education (ELINF).
Managing Module It’s the module that contains the menus, which allows the user to execute the system main activities. Also contains rules that will be used by the Viewing / edition module, and filters, which can be applied to the working data. In this module it’s possible to choose the picture to represent the data from its type, or to execute filtering and require data reading or writing. Here are implemented also the Artificial Intelligence and Graph Theory algorithms, responsible by the automatic processing oftheinformation about to be analyzed.
This article aims to analyse the needs of PPOs in Spain to identify opportunities to improve health services through the use ofICT. This analysis is the ﬁrst step in an online service inside the hospital: APTIC Patient Or- ganisations and ICT, a research project that follows the indications ofthe International Alliance of Patient Organisations (IAPO) 5 and the paradigm of participatory action research 6 because it has a patient-centred perspective designed to address patients’ need in an appropriate and cost-eﬀective way. APTIC’s objective is to design and run a collaborative social network for PPOs within the Patient Organisation Area ofthe HSJDbcn. Thus, it becomes another health service tool. POs are a source of additional help for family caregivers (by giving information, mutual support, advice, etc.); thus, a supportive collaborative social network will enhance synergies between the hospital and organizations, improving health- care services.
systems and interoperability based on a literature study. 'Interoperability is enabling information that originates in one context to be used in another in ways that are as highly automated as possible'. But the overall success of such data structures being applied by a wide variety of metadata producers will depend on the quality ofthe metadata content they provide.VLIRED Cuba chooses for open source software to develop thenetwork: ABCD for the library, DSpace and VIVO for research information and Moodle for e-learning. But the platforms uses different metadata formats, respectively MARC, Qualified Dublin Core, a group of ontologies and LOM. To make the different systems interoperable the content should be described in standardized way. Theproject focused therefore on the key elements to standardize: people, organization and keywords. A basic principle is that these entities should be defined by a unique value. This has to be integrated inthe different metadata formats. Authority systems will deliver standard content: for people ORCID, Cuban ID or local VIVO id's - for keywords controlled vocabularies like CCS, AGROVOC and MESH.Finally VLIRED Cuba is developing tools like EsFácil and EsFácil Authority to create standardized metadata in different platforms. EsFácil Authority is an authority system that can manage all type of authority lists and make then searchable through a REST API. EsFácil will collect and enrich publication metadata and make it available for systems with different metadata format.
This article is focusing on the problems of interoperability between the metadata of different platforms and the reusability ofthe data inthe different information silos. The use of standards in metadata and authority control systems is cen- tral in this approach. The authors are involved in VLIRED Cuba, a VLIR-UOS network programme, which is creating a virtual research and educational envi- ronment inCuba using open source software solutions. The development ofthe VLIRED Cuba is a cooperation of six Cuban universities (Camaguey, Holguin, Pinar del Rio, UCI, UCLV + University of Oriente) and the Flemish universities coordinated by VLIR-UOS with the support ofthe Ministry of Higher Education ofCuba and other local stakeholders . The article is based on the practical experience obtained during theproject.
linguistic skills and communicative competence. Next, the number of hours available for the subject of English is also of great significance, strongly influencing the decision of which approach to follow. Some of these methodologies take more time to plan before fruitful results start to be seen. For instance, for English teachers that only have 2 hours per week, following Challenge-Based Learning may get out of hand, wasting in that way highly profitable class time. Instead, a better option would be to combine those 2 hours of English with either Mobile Learning or Ubiquitous Learning, as these approaches require less previous preparation. Finally, teachers’ familiarity with ICT tools is another strong factor inthe selection of methodology. Teachers need to be self-aware of their acquaintance with ICT, as some of these methodologies suppose a greatest use of ICTs inthe English class than others. Students are able to work with ICT with extreme ease, something that teachers face in some occasions with more difficulty as they were born in a different time where technology was not that advanced. Thus, it is relevant that teachers continue learning about new ICTs and put them into practice, in order to provide students with the latest technological and educational advances.
Reliability and construct validity were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics 21. Firstly, the item-total correlation indices were analyzed in order to evaluate the contribution of each item to the total scale. Two questions, 13.12 and 13.13 ofthe questionnaire (see the Appendix) showed low item-total cor- relation (<0.3) meaning that they were a low relation with the rest of questions. Those questions were the following: (13.12) not all ofthe students have tools for watching videos or reading the online text; and, (13.13) it makes it difficult to ensure students’ accountability. After analyzing the relationship of these questions with the dimension in which they were defined, we realized, in fact, that their (semantic) relationship with the rest is low since they are both more related to the students than to the attitudes ofthe teachers themselves, so they were eliminated to reach greater reliability. After elimination, the number of items was 44. Next, the internal consistency reliability was tested using Cronbach’ s alpha coefficient. This measure helps to verify if all the factors measure the same concept and if the results are precise and consistent. The conventional minimum for Cronbach’s alpha coefficient is established in 0.7 (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2013). The Cronbach’ s alpha was calculat- ed for the total questionnaire and for each dimension. The final Cronbach’ s alpha coefficient values for each dimension and total scale range from 0.723 to 0.919 demonstrating that results are con- sistent and precise. It was checked too that Cronbach’ s alpha coefficient is greater without the 2 items before their elimination (13.12 and 13.13), for cross-confirmation of their elimination.
Ono (2006) studied the digital inequality (computer ownership and Internet use) among three Asian countries, Japan, South Korea and Singapore using individual-level micro-data for the period 1997-2000. Observations range from almost seven thousand in Japan to about 950 in South Korea and Singapore. On one hand, he found that Internet use from any location was driven by age, education, income. In Japan and South Korea women were less likely to be Internet’s users. Clearly there is a gender divide in those countries. On the other hand, the determinants of computer ownership at home for Japan were education and income that relates positively and gender, being a female, and age in a negative manner. For South Korea and Singapore, age, education and income were the most important factors. In a similar fashion, Ono and Zavodny (2007) examined usage of ICTs in five countries: the U.S., Sweden, Japan, South Korea and Singapore. They replicated the exercises done in Ono (2006) since both ICT measures are ownership of a computer at home and Internet use. Findings are also alike. In general for the Western countries there is no a gender divide. Income is the main factor that drives the five countries computer ownership. Not surprisingly, getting a college degree is also a factor in all countries that explains computer ownership. With regard to Internet use from any location, it is evident that for all the countries, mature people use less Internet. College education level and income are key factors in influencing Internet use. There was no gender gap regarding Internet for the U.S. and Sweden women.
The first data collection instrument were observations. According to Jiménez Bonilla, Cortés, & Otálora this instrument “is used to collect data on how learners use the language in a variety of settings, to study language teaching and learning processes and to study teachers’ and students’ behaviors (1996, p. 19). It means, Observation collects data on the development ofthe learning and teaching process in a determined context. Regarding this, for the development of this proposal we decided to carry out participant observations. In action research participant observations are determined by the level of involvement ofthe researcher with the target population. According to McKernan (2013) “Participant observation may be defined as the practice of doing research by joining inthe life ofthe social group or institution that is being researched… Participant observation is axiomatic in both teaching and action research since the practitioner must be committed to the study of his or her practice.” (p. 63). This type of
Thanks a lot for sending your new book. It looks great! I find it really interesting and I think it would be a good trav- el destination for me, next time I am in Greece. Particu- larly, with regard to the plu- rality of bird species that one can see inthe area. I hope Med-INA’s next book will be as interesting as this one.
competencies in university degrees  has been studied, in keeping with the strategic recommendations defined in REBIUN strategic plans. All of them sketch out the principles and the context which justify and support the plan. Moreover, they contain an analysis ofthe training necessities, determine the actions to carry out, segment the target users, establish training levels and modalities (face-to-face, semi-virtual and virtual), stress the importance ofthe spread ofinformation, and establish a monitoring process (evaluation, revision and updating).
The third principle of Critical Literacy to consider is that “the techniques which promote Critical Literacy, should adapt to the context in which they are used” (McLaughlin & DeVoogd, 2004. p. 13). For instance, in an activity we developed, we showed the students the painting The Garden of Earthly Delights made by Hieronymus Bosch, in order to make a discussion about the events that could be observed on it. The painting is divided into three panels that show different stages ofthe human race (Past, present and a possible future). Inthe first panel, Bosch painted a paradise and the origin of life on Earth, the second panel represents the humans’ mundane pleasures, and the transition stage between paradise and hell. The final panel depicts a vision of hell in which humans have surrendered to sin and are in everlasting sorrow. At the beginning students seemed to be afraid or reluctant to talk, perhaps because they did not understand clearly the situations presented inthe painting. The discussion allowed us to start talking about movies that present a dystopian future and have a relation to the painting, like War ofthe Worlds, Planet ofthe Apes and I Am Legend, and series like The Walking Dead. Afterwards, students started to generate more ideas about the painting and answered the question “What events are happening inthe painting?” as stated in Journal 5:
The Family Code (Law 1289 of 1975) is also important for the protection of children and youth. This Code regulates family institutions (marriage, divorce, parent-child relations, alimony, adoption, and guardianship) and is currently being amended. The importance of this Code lies inthe fact that for the first time “specific legal provisions for this social institution” (27) establishing the obligations of adults towards children and vice-versa were enacted. One ofthe limitations ofthe Family Code expressed in Article 3 requires authorization for girls under the age of 14 and boys under the age of 16 to get married, despite the fact that the National Plan of Action for the Follow-up ofthe Beijing Conference, adopted by the State Council on April 7, 1997, establishes in Section 61 on Family Rights that: “We shall work for ongoing improvement ofthe family legislation in order to promote more harmonic, fair and equitable relations among members ofthe family.”
It is important to consider the relationship between the use and adaptation ofICT and the experience. In this sense other studies have analyzed the number of years the company has been inthe industry, as a motivating factor inthe use ofICT. There are several studies suggesting that firms with more experience inthe market are able to adapt, implement and carry out strategic actions relating to the use and management ofICT more efficiently than other companies with little experience (Franz and Robey 1986; Sorensen and Stuart 2000). Younger firms are disadvantaged inthe process of adaptation and application of new ICTs (Sorensen and Stuart 2000). Other authors, however, have found that younger firms are more likely to develop the process, implementation and use ofICT (Goode and Stevens 2000; Balasubramanian and Lee 2008). This could be because older firms have entrenched structures, where domination and legitimation exercise a role as barriers to effective imple- mentation ofICTin these companies (Chatterjee et al. 2002).
In recent years, the use of multimedia technologies inthe educational process has become the practice of all universities in teaching foreign languages. The greatest effectiveness is shown by the use of electronic presentations inthe learning process. The effectiveness of their use is universally recognized, as electronic presentations intensify learning. As you know, the teaching of oral speech is associated with the development of speech skills, it is appropriate to note that the leading role at this stage of training belongs to the ability to speak, since the formation of speech automatisms is associated with the implementation of a large number of training exercises for independent work. You can use multimedia techniques and technologies (computer, projector, tape recorder) to intensify the process of learning a foreign language, both during classroom lessons and when doing independent work in extracurricular time. In our conditions, computer classes provide an opportunity to intensify the learning process of oral speech, they allow the teacher to record speech, texts, dialogs on a tape recorder (telephone) for subsequent playback.
The beginning is the most difficult step because it represents a gamble unprecedented in one's environment, a commitment to tools which we see common or relevant. In that sense Cormagdalena has advanced a pioneering effort to seize the knowledge of their object management: The Magdalena River. This implies an overall institutional transformation, an entity created inthe last decade ofthe twentieth century, focusing on investment of state resources to an entity with the intention of meeting and decide on an informed his work. An entity that uses techniques and technological tools towards their beneficiaries, who are ultimately the citizens ofthe Colombian state. And above all, a state entity that takes responsibility to know as much as possible the object management.
Luego, en el mismo capítulo, se presenta el concepto de information competency, indicando que se re ere a la AL- FIN en relación con el acceso a la información en for- matos electrónicos. Ello es muy cuestionable, pues la discusión sobre el uso de ese término se da más en rela- ción con aspectos pedagógicos o de promoción y divul- gación que por su relación con lo electrónico (dada la no aceptación del término alfabetización –literacy– por diferentes públicos por su carga negativa).
on the environment; or a baccalaureate student can write a paper about the greenhouse effect. In each case, the topic of environment is present through different kinds of users (work colleagues, 50 year old man, baccalaureate student), in different contexts (office, home, high school), and through different issues (impact of smoking on human health, impact of air-conditioner on the environment, and the greenhouse effect). Taking into account factors such as the learners’ age or the general goals of CLIL teaching, this topic could be approached from an academic/scientific perspective. Based on the requirements established inthe Real Decreto 1467/2007 (BOE, 2007) for Baccalaureate, we consider that a fruitful approach could be to adopt a formal-academic tone. Many ofthe objectives and contents of English as an L2 for this level address this formal, academic, and scientific language. Learners will have to make use of academic language (grammatical structures, discourse markers, technical and field-specific vocabulary) by producing formal written and oral texts that are typical ofthe academic- scientific field, such as reports, summaries, or speeches.
To achieve our goals and intentions we try to inspire and support students and teachers in their actual work situations, e.g., by offering supported physical and virtual learning environments with hands-on oriented tools for use such as the library, a media laboratory, smart boards or groupware. Support is provided by professional staff for such thing as film production. We also try to provide appropriate technology, wireless working areas, video streaming, supported communication platforms, learning platform ( i.e., Fronter) or net meeting options (i.e., Marratech).