b) Negotiating: for joint projects we have to look for co-financing, since in the fight against poverty they have to finance it also with money from national bodies in these same places. They have to provide jointly specific policies and commit to fight against poverty without hoping the problems will be solved from the outside. Indevelopment negotiations must be conducted with due consideration regarding each party position, conducted in an open manner. These negotiations should be developed not only from the political domain, to satisfy all parties with the agreed commitments. In face to face negotiations between planners and affected population is where we can find an adequate knowledge basis for the problem and, therefore, the right path for a best solution 36 . Also there must be a coordination of programs and projects, because most of
Egypt’s transforming economy was following the same path as the globalization processes across the world. This worldwide globalization of financial markets has led to create strong relationships among financial institutions . As a result, the financial institutions today face a fast-paced, dynamic, and competitive environment at a global scale. Given such a competitive environment, the financial services sector, as well as the financial institutions, is required to examine their performance because their survival depends on their productive efficiencies with their customers. Early studies (see, for example, Berger and Humphrey ; Berger, Hunter, and Timme ) demonstrated that in particular, in the banking sector, inefficiencies are more important than scale and scope issues.
In Latin America, two approaches were implemented for the development of S&T: the Sabato Triangle and the Triple Helix. The first led to a linear processin the generation of basic science and was applied in Mexico with relative success. This agenda followed the guidelines and priorities of the ISI model, that is, advancing State capitalism and strengthening the nation’s industrial sector. Geo-economic events and political interests accelerated the dismantling of ISI policies and the Sabato Triangle for S&T throughout Latin America. The arrival of a new model –open, deregulated and privatizing– brought about changes in the country’s scientific and technological public policies, and since the 1980s, Mexico began to subordinate the development of S&T to the demands imposed by the private sector. This resulted in the establishment of a model that shaped a generation of scientific knowledge under a marketable model, which demanded the application of specific technologies for commercialization before it could be fully developed. The change in agenda was put in place following the prescriptions of international organizations like the WB and the IMF.
These principles need to be combined adequately in order to formulate a knowledge based application. A reasonable approach to be followed in the design process is to start from the collection of top-level tasks that describe the set of goals to be achieved by the application to support an adequate conversation model between the user and the system. These top-level tasks may be the basic types of answers required in such a conversation model. For each top- level task, a hierarchical structure of task-method-domain may be used to show the way the final task supports an answer type (Figure 1). Each hierarchy represents how each task is carried out by a specific method, decomposing the task into simpler subtasks. Usually, the hierarchy will present only one method associated to a task. However, in the near future, when reusable libraries of problem-solving methods will be available, it could be more usual to associate more than one method to a task, developing a more complex architecture (this architecture could be named the problem solving medium). This means that the same task will be able to be solved in different ways depending of certain dynamic characteristics (such as the type of dialogue with the user, the context, etc.). At the bottom level of the hierarchy of task-method-subtasks there is a collection of primary methods associated to primary tasks. What is considered as a primary method is a design decision established by the developer. Typically, primary methods correspond to methods that can be directly implemented at symbolic level by simple problem-solving techniques (such asknowledge based techniques like backward or forward chaining in rule-based representations, network-based representations, constraint satisfaction methods, and also specific algorithmic solutions that do not require a explicit representation of declarative knowledge).
The pro-poor considerations may involve a role conflict of the development agency in facilitating the formulation of a vision. Private enterprises have the responsibility to implement the upgrading strategy. Hence, they also have to “own” the vision and development facilitators clearly have to promote that sense of ownership. At the same time, development agencies pursue a publicpolicy agenda and cannot remain entirely neutral. This does not have to be problem, if the operators in the value chain belong to poverty groups. However, companies have to give priority to the competitiveness issues rather than social aspects. Facilitators can only resolve the conflict by separating the roles: On the basis of an honest and neutral account of interests, it is the public side that has to judge whether the vision is likely to generate pro-poor benefits – and make a decision whether to support its implementation. Private entrepreneurs will not object to taking on social aspects as long as they benefit as well, or at least are not affected negatively. An example of a vision in which both sides gain, is a strategy that lowers production costs of lead firms by shifting primary processing tasks to their poor suppliers who receive a higher price in return. It is not necessary to always spell out the pro-poor objective with private sector stakeholders. Rather, public promoters can follow a market oriented vision and facilitate the process to be pro poor focusing their support activities on the poverty groups within the chain.
When a radical innovation enters the market, product descriptions prevail over brand differentiation strategies [Kotler and Armstrong, 2010]. To create awareness, advertisements deploy the technological information that industry considers the public are likely to need. Changes in commercial discourses and strategies could reflect not only a successful awareness campaign but also different levels of knowledgein the audience. By identifying changes in the discourses concerning technology we can understand the underlying reasons for certain content. At the time new users incorporate mobile phones into their everyday life, we will infer what knowledge was apprehended by the public, and how sales arguments adapted to these changes. The analysis allows us to understand how different content in advertisements — technical descriptions, suggested uses, and
A discussão ora proposta sobre as lógicas de processos transversais conselhistas decorre de etnografia reali‐ zada nas três instâncias, que considerou o acompanhamento de reuniões3 entre 2015 e 2016 nos três consel‐ hos, a realização de mais de sessenta entrevistas semi‐estruturadas4 e a análise de documentos produzidos por conselhos e conferências, incluindo as leis e portarias instituintes das instâncias, os regimentos internos focalizados, e também resoluções e outros documentos portadores de um senso de relação entre estado e sociedade ‐ doravante chamados por instrumentos de ação pública. É esse exercício analítico, que considera mas não se restringe à revisão documental, que sustenta o argumento mais geral do artigo: os instrumentos de ação pública têm papel relevante e analisável na orientação de processos participativos formais em con‐ textos complexos. Questões multidimensionais, instrumentos, participação política: essa síntese de elemen‐ tos observáveis tanto a partir da experiência empírica como no universo conceitual caracteriza a análise ora proposta, com potencial para contribuir em estudos posteriores em diferentes ambientes participativos e localidades.
Besides breakdowns in the value chain, in capitalist societies there is a dual metamorphosis preventing products from directly satisfying the needs for which they were created. The first is that these products must get to the market, which means their prices must recoup the cost of production and still provide a profit to the business owner. When there are alternative investment options that offer greater returns, production shifts towards those sectors. Neglected diseases are a very eloquent example of important areas of research that have been sidelined due to market reasons. The second metamorphosis is that consumers must have the purchasing power to buy the goods. Once again, this is not the case for millions of people in Latin America and around the world. Due to these two metamorphoses, in a market economy, technology development proposals limited to timidly suggesting or subsidizing the production of strategic products that satisfy immediate needs are nothing more than a declaration of good intent.
In more general terms, Uruguay, such as the other less developed countries, has important vulnerabilities in order to make its voice herd in the international forums. For example, Uruguay has actively been involved with the Codex, but it has a quite passive role. There are government officials that follow all the issues that are related to the countries´ interests and they assist to the periodical CODEX meetings, but Uruguay has a limited power to propose in this area. Concerning the Uruguayan participation in the WTO, Uruguay makes its voice to be heard with the limitations that a very small country has in these multilateral fora. On the one side, when there are issues that are related to its concerns, as for example the meat hormone dispute between the U.S. and EU, its voice is heard, as we referred above. But on the other side, there are not sufficient resources (human and monetary) to open a panel on a conflictive subject, so the general strategy is to accompany other groups of less developed countries, generally from Latin America on the subjects of interest. Finally, Uruguay has had an active role at the OIE. Its delegate for 30 years at the OIE was also a former president of the organization’s General Assembly and has been at the origin of numerous initiatives that empowers the Uruguayan capability to influence the OIE norms. The sheep case that we presented above is a result of this.
Fourth – and perhaps most controversially – civil law conceptions of individual rights should not act as a per se policy bar to international class arbitration. As important aspublicpolicy is, the only publicpolicy that should be considered a proper ground for non-enforcement is international publicpolicy, not domestic publicpolicy. While civil law jurisdictions have weighed up the policy considerations for and against representative actions differently than common law jurisdictions have, at least in the context of litigation, it cannot be disputed that there are legitimate arguments in favour of allowing representative actions. In fact, there are fewer disadvantages to representative actions in arbitration than there are in litigation. Furthermore, the publicpolicy concerns might be lessened when one considers that parties can be said to have agreed to representative proceedings (either through the initial agreement to arbitrate or through the failure to opt out). Since parties to arbitration are deemed to have bargained for a dispute resolution procedure with fewer due process protections and/or different procedures than litigation, civil law jurisdictions should not intervene in the parties’ agreed dispute resolution process based on domestic formulations of rights. This is particularly true when the award results from an arbitration that is governed by different procedural and substantive laws and is consistent with the publicpolicy of that state or states.
We placed seven criteria for the selection of a parallel corpus (Baker, 1995); natural language, originally in English, from a public discourse, recent (from the last ten years), same identifiable speaker, containing popularized language, with cultural significance in the original culture. Also, one final criterion was placed on the metaphorical contexts; all fall clearly within the definition of ontological metaphors as postulated by Lackoff and Johnson (1980). Natural language, here, is understood as human language in its written or spoken use, as opposed to a computer language. Analysis of natural language corpora can provide a more accurate window into the processing of figurative language (Sikos, et al., 2008). The use of natural language in place of a purely synthetic corpus allows for a more real world translation experience and enables the simulation of many of the pragmatic and cultural difficulties that arise in translation. Furthermore, the creation of context and a concrete situationality for the participants allow for a more complete mental representation that would not be possible with sets of synthetic contexts. This importance of context is further materialized by using the same identifiable speaker allowing the participants to visualize the speaker for a more complete mental representation. Moreover, requiring that it is a public discourse with popularized specialized language ensures that the discourse does not require specialized knowledge of the participants for a complete understanding of the discourse.
• Resolution VII.18: River basin management (San José, 1999), which provides guidance on integrating wetland conservation and wise use into river basin management, and follows on from Resolution VI.23. The Annex to this resolution provides guidance related to various relevant components of river basin management, including institutional arrangements, policy and legislation, basin-level assessments, water resources planning, maintenance of natural water regimes and land use management. This is a key resolution in the suite of water-related guidance, and it is suggested that more detailed operational guidance on a number of its individual components should be developed in the future (see Figures 2a and 2b).
A spending programme is made up of a series of goods, services and initiatives with a budgetary allocation that responds to certain established political goals. They are the spending “pots” that public policies are funded from. In the Barcelona City Council’s case, its budgetary programmes are designed to meet the needs of the strategic lines under the Municipal Action Programme (PAM), which is prepared at the start of every term of office and establishes the priorities, goals and actions of the municipal government. Examples of spending programmes include those relating to assisting elderly people, sports events, cultural promotions, municipal statistics and studies, support for employment and enterprise, street cleaning and public safety.
• Resolution VIII.2: Report of the World Commission on Dams (Valencia 2002), which addresses the role of dams, both positive and negative, in water management and wise use of wetlands; highlights the need for integrated water resources planning frameworks that balance the commissioning and operation of dams with wise use of wetlands; notes the report of the World Commission on Dams as a valuable source of technical guidance and “advisory tools” to support decision-making related to large dams. These tools are seen as complementary to Ramsar’s current suite of water-related guidance, contributing a component of the guidance that is specifically focused on dams.
lugdunensis isolates, whereas dobutamine prevented nearly all S. lugdunensis isolates from adhering to polystyrene. The effect of catecholamines on biofilm formation by other species was variable and was dependent on the concentrations of the drugs and on the strain. Heparin markedly reduced biofilm formation by 87% of S. lugdunensis isolates. Preformed biofilms of S. lugdunensis, S. aureus, S. epidermidis and a Staphylococcus carnosus strain that produces the biofilm matrix polysaccharide poly-N-acetylglucosamine/ polysaccharide intercellular adhesin detached from polystyrene after exposure to heparin at concentrations used in catheter locks. A statistically significant amount of biofilm detachment by treatment with 3,600 U/mL heparin was achieved with 85% (17/20) of the organisms tested. These data suggest that intravenous pharmaceuticals may influence staphylococcal biofilm formation on and detachment from intravascular catheters, enabling biofilm cells to disperse, to travel through the bloodstream and to colonize additional sites. Although this study demonstrates that exposure to dobutamine and heparin prevented or reduced biofilm formation by S. lugdunensis at concentrations that contact the catheter lumen after intravenous administration, other authors have demonstrated stimulation of S. aureus biofilms in response to heparin 13 . Differences
Graph 1 should be studied only as historical evidence rather than like an actual picture of Bogotá education’s panorama. 2001 numbers cannot evaluate recent progress. Though there is quite robust evidence to sustain the persistence of a situation in which expense in education in Bogotá (both public and private) does not find a positive relation with quality standards (measured by results in school examinations). Notice that Suarez’s (2005) estimation suggests that average per-student expense does not appear to have very good results in terms of human capital formation. By this, we mean strong skills among students.
In this position paper, we recall part of the original definition of the software architecture, just to discover how poor has been supported one part of the architecting process. We also claim that the lack of coverage of this part of the architecture has lead to unmanageable complex architectures (such as those mentioned before); we propose to add some lexical support for this kind of key architectural information missed. At the far end of this vision, is the understanding of the architectural processas a decision making –and therefore a social and communication- process. Let us face it: making an architecture is taking decisions but, once the architecture is there, these decisions evaporate.
If career development services are to be actively promoted to adults, much more attention is needed to ways of marketing these services. Evidence from recent market research in the UK suggests that many adults have little understanding of what guidance services can offer to them, and not infrequently have negative perceptions of such services based on bad memories of what was offered to them at school (Wilson & Jackson, 1998). Professional jargon can be an impediment here: simple descriptions are needed of career development that will be understood by consumers and by policy- makers alike. More market research is needed on consumers' perceptions and needs, along with clearer "branding" of career development services to signpost their existence and to enable customers to know what to expect from them. Such steps to unlock the latent demand for career development services are likely also to have an impact on policy-makers, who tend to be responsive to public interest and pressure. The move from a provider-driven to a consumer-driven culture is likely to have an impact on the nature of career development delivery. lt will however continue to need to be supported by proactive strategies designed to make such services available to poor and disadvantaged communities.