LatinAmerica had a golden decade from 2002 to 2012, mostly thanks to favorable external conditions. Its commodity exports prices raised almost continuously, there were abundant capital inflows and low international interest rates. This golden decade has come to an end, even while no sudden worsening of external conditions is expected. Using several short term and structural indicators, this paper analyzes if this decade represented a turning point. Macroeconomic and financial vulnerabilities were indeed sharply reduced, labor market conditions improved significantly and investment rates increased, in most countries. Many of these achievements are likely to stay and LatinAmerica may prove to be much more resilient to future shocks than in the past. However, the boom in extractive exports prices led to over-concentration of exports, stagnation of other tradable activities and other symptoms of Dutch Disease. Worst still, productivity gaps were not reduced as their structural determinants improved just too slowly. In summary, the boom was not completely wasted, nor was it fully capitalized.
Introduction. The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) and 30-day mortality after liver transplantation. Material and methods. Thisis a retrospective cohort of consecutive adults undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) at a referral hospital in Brazil, from January 2013 to January 2014. Risk factors for AKI and death were investigated. Results. A total 134 patients were in- cluded, with median age of 56 years. AKI was found in 46.7% of patients in the first 72 h after OLT. Risk factors for AKI were: viral hepatitis (OR 2.9, 95% CI = 1.2-7), warm ischemia time (OR 1.1, 95% CI = 1.01-1.2) and serum lactate (OR 1.3, 95%CI = 1.02-1.89). The length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay was longer in AKI group: 4 (3-7) days vs. 3 (2-4) days (p = 0.001), as well as overall hospitalization stay: 16 (9-26) days vs. 10 (8- 14) days (p = 0.001). The 30-day mortality was 15%. AKI was an independent risk factor for mortality (OR 4.3, 95% CI = 1.3-14.6). MELD-Na ≥ 22 was a predictor for hemodialysis need (OR 8.4, 95%CI = 1.5-46.5). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was found in 36 patients (56.2% of AKI patients). Conclusions. Viral hepatitis, longer warm ischemia time and high levels of serum lactate are risk factors for AKI after OLT. AKI is a risk factor for death and can lead to CKD in a high percentage of patients after OLT. A high MELD-Na score is a pre- dictor for hemodialysis need.
Systematic reviews allow the revision of all the scientific evidence on a given topic avoiding selection bias. Using this process, the summarized information can be presented to propose hypotheses that explain the behaviour of the data and to identify areas of knowledge where fur- ther research is needed . In this study, the current knowledge on AIVs in LatinAmerica was reviewed and several gaps of knowledge were identified. In addition, our review illustrates the strengthening of links between Latin American and non-Latin American research groups over time, which in a globalized world is required to strength science and is consistent with another bibliometric analysis published recently . In our study, inter-institutional coopera- tion was observed in more than 80% of the publications analysed, a fact that is of great impor- tance because multinational efforts are needed to understand the complexity of the ecology and epidemiology of AIVs . Moreover, the fact that some countries have established AIVs epidemiological surveillance systems for both migratory wild birds and poultry was also seen as a strength [43, 49, 53, 56]. These systems have broadened the knowledge base about these viruses in the region and allowed the establishment of early prevention and possible control steps to prevent the possible spread of AIVs to local birds and poultry species, thus avoiding direct and indirect potential economic losses.
The growth of agricultural productivity can have consequences that are not trivial at all at thetime of improving subsistence consumption and increasing the income from this sector of the economy. For authors like Fulginiti and Perrin (1998) or Nin et al. (2003), it is possible that both the methods and the data used until now have interpreted erroneously the productivity of agriculture in some countries, biasing their measurements. Thisis precisely the aim of this study and to achieve it, the methodological development carried out by O’Donnell (2008) will be used, to attempt to solve the problems previously mentioned and to contrast them with the results from traditional non-parametric methodologies. Through Lowe transitive indices, the change in Total Factor Productivity (TFP) is estimated, in this case of agriculture in some countries of LatinAmerica for the period of 1990- 2006. The results obtained questioned the empirical evidence obtained in preceding studies. Finally, the hypothesis is confirmed about differences in results of productivity, when it is estimated through the contest of the Malmquist index and Lowe indices.
At this point, a natural question is which isthe dimensionality of welfare and hence of deprivation. Even though there is not a clear definition of “dimension” that can be used in the study of welfare, the issue refers to the degree of complexity in characterizing an underlying object, close to the mathematical notion of dimension as the number of coordinates needed to specify a point correctly in a given space. In an extreme case there is a single underlying notion of welfare, and from this point of view all questions related to welfare are seen as proxies that differ among themselves due the degree of inaccuracy with respect to the unobserved, single-dimensional welfare concept. In the opposite extreme case, welfare is a truly multidimensional concept that cannot be appropriately captured by any single notion. Hence, from this point of view, questions related to welfare may be summarizing a particular dimension or several of them. As a first approach, Table 6.1 presents correlations among the summary welfare indicators from Sections 3, 4 and 5. That is, we look at household per capita income, and the standardized indices of objective non-monetary and subjective welfare. Correlations are significantly different from zero. The correlation between income and the index of non-monetary welfare is 0.393. The lowest correlation is between
The above viewpoint by Luis (from Venezuela) regarding the usefulness of praying can be understood in a twofold way: first, it is important to highlight the comment, “praying is a psychological mechanism for dealing with difficulties”, because it is in tone with the “methodological atheism” proposed by the sociological theory by Peter Berger (1992, 2004, 2013, 2014;(Porpora, 2006). In this, the supernatural is excluded from a sociological explanation of religion. Second, praying is a mechanism for dealing with difficulties, for example, when Luis could not find a job. In this way, praying can be interpreted, such as “methodological agnosticism”. In other words, “the acknowledgement that there might really be a supernatural source for transcendent experience” (Gorski & Guhin, 2017, p. 1127;(Porpora, 2006). This trend towards a “methodological agnosticism” can be a useful resource for understanding the religious leader’s viewpoints as well. The references to God made by the priest, for example, that God expresses himself in every culture, can be understood under this methodological position. In other words, the above theophany might be interpreted under the sociological standpoint, however, from a methodological position that allows the existence of a supernatural force; this analysis can be enriched with a transcendent/supernatural dimension. Under these circumstances, the religious phenomenon itself in its social aspects can be approached -or as a social phenomenon- and about the supernatural being or force through the mediation of the sacred or religious expressions. At the same time, a finding of this research isthe fact that participation in a parish with cultural diversity produces a strengthening of the belief. Thedifferent religious celebrations and immigrant communities that interact in theLatin-American parish have meant a revalorization of the own religious identity, in the interviewee’s viewpoint. They recognize that through diversity, it is possible to appreciate the features and the richness either of the other communities as well as their community. It is important to stress that this opinion was shared among the immigrants that were interviewed.
“Talking about what is forbidden” arises from the need students had to communicate more in a foreign language, to talk about interesting topics for them. Topics that belong to their daily lives, and in this project they are called “taboo topics”: Topics that refers to common social issues that they face every day. With this internship project, researchers want to give an important role to the context in which students are interacting, taking into account that most of thetimethe foreign language is just used without a real sense. Students are learning just the meaning of words, but they are not guided to communicate by themselves.
Agencies have used Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) devices to collect traffic parameter measurements for operational purposes. In recent years, these agencies have started archiving the collected information for future uses (FHWA, 2008). The availability of the archived information allows the analysis of travel time distributions and the associated reliability measures at a fine time scale compatible with the requirements of advanced strategies and analysis applications. The data used in the analysis of this study was obtained from a 6.5 mile segment of the northbound direction of the I-95 limited access facility in Miami, Florida. This segment has a total of six lanes which two of these lanes are HOT lanes and the remaining four lanes operating free of charge as GP lanes. The two HOT lanes have been in operation since December 2008, utilizing a dynamic congestion pricing scheme. Registered vehicles with high occupancy can use the HOT lanes without paying tolls. The HOT lanes have a single entry point and a single exit point and are fully segregated from the GP lanes by plastic poles. This section of I-95 is equipped with point traffic detectors located every 0.3-0.5 miles that collect volume, speed and occupancy measurements every 20 seconds for both the HOT and GP lanes. The corridor operations and the data gathered by ITS devices are managed by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) District 6 by means of traffic management software referred to as the SunGuide software (Southwest Research Institute, 2010).
T he second edition of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Tech- niques Society (MTT-S) Lat- in America Microwave Conference (LAMC) was held in Arequipa, Peru, over the second week of December 2018. It was organized by the MTT-S Peru Chapter in Arequipa, Peru (see Figure 1). (The first edition of LAMC took place 12–14 December 2016, in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, and was a great success.) Following official ap- proval in 2015 of LAMC as a bian- nual MTT-S conference, there were several strategic activities developed in Region 9, such as the creation of new MTT-S Chapters and the organization of several Distinguished Microwave Lecturers (DMLs) visits. Those activi-
H. baruensis is also widely distributed in the Americas. it extends from the Pacific coast of Mexico, South of Sonora until Oaxaca, in Yucatan Peninsula, the Caribbean and South America until Colombia, venezuela, Suriname, Guyana and Brazil (Cristóbal 2001a). it is a shrub or slender tree 2-6 m high with dense foliage. Flowers are geniculated and are borne in axillary or oppositifolious inflorescences, usually three to five flowered and have a horizontal position. They are zygomorphic and have a tubular corolla with a basal nectary, and also have two or more nectaries at the base of the pedicels between the flowers. The petals are pale greenish and acintated, and the androgy- nophore is bent (Robyns & Cuatrecasas 1964, Cristóbal 2001a, b). This species is characteris- tic of dry caducifolious forests, holms-oak for- ests and gallery forests (Cristóbal 2001a, b).
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to answer two questions. The first is: are there moral dilemmas? The second is: if there are dilemmas, in what way do those who as a result violate what would normally be a moral or legal requirement do wrong and what response is appro- priate? The systematisers deny the possibility of moral dilemmas. We will argue in favor of the conclu- sion that there are moral dilem- mas. It is morally important to become skilled in managing dilemmas because we can detect cases in which conflicts is only ap- parent. This detection can indicate fraudulent uses of the term “dilemma”, cases in which the agent is not reproach with his be- havior.
La FAA se creó en 1961 para registrar los programas de ayuda al extranjero, militar y económica, que se multiplicaban durante la contienda contra el comunismo, y se puso a cargo del DOS. La FAA, junto con la Ley de Control de Exportación de Armas (AECA, por su sigla en inglés) de 1968 que rige la transferencia de armas, incrementaron el control de la diplomacia civil y del Poder Legislativo, a través de los comités y subcomités pertinentes del Congreso, sobre las transferencias de armas y los programas de entrenamiento a militares extranjeros ya que la ayuda exterior se efectivizó a través de las asignaciones para las operaciones exteriores del presupuesto. Además, el DOS también tiene incumbencias en el programa de Ventas Comerciales Directas mediante el otorgamiento de licencias para que los países compren armas a las compañías norteamericanas sin intermediarios gubernamentales. Finalmente, decir que dentro de la FAA los asuntos más relevantes vinculados con las drogas son, por un lado, la asistencia de seguridad concretada en programas varios vinculados al DOD pero bajo responsabilidad y control del DOS. Por otro lado, está el programa INC del DOS, mencionado anteriormente. Véase: Isacson, Adam; Olson, Joy (1999), “Solo los hechos: un recorrido rápido de la ayuda de los Estados Unidos en materia de defensa y seguridad para América Latina”, International Policy Report, Centro para la Política Internacional, Washington, febrero; Haugaard, Lisa; Isacson, Adam; Olson, Joy (2007), Below the radar: U.S. military programs with LatinAmerica, 1997-2007, Washington Office on LatinAmerica, march, Center for International Policy and LatinAmerica Working Group Education Fund, Washington
5�eaking activities have widely been seen as the most demanding for learners. This may be �a use of the many characteristics unique to spoken language: reduced forms, contractions, • vwel reduction, and the use of slang. And let's not forget stress, rhythm, the use of signpost rr-msitions, and so forth.
This Is The End Las interminables discusiones sobre el f in de la televisión Por Carlos Scolari Grup de Recerca d’Interaccions Digitals (GRID) Universitat de Vic, España Sumario En este ar tículo se d[.]
The ion source for mass spectrometry analysis is provided by the plasma torch, whose purpose is to form positively charged ions of the sample spray. Figure 10 shows a schematic representation of a source of ICP in a ICP-MS. The argon gas flows into the concentric channels ICP torch. RF load coil is connected to a radiofrequency generator (RF). As energy load coil generator is supplied, oscillating electric and magnetic fields are set at the end of the torch. When a spark is applied, argon flows through the ICP torch, electrons are stripped of argon atoms, forming argon ions. These ions are trapped in the oscillating fields and collide with other argon atoms, forming a plasma discharge or argon.
Anyone who visits a market fair among the Indian communities of the Andes, southern Mexico, or Guatemala will detect a powerful spirit of trade among peoples who in many ways remain remote from the mainstream of Western culture. One has only to see how peasants have parceled out 60 percent of the land collectivized by agrarian reform in Peru to recognize the heritage of ancient times, when the commu- nities used to parcel out the land among the families and individuals who subse- quently became its owners. Notable, too, are the arts of pottery and weaving, which Indians practice with as much ingenuity today as in centuries long past and strive to place in the local or international market. So among the Indians who came to be organized in vast empires under the Aztecs and the Incas, and in powerful city-states in the case of the Mayas, the spirit of the individual was not dead. Imperial power did much to coerce that spirit into subservience, but it did not eliminate the continuation of that spirit as an element of the cultural heritage.
emergence, the macroeconomic adjustment policies, the laws to allow the free transfer of land or the development of farm office programmes are not enough without the existence of the basic institutions. Most of land reforms which are being implemented nowadays in LatinAmerica are following this concept. North (1991) defines institutions as “the game rules of the society, in other words, constraints created by human beings who give structure on the human integration. […] Organizations are the players: groups of individuals joined on the communal purpose in order to achieve their goals. These include political structures, economic organization, social organizations and educational services”.
In The Strategy, Hirschman (1958b) introduces linkages as mechanisms for inducing “investment decisions” within “directly productive activities themselves”(p. 98). In particular, he identifies two mechanisms: some economic activities “will induce attempts to supply through domestic production the inputs needed in that activity [backward linkages]” or “will induce attempts to utilize its outputs as inputs in some new activities [forward linkages]” (Ibid., 100). Against the reading of Little (1982), Krugman (1993) considers that Hirschman’s linkages can be interpreted exclusively in terms of “pecuniary externalities linked to economic scale” (p. 23), suggesting that his “distinctive contribution —from the rest of the high-development theorists— is more one of style than of substance” (Ibid., 25). Revisiting the notion of linkages, Hirschman (1986a) clarifies that when he introduced the concept, he was more concerned with the creation of new productive activities, than with the expansion of existing ones. This reflection leads Ocampo (2008) to highlight that Hirschman’s concept was “more dynamic than static”, privileging “sequential over simultaneous solutions to the problem of development” (p. 49, 50; my translation). In the previous chapter, I showed how a sequential approach to reform permitted exploiting hidden rationalities for the purposes of decision-making, through learning processes that involved readjustments of both means and ends. In this section, I will argue that linkages should be understood broadly as mechanisms for eliciting decentralized learning through social conflicts, and not just investment decisions through pecuniary incentives.