Pérez-Montoro, Mario (2016). “Visualización de información en cibermedios”. Anuario ThinkEPI, v. 10, pp. 193-199.
Resumen: La implantación y extensión globalizada de internet ha afectado a todas las parcelas de nuestra sociedad. En el caso de los medios de comunicación, esta in- fluencia ha sido evidente, teniendo que revisar sus modelos de negocio, procesos de producción o distribución en las últimas dos décadas y creando su nuevas versiones digitales (cibermedios). En este nuevo contexto digital, la oferta de visualizaciones de información en los cibermedios juega un papel clave en los planes de marketing y fidelización de nuevos usuarios. Para entender este fenómeno es necesario intro- ducir una primera distinción entre los dos principales tipos de productos (infografías y visualización de datos) y una taxonomía de mayor finura que nos ayude a clasificar todos los productos (nuevos y tradicionales) de visualización de información que podemos encontrar en los cibermedios.
This architecture also provides for linkages between rules that control different visualization operations, with a choice of parameters for one operation constraining choices that are available for others. For example, if the user selects a colormap, that information is fed back to the operation for selecting contour lines, where rules constrain the parameters of the contour lines depending on which colormap has been selected. Hence, if the contour lines are superimposed over a dark region, as defined by the colormap, legibility rules would constrain the set of color choices to those offering sufficient luminance contrasts to be detectable. This network of linked operations help guide the user through the complex design space of visualization operations. The key element in this rule based architecture is the use of metadata; system provided metadata, as data type, data range, metadata computed by algorithm, as spatial frequency, and metadata provided by the user. These metadata would, for example, represent the dynamic range of the data or the geometric relationships between objects in the scene.
Ontologies can also be used for the representation of the emotional output generated by context. For instance, Obrenovic et al.  provided flexible definitions of emotional cues at different levels of abstraction. Their Emotional Cues Ontology provided a language to share and reuse information about emotions. The concepts handled by this ontology were emotions, emotional cues (i.e. facial expressions, gestures, speech and voice), and media (where the emotional cues are represented). Their main objective was to generate or recognize emotional cues according to the media and the emotion felt. They did not focus on the process of simulation of the environment that elicits the affective information. Heckmann et al.  introduced the general user model ontology GUMO as part of a framework for ubiquitous user modeling. What is interesting about this work is the model- ing of Basic User Dimensions as: personality, characteristics, emotional state, physiological state, mental State and facial Expression. The principal use of this data is in assessing the actual state of the user. Regarding facial expressions, if a user shows some expression, they represented this informationin their UserJournal without interpreting the current emotional state of the user. This work is very similar to our work but from the Ubiquitous Computing field. Nevertheless, their inference process is related to what will occur in the environment (ambient intelligence) and not to what will be the affective state of the user. Chang et al.  presented a three-layered framework for scenario construction, formed by: a mind model, a concept model and a reality model. The concept model provided characters with ontology-based environmental information, so they can use ontological inference to associate objects in the world with their goals and build plans according to the world where they are. Nonetheless, the concept layer did not take into consideration affective elements, which were in the mind layer.
Figure 4: Flow ordering issues. Both sub-figures show four steps in the execution of the visualization pipeline of the figure 3. In the figure 4(a) an improper item ordering is showed. Initially, A and C are transferred to Stage X and nothing can be done there. When B arrives to X in step 2, both D and E can be calculated. However, the items sent to Y are A, B and C and this stage can also do nothing. In the third step D and E arrive to Y and F and G can be computed. Then, F, B and G are transferred to the visual representation stage where a partial view is built. Finally A is sent from Y to the last stage and the process finishes. In the figure 4(b) the same transferences occur (the same overall bandwidth is used between stages), but in a better order. Notice how each stage can compute values as soon as possible avoiding assigning storage for idle items (in figure 4(a), A and C in step 1 in X and A, B and C in step 2 in Y are wasting storage). Also, the computation is better spread in time because each stage performs one calculation in each step (against the two from the other figure). Observe the communication between X and Y in figure 4(b). The stream between these stages is A, B and D and is according to calculation dependencies. X needed some information about the calculations of Y to decide sending DBA instead of other items. Another aspect to consider is the construction of the visual representation. This construction occurs while items arrive. Here it is necessary a progressive algorithm that does not have to restart when a new item arrive. In 4(b) could be seen that positions of items A, B and F are conserved when G arrives. If this were not the case, the algorithm should recalculate the layout for all the four items instead of only for G. However, in figure 4(a), despite this algorithm were progressive or not, B has to be re-laid out due to a bad ordering.
Este artículo describe una plataforma de adquisición, procesamiento y visualización del funcionamiento para instalaciones solares fotovoltaicas aisladas, de- nominada SOLAR MANAGER. La particularidad de la plataforma implementada es que se integra en un modelo CLOUD COMPUTING híbrido, basada en programación de código abierto. La plataforma CLOUD permite adquirir mediciones de tensión, in- tensidad, humedad y temperatura de forma remota desde sensores no invasivos. Las pruebas de adquisi- ción de datos y validación se realizaron en una insta- lación fotovoltaica aislada de la Universidad Técnica de Ambato. El sistema de adquisición proporciona la información necesaria para el monitoreo, manteni- miento y supervisión del correcto funcionamiento del sistema fotovoltaico.
Computer technology allows the exploration of big information resources. Huge amount of data are becoming available on networked information systems, ranging from unstructured and multimedia documents to structured data stored in databases. On one side, this is extremely useful and exciting. On the other side, the ever growing amount of information available generates cognitive overload and even anxiety, especially in novice or occasional users. Nowadays, a wide diversity of users access, extract, and display information that is distributed on various sources, which differ in type, form and content. In many cases the users have an active control over the visualization process but even then it is difficult to achieve an effective visualization. For example, since the goal of visualization is to provide a representation which helps them to interpret their data or to communicate meaning, it is important that the mapping from physical to perceptual dimensions be under control. A strategy to improve this situation is to guide the user in the
One of the important challenges in a visualization system is how to present as much important information as possible in a given finite display area. When the structure of interest is too big to be viewed in detail all at once, the most straightforward solution is to allow the user to pan and zoom the visible area. The disadvantage of simply providing these interactions is that users often lose track of its current position with respect to the global structure. However, the addition of a smaller secondary window that shows a global overview with the current viewport location marked, can provide some guidance but forces the user to continually switch his/her focus of attention from one window to another, leading to disorientation. A large class of visualization techniques has been developed to address this problem by attempting to smoothly integrate detailed views with as much surrounding context as possible, so that users can see all relevant informationin a single view (, , , , ).
En el campo de la medicina se ha observado un significativo avance a lo largo de las últimas décadas, tanto en su propio ámbito como en el desarrollo de artefactos tecnológicos que han facilitado la eficiencia de sus procesos y de sus resultados. Dichos avances se han alcanzado gracias a un vasto y arduo estudio de varios entornos y también a la identificación de las necesidades constantes en la prestación de los servicios de salud. En México las IGU de nueva generación están tomando un papel importante en proyectos de VI como es el caso de diversas actividades médicas especializadas entre las que destaca el seguimiento del expediente clínico electrónico (ECE) en las unidades de salud (US) en México tanto en las de carácter público como en las privadas. El ECE que actualmente se tiene en las Unidades de Salud es una carpeta metálica que contiene material impreso y cuyo proceso de consulta y actualización tiene que ser in situ. En la actualidad se busca generar en México un ECE a través de la Secretaría de Salud (SSA), proyecto cuyas primeras gestiones comenzaron en 2007.
clause is created whose name is the same of the schema and the inputs and outputs of the operations as the arguments of the clause (figure 4 shows the translation procedure). Also, two additional param- eters are needed (P ROLOG structures) for holding the state of the system before and after the execution of the operation. Other two parameters are included for maintaining global declarations and logging and trac- ing the execution of the operations (information used to animate visualizations). Finally the body of the clause will be the assertions of the Z schema, that is, pre and post conditions of the schema operations. Also, after the execution of an operation schema the invariant must still remain true, so in order to ver- ify that fact a call to the clause of the state schema is needed. Figure 4 illustrates the translation proce- dure of the schema MakeRequests. The operation ad- dChangeOp registers in the global state that the oper- ation was executed.
In Direct Volume Rendering (DVR), volume data sets are normally illumi- nated by one or more light sources, and shading computations are based on the Phong model . This is due to the fact that it provides good percep- tual cues in the orientation of surfaces, what is generally enough to correctly perceive the spatial relationships among the main structures of the volume. However, due to the complexity of volumetric data, spatial information may be difficult to convey when there are many fine and overlapping structures. In order to improve depth perception in DVR, research has been focused on modifying the shading model or simulating non-photorealistic techniques. Two examples of the former case are the addition of shadows or the computa- tion of ambient occlusion (see Figure 5.1 (b)), which have proven their effec- tiveness to enhance the perception of the visualized structures . On the contrary, non-photorealistic approaches reproduce illustrative effects used in anatomical and technical drawings, such enhanced silhouettes or colored halos (see Figure 5.1 (c)), which are used to highlight the features of interest while reducing possible perceptual ambiguities.
This thesis began with a survey on visualization models, automatic visualization process and visualization taxonomies. While researchers in the area have pre- sented different visualization models, they were usually focused on one area of visualizationin particular. Examples of these previous work are W. Schroeder’s pipeline for scientific visualization (), the pipeline presented by S. Card for informationvisualization (), the data state model introduced by E. Chi () and the Unified Visualization Model (UVM) created by Martig et. al (). The UVM is applicable to any particular field and consists of a single model that allows the user to focus on both the processes and the data’s states. Our work is based on the UVM, we seek to extend and improve this model by the use of semantic information.
Many conventional approaches have been applied to validate requirements, but, most of them, fail in detecting errors . On the other hand, formal approaches, give clarity and precision at specifica- tion time. In that sense, formal specifications, enable us to denote unambiguously the meaning of a requirements specification document due to their formal syntax and semantics. However, except in safety-critical work, the cost of full verification is prohibitive . Moreover, formal specifications often fail in the user validation process since they are based on formal notations not always compre- hensible by users and hence they fit better to software developers than customers. Therefore, in order to overcome these difficulties visualization techniques appear as an interesting alternative to explore. Visualization is a method to comprehend information by use of diagrams to represent it. Data are transformed into geometric representations that help users in the understanding process as figure 1 shows. In general, graphical representations provide a closer match to the mental model of the users than textual representations and take advantage of their perception capabilities.
the intensive use of visualization and our low level of visual knowledge. The creation and proper use of effective information visualizations is constrained by rules or principles that guarantee their effectiveness in communicating a message. Many of these principles come from psychology and, specifically, from the theory of perception. Other principles emerge from the structure of information and the visual power of tables and graphs. Despite all of these considerations, two key principles must be kept in mind when crea- ting and using information visualizations within a communications strategy: the principle of objectivity and the principle of data-ink ratio.
El proyecto se recoge en el sitio web Dear Data (Lupi; Posavec, 2016), ha sido expuesto en diver- sos museos (como el London’s Science Museum, entre otros), ha ganado diversos pre mios y nomi- naciones en el campo del diseño (como el de Most Beautiful en The Information is Beautiful Awards o el The Design Museum’s illustrious ‘2016 Designs of the Year’) y ha sido publicado en forma de libro en Estados Unidos por la editorial Princeton Architectural Press y en Inglaterra por Penguin. Es importante señalar también que en noviembre de 2016 el proyecto fue adquirido por el Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) de Nueva York como parte de su colección permanente.
The authors have questioned how the semantic web search engines work and if the graphical display of the search results improves the retrieval. The types of queries that can be performed, as well as the main features of a semantic search engi- ne, have been analyzed. A query was selected and executed in semantic search engines with online access to DBpedia. The basic and desirable functionality in a semantic web search engine, and reviewed studies about the evaluation of semantic search engines have been studied. Finally, there have been analyzed the graphic solutions for displaying the results of some search engines. The main findings underlines the idea that graphical solutions to display query results do not meet the ex- pectations proposed in the bibliography.
Heimonen and Jhaveri (2005) also incorporated visualiza- tion into a search results interface. For each document their user retrieved, query term frequencies were displayed in the shape of a small document-shaped icon. In the user study of its usefulness, the participants exhibited positive attitudes toward this visualization technique (p. 882). Another system, Envision, also visualizes the search results by using icons that represent the various attributes of each document via icon shape, size, and color, as shown in Figure 1b (Fox et al., 1993; Nowell, France, Hix, Heath, & Fox, 1996). Similarly, Berenci, Carpineto, Giannini, and Mizzaro (2000) developed a system called VIEWER, which is an interactive ranking system that provides a graphical visualization of results. To be more specific, when the user enters a query term, VIEWER first forwards this to a selected search engine and then shows the results returned by the search engine. It also provides a graphical visual- ization of the results consisting of several horizontal bars, which are subqueries that can be formed with the original query term within the retrieved results (p. 251). This allows users to select subqueries and conduct a search within search results. In the user study, the authors found that when using VIEWER, the search results were better than using a search engine without VIEWER. In addition, the authors reported that VIEWER provided increased retrieval effectiveness as well as user satisfaction (p. 249). The screenshot of the VIEWER is displayed in Figure 1c. Although the aforementioned studies did not examine the use and the effect of 3D visualizations, they illustrate that 2D displays ininformationvisualization greatly facilitate an individual’s interaction with information. Because 3D visualizations allow more relationships to be presented in the visualization, the movement ininformation visualiza- tion design is toward 3D visualizations. The next section discusses this trend.
Abstract: The evolution of the information retrieval discipline has not been sensitive to developing the display of results. In many cases, the results presentation is as important as the selection of the retrieved documents in satisfying the user’s information needs. However, it is possible to identify a number of standard models and certain trends in the visual presentation of results in a retrieval system. This study analyzed the patterns and trends and established a series of requirements (architectural and semantic) as a guide for improving the functionality of visualization tools in the retrieval processes.
Abstract: 2018 has been an important year for the informationvisualization discipline. This work reviews some of the innovative visualizations developed throughout 2018, organizing them, asd previous pro- posals published in this Anuario ThinkEPI, into three groups. First, a small selection of visualization with conceptual novelties and new visual proposals are presented. Second, there are some others that have drawn attention to the importance of the data set they have visualized. Finally, some of the technological advances that have been developed within the discipline throughout this year are highlighted.