Las víctimas del delito de trata de seres humanos, sin embargo, fácilmente alcanzarán la condición de víctimas con necesidades de protección especial, puesto que este delito se encuentra entre aquellos que el art. 23 Ley 4/2015 manifiesta que deben tenerse especialmente en cuenta a efectos de efectuar dicha declaración, y con ello alcanzar una mayor cota de protección procesal. En caso de que la víctima de trata alcance dicha consideración, pueden adoptarse para protegerla en el marco del proceso penal las medidas contempladas en el art. 25 Ley 4/2015. En concreto, en fase de investigación penal: toma de declaración en dependencias adecuadas, por profesionales formados o con su ayuda, por la misma persona cuando sea posible y por persona del mismo sexo que la víctima si ésta lo desea en delitos de violencia de género, sexual o en el marco de las relaciones personales. En la fase de procedimiento ante los tribunales, las medidas de protección que pueden acordarse consisten en evitar el contacto visual entre víctima y ofensor -empleando para ello medios adecuados, como la videoconferencia-, garantizar que la víctima sea oída sin estar presente en la sala de audiencia, evitar la formulación de preguntas innecesarias en relación con la vida privada de la víctima o acordar que la audiencia se lleve a cabo sin presencia de público. Cuando además la víctima de trata de seres humanos sea un menor de edad o una persona con discapacidad necesitada de especial protección (art. 26 Ley 4/2015) se prevé que en investigaciones penales su declaración sea grabada por medios audiovisuales, pudiendo ser utilizadas como medios de prueba, y pudiendo recibirse declaración, además, por medio de expertos. Se reconoce a estas víctimas el derecho a la asistencia letrada y representación legal en caso de conflicto de intereses con sus padres, así como que el Fiscal recabe la designación de un defensor judicial de la víctima cuando los representantes legales tienen con la víctima un conflicto de intereses, cuando dicho conflicto existe con un progenitor y el otro no está en condiciones de ejercer sus funciones o cuando la víctima no está acompañada o está separada de quien ejerza la patria potestad o la institución tutelar.
As far as Part II is concerned, its objective is to undertake a more detailed analysis of the human trafficking’s legal framework in order to assess the extent to which the human rights- based approach has been effectively incorporated in the most advanced instruments, and the most important challenges this incorporation poses. Undoubtedly, the extension of this subject inevitably led us to circumscribe the object of our study to a particular aspect of the anti- traffickinglegal framework. In that context, we chose to focus our analysis on the second of the three Ps – prevention, protectionand prosecution – that make up this framework: the duty to protect traffickingvictims. Relevant reports suggest that this aspect is still not adequately addressed in the vast majority of countries around the word, especially because of the persistence of an approach that focuses exclusively on prosecuting traffickers and on curbing irregular immigration at the expenses of a human rights-based approach that integrates the identification andprotectionofvictims into the criminal and immigration strategies. It is clear from these reports that failures in terms ofvictims’ protection are particularly serious at border posts andin asylum application and return procedures. Pushbacks and the lack of proactive identification mechanisms at the border as well as the frequent refusal of asylum requests or residence permits based on trafficking-related persecution grounds are some of the aspects that are causing the greatest concerns at the international and European level, as will be explored in details in Part II. Therefore, we have decided to focus our analysis in the area of victim protection. Two main reasons for doing so should be highlighted. Firstly, it is the most distinctive aspect of this approach: a human rights-based approach to trafficking calls for putting the protectionofvictims at the centre of all anti-trafficking interventions andfor considering it the utmost priority in case of conflicting interests. And secondly, it is the aspect that shows the most lacunae and requires more efforts on the part of States and all other stakeholders involved.
261. The 2015 Statute of the Victimsof Crime contains several provisions on the protectionofvictims. Pursuant to Article 20, direct contact between the victim and the perpetrator has to be avoided, including at the investigation stage. Article 21 provides for the following measures of victim protection during the investigation: victim’s statements must be taken without unjustified delay, the least possible number of times and only when strictly necessary for the purposes of the criminal investigation; victims may be accompanied, in addition to their representative andlegal representative, by a person of their choice; medical examinations ofvictims are to be performed only when required by the criminal procedure and their number is to be kept to a minimum. Pursuant to Article 25, the victim’s statement must be taken in spaces especially designed or adapted for the purpose, by professionals who have received special training to reduce or limit harm to the victim; all statements from a victim have to be taken by one person, unless this is to the significant detriment of the process, or directly by a judge or a prosecutor; statements from victimsoftraffickingfor sexual exploitation must be taken by a person of the same sex as the victim, should the victim so request, unless this is to the significant detriment of the process, or the statement must be taken directly by a judge or prosecutor. At the trial stage, the following measures may be adopted to protect victims: measures to avoid eye contact between the victim and the alleged perpetrator, including while evidence is being heard, through the use of communication technologies; measures to guarantee that the victim can be heard while not present in the room where the trial is being held, using communication technologies; measures to prevent putting questions related to the victim’s private life and not relevant to the criminal act, unless the judge considers exceptionally that they must be answered so as to adequately evaluate the facts or the credibility of the victim’s statement; measures to exclude the public from court proceedings.
The priority given by the American government to irregular migration control increases the dependency of alien women on their bosses. Women depend on their bosses to remain in the U.S. and be able to send remittanc- es to their families. The bosses protect them from the authorities in three ways: 1) bribing; 2) providing legalassistance if they are detained; and, 3) affording their surreptitious return to the United States in case of deporta- tion. As a counter-benefit, women have to be submissive and accept their bosses’ requests, because they can turn them inand force their deportation. The migratory law also empowers the clients. Many of them ask for undocumented migrant women, not only because they pay lower fees, but women are more docile. Native women cannot be forced to serve trouble- making clients or perform disgusting acts. On the contrary, foreign women do not have an option; clients see themselves as citizens with rights that can use whimsically foreign women with no rights, as they broke the law entering illegally into the country. Thereby, when women reject them, they deny satisfying their desires or try to defend themselves when attacked, clients threaten them to disclose their migratory status, and if they do not back down, they exercise their civil right of denouncing hose who break the law.
An examination of action taken by the Commission on Human Rights with regard to recent conflicts also reveals a number of general features that can be added to those enumerated above, showing how international organi- zations deal with these matters: (i) repeated express reference is made to IHL as a branch of law that is directly applicable in the analysis ofhuman rights abuse; (ii) although the Commission takes action against the conduct of both States and non-State parties, there appears to be a certain reticence on its part to call on non-State parties directly and explicitly to respect human rights; in such cases its exhortations are grounded in IHL, requiring the par- ties to cooperate in ensuring respect for these rights; and (iii) it focuses on the rights of humanitarian organizations and personnel rather than on the rights of those who are in need of relief supplies, to the extent that the right ofvictims to humanitarian assistance is mentioned only in passing.
Although there have been many laudable local and individual initiatives to meet the challenge of providing for incoming migrants, at national level the government has not risen to this challenge adequately and lack of funding and political and ideological constraints have proved to be major obstacles in the provision of adequate living accommodation, health and education services, legalassistance, employment and language assistance. Due to crime-related immigration and to its powerful impact on the public’s attention, many security-oriented measures reflecting the political platforms of each individual government have been imple- mented. The response to immigration has also fluctuated widely hand in hand with changing governments, ideologies and local politics and policies. Until recently the measures adopted to regulate migration over the last decade have become increasingly restrictive and repres- sive, promoting a policy of deportation and forced repatriation vis-à-vis non-documented migrants. A range of different categories of reception and detention centres have been introduced to implement these policies: Recep- tion centres - Centro di Accoglienza ( CDA );
In December 2002 a Regional Meeting of Experts was held in Lomé, Togo to review and assess the progress of implementation of the ECOWAS Plan of Action against traffickinginhumanbeings. During the meeting, three pri- ority areas were identified as critical in pursuing efforts to combat traffickinginhumanbeings. First, the need to set up more effective legal systems, or to review and reform existing ones, so that the prosecution of traffickers is facil- itated. Second, a better understanding of the situation of the victimsoftrafficking is required and their protection has to be prioritised whereby they are not treated as crim- inals themselves. Finally, far-ranging awareness-raising campaigns in the public sphere should accompany policy measures to counter the phenomenon oftraffickinginhumanbeings. Based on these recommendations, the ECOWAS member states agreed on important policy actions. Concerning the improvement of legislative tools and frameworks, ECOWAS countries put particular emphasis on the ratification of the Palermo Protocol. In the field ofprotectionandassistance to victimsof traffick- ing, they agreed “to cooperate with NGOs and other rep- resentatives of civil society as appropriate, in order to take measures to create or develop the capacity of the recep- tion centres where victimsoftraffickingin persons can be sheltered”. 47 As to awareness-raising campaigns and dis-
al., 2015). By way of illustration, the costs of recruitment can be kept to an absolute minimum through the use of the internet. Deceptive ads can for instance be disseminated across various online platforms at once in order to lure and recruit potential victims at no cost (see also Antonopoulos, 2018). Besides that, online recruitment is less risky in terms of backtracking, given that it is much easier and less of an issue for recruiters to back out once they realise that the situation is not working out as planned (Lavorgna, 2013). Beyond recruitment, digital communication technologies can lower the costs for advertisement and customer acquisition (Malby et al., 2015). Overall, online solicitation is cheaper and more instantly effective when compared to more traditional methods of marketing such as buying ads in a local newspaper (Sanders et al., 2018). New technologies also provide the means for broader flexibility in the acquisition of clients, thereby increasing the expediency of this commercial pursuit (Latonero et al., 2011; Sirseloudi, 2018). Likewise, the use of technology can have an impact on the costs related to supervision and control, as technological advancements mitigate the need for a member of the criminal network to be physically present on the premises at all times (Antonopoulos, 2018; Rusev et al., 2018). Lastly, technologies let trafficking offenders cut back on transaction costs in the form of expenditure on accommodation, and more specifically on window fees (Raets & Janssens, 2018). In this connection, a relevant example is the recent phenomenon of sexual transactions taking place in accommodations rented through the online platform Airbnb (Lalam, 2018), also known as “pop-up brothels” (see Sanders et al., 2018). In general, the internet has augmented the regular sex industry in that a great part of sex workers are now advertising
16. Goldim JR, Pithan CF, Oliveira JG, Raymundo MM. O processo de consentimento livre e esclarecido em pesquisa: Uma nova abordagem. Revista Associação Médica Brasileira 2003; 49(4): 372-374. 17. English DC. Bioethics: a clinical guide for medical students. New York: Norton, 1994. p. 33-5. 18. Appelbaum PS, Lidz CW, Meisel A. Informed consent: legal theory and clinical practice. New York:
The novelty and originality of the Human Security Indices (HSIs) lie in the fact that, unlike other efforts at composite indexing, the indices have two variants that respectively represent an effort and outcomes-based devel- opment index. In attempting this, this measurement effort recognizes the distinction between the assessment of the commodity determinants of well- being (goods and services acting as inputs) as opposed to the actual well-being of the constituents of well-being (capabilities of individuals) (McGranahan, 1972, pp. 95–100; Dasgupta et al., 1994, p. 42). The human security Effort Index includes measures of the extent to which government makes an effort at meeting certain development objectives. Efforts are assessed in terms of the delivery of those means required for meeting specic objectives. Where valid indicators for quantifying these efforts were not available, measures of the degree in which governments have committed themselves to meeting those objectives are employed as proxies. The human security Outcome Index includes measures reecting the extent to which these particular development objectives have actually been achieved and the extent to which people possess the particular capabilities. The concern, therefore, is with ‘‘those states, qualities and activities valued for their own sake’’ (Galston, 1980, p. 55). These two sets of indices allow one to analyze the extent to which efforts at human security are translated into actual achievement. This is measured by means of the so-called Inefciency Ratio. This ratio is calculated by dividing the Effort Index by the Outcome Index.
the escalation of what started as electoral disputes in Côte d’Ivoire and transformed into widespread violence and the resulting humanitarian crisis points to the profound challenges that confront the international community in preventing conflicts and protecting civilians from the adverse effects of such conflicts. It is obvious that the international community, specifically the uN and ECOWAS, were not able to deploy a timely and robust mission to protect the civilians caught in post-election cross-fire. uNOCI lacked the capacity to adequately protect civilians. there is therefore a need for the international community to prioritise the protectionof civilians in all conflicts. this should be underpinned by a comprehensive understanding of conflict situations to enable the framing and deployment of the appropriate peace support missions. peacekeepers should be given adequate training on the protectionof civilians. training should be tailor-made to the specific needs of the operating environment. In addition, the international community should support the new Ivorian government to implement an effective disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration programme to combat the circulation of SALWs and reintegrate former combatants into society. Finally, impartial and comprehensive transitional justice and
Abstract. The purpose of this paper is to reflect upon ethical implications ofhuman-robot interaction. Issues are discussed within two scenarios: (1) In focusing on robots with intelligent behavior, but without consciousness, attention is paid to obstacles for forming trustful relations. Here, it is concluded that human-robot interaction will lack the kind of commitment, which stems from the fact that life is interpersonal, implying that trust is a fundamental human condition. (2) In focusing on the possibility of developing intelligent robots with a mental life of their own, issues of our responsibility as creators of robots are discussed, as well as issues dealing with the kind of relationships we might have with such robots. Here, we are faced with a Good-like responsibility and ethical obligations towards a creature, who possible will develop a mind of its own, which might turn out to be radically different from the human mind.
must adopt privacy design principles because the «European values of dignity, freedom and justice must be taken into account before, during and after the process of design, development and delivery of such technologies. PETs should be integrated from the outset and not bolted on following implementation» (European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies 2014, 91). No less important, the advantage of taking preventive measures such as PbD is that they ensure efficacy and justice much better than any reactive measures such as economic compensation for breaches of privacy. The incorporation of storage and deletion schedules would be an example of PbD approach. It would imply that the devices embodied in drones should be design in a manner to allow secure storage of data over a defined period of time and automatic deletion once this period is exceded. The design of drones may also be flexible and different categories of sensors can be proposed depending on private sector buyers’ business objective. This would allow buyers to choose the model of drone that would interfere with privacy the least. Privacy interferences can be as well avoided by providing tools with “data protection friendly funcionalities” such as the possibility to switch on/off sensors in flight, automatic masking of private areas or face‐blurring effects for images that are unintentionally recorded (European Data Protection Supervisor 2014, 15).
Women of Romanian origin engaged in prostitution in Barcelona operate mainly in Ciutat Vella district and, in smaller numbers, Les Corts. Most come from areas inand around Constanta and Alexandria, an underdeveloped rural region with harsh weather conditions. Generally speaking, we can define two different groups of women with different circumstances. In the first group are women that may be victimsof sexual exploitation by a member of their own family over a period of years. During this time, the women send the money they obtain to their families living in Romania to their cover basic needs. According to the dynamic established, after a time the woman returns to Romania and another woman from the family occupies her place, engaging in prostitution, and the first women lives off the money that the second sends back. Most of the women see this process as a family commitment, as their role within the community, and do not identify with a situation of exploitation. There is a second group of women of Romanian origin who may be in situations ofhuman being traffickingfor the purpose of sexual exploitation by organised gangs. Whilst until only a few years ago the extortion methods used involved extreme violence, a change in the way these networks operate has been observed recently. The mafia gangs are smaller and only control two or three women. Control now takes the form, not of direct physical extortion against the women, but more indirect methods. One common practice involves a man tricking the woman, making her believe that he has fallen in love with her, in some cases even making her pregnant. This child is placed in the care of the network and the woman is moved to other parts of Europe and coerced into engaging in forced prostitution. Control and threats against children coercive methods that ensure the submission of the women and reduce the risk of them running away or reporting their situation to the police so as not to jeopardise the welfare of their children.
Reality: Trafficking does not require physical restraint, bodily harm, or physical force. Psychological means of control, such as threats, fraud, or abuse of the legal process, are sufficient elements of the crime. Unlike the previous federal involuntary servitude statutes (U.S.C. 1584), the new federal crimes created by the TraffickingVictimsProtection Act (TVPA) of 2000 were intended to address “subtler” forms of coercion and to broaden previous standards that only
PRR stimulation is essential for cytokine production and immune activation. Neutrophils from HESN also have significantly lower levels of mRNAs for IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, TNF-α and TGF- β than those from HIV-1(+) (Fig. 3). It is therefore, striking that these cytokines, which seem to be important in the establishment and progression of HIV-1 infection, were lower in neutrophils from HESN, suggesting a potential role inprotection from HIV-1 infection. Low levels of these cytokines in neutrophils seem to trigger an alteration in their activation status, affecting the HIV-1 ability to bind neutrophils, since it was demonstrated that activation of neutrophils by inflammatory stimuli increases the binding of HIV-1 and their ability to infect PBMCs . The low expression of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines, observed in prima- ry neutrophils from HESN, could be associated with the low expression of PRRs, as previously reported in cervical-vaginal washes from HESN compared to HIV-1(+) . This is of great importance as increased levels of genital pro-inflammatory cytokines and other immune fac- tors have been associated with increased HIV-1 acquisition in women from sub-Saharan Africa [40, 41]. Previous studies have described reduced immune activation in lymphocytes from HESN [42 – 44]. More recently it was demonstrated that female HESN sex workers produce less pro-inflammatory Th17/Th22-type cytokines in cervical secretions , genital tract and blood . Unstimulated PBMCs from HESN women were also reported with lower levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, a phenomenon associated with an immune quiescence hypothesis . Interestingly, IL-1 β and IL-6 enhance HIV-1 infection in monocytes and resting CD4+ T cells in vitro [47, 48]. Regarding TNF-α, activation of dendritic cells and migration to lymph nodes has been reported . This phenomenon could be associated with transport of HIV-1 infec- tious particles to target T-cells in lymph nodes, called the “Trojan horse” model of HIV-1 trans-infection [50, 51]. Thus, lower levels of cytokines may reduce HIV-1 replication, and contribute to HI-1 resistance in HESN.
Introduction: Prevalence of child sexual abuse is close to 15%, being more frequent in women and when it is perpetrated by known people. Some research indicates that victimsof CSA may be at risk factor of developing of psychological problems in the short and long term.
It is described the design of a mechatronic system to actuate a hand soft orthotic device for rehabilitation andassistance purposes developed by the author of this thesis within the Bio Mechatronics Department of Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation (IPA) based in Stuttgart, Germany. The system mimics the musculoskeletal anatomy and kinesiology of the human body by resembling the bone-muscle-tendon configuration. A key feature of the orthosis is that allows the individual movement of the fingers. The actuation consists in the use of -high contraction- Festo Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAMs) within a 3D printed support structure which was designed using anthropometric data to aim to comfort and ergonomics. The PAMs are operated with piezoelectric -flow proportional- valves. The sensors mimic the human somatosensory system to control the motion and to confer a haptic nature to the human interface. The use of light indicators allows visual reinforcement during exercises. The final deliverable is a testing model that is going to be used for further experiments. Finally, this orthotic device is envisioned to become a mobile solution for self- aided rehabilitation.
En particular, en nuestro país esta disputa ha ocu- pado un importante espacio legal a partir de la consideración de los derechos de las comunida- des nativas como derechos humanos básicos. En este contexto, resulta imperiosa la discusión ética acerca del rol que deben tener las comunidades de los pueblos originarios en la gestión, manejo y elección de lugar de reposo de los restos de sus antepasados, así como respecto de la legitimidad ética de que dichos restos sean expuestos en mu- seos. En la próxima sección ahondaremos en los marcos éticos y legales vigentes, tanto los referi- dos al estatus que les es otorgado desde el Estado argentino, como desde la perspectiva de los pro- pios antropólogos y de los museos. Con este fin, se analizan tres casos emblemáticos argentinos, así como los principales agentes sociales involucra- dos, tratando de reconocer sus posiciones frente a este problema y el tipo de argumentación sobre las que se apoyan para obtener cierta legitimidad. Finalmente, realizaremos una reflexión crítica so- bre el problema analizado, considerando todos los elementos reunidos.
Particular attention should be paid to the problem of exhaustion of intellectual property rights, primarily exclusive trademark rights, in the territory of the Eurasian Economic Union countries with “parallel imports”. Paragraph 16 of the Protocol on the Protectionand Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights provides for a regional regime of the principle of exhaustion of exclusive rights not only with respect to trademarks of the Eurasian Economic Union, but also with respect to national trademarks. In case of entry into the territory of the Union, intellectual property rights shall be exhausted when crossing the border of one of the member states of the Eurasian Economic Union. At the same time, insufficient regulation of issues related to the exhaustion of exclusive trademark rights at the level of national legal systems of the member states of the Eurasian Economic Union and the lack of uniform approaches to this issue does not remove today the problem of admissibility of “parallel import” of goods within the Eurasian Economic Union. In the most general way, the principle of exhaustion of law means the possibility of a third party to use the result of intellectual activity without the consent of the right holder as a result of its introduction into circulation. The modern doctrine of exhaustion of intellectual property rights is based on the idea of circumventing artificial barriers to free trade, which may be created by holders of exclusive rights to protected results of intellectual activity and the means of individualization equal to them, which was developed in the German law enforcement practice of the beginning of the XX century.