the present politico-administrative design was defined; the firm commitment of the Cuban Government to the PDHLs in the second half of the 1990s; the adoption in state companies, following the Vth Congress of the Communist Party of Cuba, of policies to improve entrepreneurial capacities; or, the firm commitment by the government to confront gender discrimination and achieve greater equity between men and women (A ´ lvarez, 1997, pp. 119-20; Oficina Nacional de Estadı´sticas de Cuba, 2009, pp. 9-12; Guzo´n, 2004, p. 10; PDHL, 2007, p. 3; PNUD, HEGOA, 2008, p. 24; de la Cruz, 2009, pp. 4-5; CEDAW, 2004). With respect to development results, in general terms, throughout the process of sugar reconversion there has been an improvement in the levels of training and qualification of both men and women, although not in the same fields, thanks to the training initiatives contained in the PDHLs. Attention should be drawn to the different editions of the training diploma of managers for the process of agro-industrial reconversion in the context of localhumandevelopment, because it has introduced the content of the new approaches to development (humandevelopment, on the one hand, and content referring to sustainable development, endogenous development, regional development and localdevelopment, on the other). This has been a fundamental tool for understanding the conceptual foundations on which the PDHLs applied to the reconversion of Holguı´n rest. On the other hand, it has made possible the acquisition of specific technical tools for planning and managing the new initiatives of economic and productive development, both local initiatives and those proceeding from international collaboration.
the different levels of government in multi-tiered systems. In Brazil, both regional states and munici- palities receive transfers from the federal government. In Australia, federal transfers are critical to state budgets representing as much as 50% of total revenues. The largest transfer is that corresponding to the proceeds of the goods and services tax (GST) followed by other specific transfers. Similarly, the uncondi- tional Equalization Transfer in Canada accounts for more than 80% of total federal transfers to the prov- inces. In Argentina, by and large intergovernmental fiscal relations are channelled through the Régimen de Coparticipación Impositiva which introduces criteria for vertical —primary—and horizontal —second- ary— distribution of funds. Not only federal countries have inter-governmental financial arrangements in place. Non-federal, fiscally decentralised countries have often similar arrangements between the central government and the territorial or local units. This is the case of Colombia a politically-unitary country whose territorial divisions —departamentos and municipios— receive earmarked transfers from the na- tional government to finance decentralized spending. Another country where the role of transfers from the central government has become increasingly important is China, particularly after the introduction of the Tax-Sharing System (TSS) reform in 1994 which was aimed at improving the efficiency of sub-national spending and reducing horizontal inequalities . Other unitary countries like Portugal and Chile have also
Gaye and Jha (2010) examine sub-national, national and regional reports, finding several novel ways for improving the humandevelopment index that can potentially be replicated at the global level. Pagliani (2010) shows that national and sub-national HDRs have promoted the humandevelopment paradigm, policy formulation and assessment, the revision of policies and budget allocations, as well as generating media and educational attention. Burd-Sharps et al (2010) show the continued relevance of the HDI to affluent countries. De la Torre and Moreno (2010) extend the calculation of the HDI to the individual and household level, and include additional dimensions such as being free from local crime, absence of violence against women, and inequality. Harttgen and Klasen (2010) also provides a method to calculate the HDI at the household level, allowing the estimate of HDI inequality by population subgroups and household socioeconomic characteristics. Desai (2010) concentrates on women’s empowerment, arguing for a wide spectrum of considerations taking into account violence against women and HIV/AIDS in addition to formal employment, education, political representation, waged labor, fertility decline and maternal mortality.
What are the relations, in achieving the desirable results, between public and private expenditure, between private prot-seeking and private voluntary activities, and between public central and public local and provin- cial expenditure? What should be the amount of these services produced and/or nanced and/or provided by the government and privately? Four combinations between production and nance are possible, and each gives different results. Cost recovery and charging user fees is an example of public provision/private nance, and has merits and drawbacks. Vouchers for schools or hospitals is an example of public nance/private provision. Private insurance or buying the services in the market amounts to private nance/private provision, and free public services illustrates public nance/ public provision. Although much has been written about the theory of these different forms (and even more on the ideology), very few specic, concrete case studies have been done. What is the role of private voluntary organiza- tions in delivering health, family planning and education? Should they replace or collaborate with governments? If so, with central, provincial or local governments? If not, is their role one of pioneering that, later, can be taken over and replicated by governments? If so, what combination of central and local government action gives the best results? A collection and analysis of country experiences in this area promises fruitful guidelines for policy-makers. It is an area particularly suitable for collaborative work between advanced and developing country scholars.
The proposed article presents the characterization of the application of the systemic approach in the Decentralized Autonomous Governments of the province of Manabí, and its relationship with the development of human potential, as a partial result that is part of a larger project, designed to design a theoretical model for the application of the systemic approach as a support for the development of human potential. The research was non-experimental, transversal and of explanatory level. To do this, an empirical study was carried out that involved a representative sample of public officials of these governments in Chone, El Carmen, Jipijapa, Manta, Montecristi and Portoviejo. The result obtained, coupled with the theoretical methodological support, made it possible to identify the limitations to be mitigated so that the dynamics of these local governments stimulate the growth of their human resources from the application of the systemic approach in their management.
for whom all development effort is undertaken. Instead of using a top- down approach towards information collection at the local level, it is important that people be involved in the process of both qualitative and quantitative data collection. For example, in an Indian province of Chhattisgarh, village-level reports known as People’s Reports ( Jan Rapats) have been prepared in 19 128 villages with the participation of villagers. These reports were further consolidated at the next admin- istrative tier, the district, which in turn are used to prepare the State HDR. This was accomplished with the help of local level non- governmental organizations and facilitators who were trained to collect information. The process is, however, time-consuming since the relevant information has to be culled from a number of village and district reports, and when the consolidation is done at higher levels some information might get lost. Despite these problems, the participatory procedure provides authenticity to the report and results in sensitization of the people involved in the process. A similar approach was used in Papua New Guinea HDR 1998 (UNDP, 1998b) where the Participatory Rural Appraisal technique was used in 16 villages in seven provinces to identify key issues of concern to the people.
In any case, both concepts (needs and satisfiers) interrelate within a matrix according to existential and axiological characteristics, where a larger description of their conceptual structure is explained (see Table 2.2). Reviewing the matrix itself is illustrative and provides only an example of the multiple relations of elements that can be named and listed as needs and satisfiers in a matrix of the kind. Altogether, this information will reveal how many of the satisfiers will ultimately give rise to other different economic goods. For example, in the fulfilment of the need of “understanding”, if schools and universities are needed to enhance its achievement; therefore budget allocation for this purposes should be appointed; and so on and so forth. The matrix can be used for purposes of diagnosis, planning, assessment and evaluation, always as a result of participatory exercises. It can also be employed as an important methodological tool because it restrains a significant context-related component and examples of this could be revised across many countries (e.g in Latin American, Africa and others in northern Europe) where local and grass-root groups had followed on this line to tackle socio-economic development issues in multicultural societies.
Still, the significant development of the agro-exporting activity is not enough to compensate the regional production and employment crisis that result from the breaking of the import substitutive model predominant during many decades in the country growth strategy. An evident standstill in the 1970’s begins to show signs that this model is running out, and will thus result in the subsequent regional crisis: the industry in 1974 shows the same number of employees that in 1955, and 25% less premises (Castagna et al. 1996), but since then the standstill got even worst. A 1985 survey shows a fall of 14.5% in industrial employment and 13.6% in the number of premises in relation to 1974. By 1994, the data for both these variables are -29% and -25% respectively. The most clear evidence that the deterioration in the regional industry is only very slightly compensated by the growth of other production areas, is given by the evolution in the percentage of economically active population with employment problems (unemployed or underemployed): between 1974 and 1980 that percentage is both semester around 10%, between 1981 and 1991 it is around 15% and in the 90’s it is over 20% (recently reaching 30% in measurements).
Expenditures on HD inputs are clearly not objectives in themselves, but rather constitute instruments for achieving advances in various dimensions of basic well being. A further important determinant of HD achievements is, therefore, the effectiveness of these expenditures in raising HD levels, i.e. what type of provision is most productive at what level of development, and how different combinations effect a change in HD. In our earlier work, we termed this relationship the HumanDevelopment Improvement Function (HDIF) (Ranis et al., 1999). These relationships are similar to those of a production function in that they relate the inputs into HD, such as public expenditure on health services or water, to HD improvement. An illustration of the type of relationship involved is whether and how far the provision of safe water is complementary to or substitutes for education in contributing to improvements in health. The relationships here are complex, depending on individual and community behaviour and the existence of local knowl- edge about relevant technologies. Empirical work looking into these rela- tionships has provided abundant evidence that education, especially female, tends to improve infant survival and child nutrition, as does female control over household income (see, for example, Rosenzweig and Schultz, 1982; Wolfe and Behrman, 1987; Barrera, 1990; Thomas, 1990; Strauss and Thomas, 1995).
The role of government spending in improving humandevelopment has been considered by many authors (for example, Strauss and Thomas, 1995). What generally emerges is that redistributive expenditures, such as social security and welfare spending, are efficient in improving humandevelopment, while pure local public goods (often associated with pork- barrel politics) have a very poor poverty reduction effect (Ranis and Stewart, 2000). What we aim to show in this paper is that electoral systems influence the level of humandevelopment, through their effect on the breakdown of government spending: depending on the existing elec- toral system, politicians will choose the type of public expenditures they implement as a function of the key groups of voters they want to target to maximize their probability of being reelected. Indeed, re-election is strongly dependent on the rules of the system, which politicians know perfectly well. They define which electors they should try to attract.
Finally, women are in charge of the committees related to justice and social affairs. On the basis of the SADR’s legislation, these committees have the responsibility to intervene in all is- sues related to civil society. These issues include marriages, divorces, deaths and all kind of disputes among refugees. In reference to divorces, it is important to note that, contrary to the law in other Arab cultures, Sahrawi women may take the initiative on their own and the hus- band is usually the one obliged to abandon the home. In this respect, a great advancement in the social organisation of the refugee camps was the creation in 2002 of a State Secretariat for Social Affairs and the Emancipation of Women. The existence of this body has allowed the NUSW an even wider dedication to gender issues as the main criteria for the activities organ- ised with women. This newly created institution is also promoting the incorporation of more women to the work of the NUSW, both refugee women and other women from international associations and networks who share the objectives of the empowerment of Sahrawi women. Development of motivational capacities
Important historical strengths are still in place. For example, viewed over the long term, Costa Rica’s achievements inhumandevelopment place it in a favorable position. The recent expansion of its external sector has made it the principal exporter per capita in Latin America. Its environmental conservation policies and the exploration of its rich biodiversity provide the country with an important asset for improving the quality of life of its people and promoting development, as they are a core factor of the progress to be made in the areas of science and technology. Being the oldest and most stable democracy in Latin American is an advantage for Costa Rica vis-à-vis its position in the surrounding environment. More recently, the domestic economy grew in 2004 (although less than in 2003) and , while this was not reflected in higher incomes for the population, it does show that the country has competitive economic sectors. Although progress has been slow and tentative, recovery of school attendance levels and investment in public education provide the groundwork for more vigorous action in this field. Costa Rica’s legal institutions were able to submit powerful political figures to legal proceedings as called for under the law, despite the tensions generated by the situation. And a short while ago, a process of social consensus-building produced an agreement to reform, for the first time since it was established in the 1940s, the social security system’s regulations on disability, old age and death benefits (IVM).
development policies will improve institutional responsiveness to the needs and concerns of the population. Without transparency, everyone loses; and if there are winners, there are only a few. Excluded social groups lose, because their needs are not met. Governments lose, if they do not have instruments for measuring their performance and for offsetting or altering negative factors. Greater transparency in public institutions will provide the people of Central America with instruments that can help them obtain a clear idea of the true situation, which will enable them to act in a way that is consistent with their possibilities, opportunities, and aspirations. The humandevelopment index, published annually by the UNDP, is viewed as a step forward in efforts to measure the relative development of countries. The concept of humandevelopment, however, is broader than what can be sketched with the variables used to calculate the index. It can and should be supplemented by indicators and analyses that demonstrate how opportunities are expanding for people and how their rights are being effectively recognized. For this reason, information is needed on the aspirations, expectations, and interests expressed by the people of Central America. With this as a basis, an assessment can be made of the region’s performance within the framework of the few internationally comparable indicators available.
The research carried out is not exempt from limitations that have emerged throughout. In the first place, it is necessary for the generalization of the results to take into account the limita- tions associated with the characteristics of the sample. This study was based on the contributions of 15 experimental sub- jects, 30 observers, and 15 control subjects. Although the infor- mation extracted from each experimental subject has been extensive, a larger sample size would guarantee greater validity and reliability of the results obtained. Also, a more hetero- geneous sample, for example, covering project managers from different regions or nationalities, could allow for the detection of additional aspects of interest. Some bias could have arisen during personal competencies assessments from expectations of improvements in the experimental group (both project managers and observers). Also, changes in self-assessments by control group members could have been affected by their knowledge that others were receiving coaching, but they were not.
This article is focused on analytical thinking of the participants of a entrepreneurial development programme in the peri-urban rural region focus in the city of La Plata. The programme it started with an action of the extension of the Universidad Nacional de la Plata (Olmos Emprende), the development led to the joint and more programs national and provincial. The first objective is to describe the conditions in the entrepreneurship in Latin America and contextualize the experience presented. Afterwards a consideration of the local territorial context that would have facilitated the participation in the program, taking into account two regional areas: On the one hand the periurban rural region in general and on the other hand, a series of local dimensions that, in addition to factors techno-economic state and regulatory frameworks, include social and cultural circumstances. The question that crosses the text, focuses on the location of the entrepreneurship in the territory, focusing on their possibilities of localdevelopment. We observed the situations of interface between various regional actors, between groups of citizens, various state agencies and the diverse participation also of private agents.
abstract: In the digital age, the Media are today, fortunately, affordable instru- ments that progressively allow all human beings –up to now confined and silent– to know what is happening anywhere in the world, being able, in addition, to express their own views and opinions. This article insists on the value of Communication to achieve the equality of the human being in all the senses. “The same dignity –writes the author– as the foundation of the world we long for.” Keywords: Communication; Equality; Development; Internatio- nal Cooperation; Citizenship.
Speaking has been considered an essential skill to consider somebody is proficient in a second language. However, as stated before, it has also been the skill that causes the biggest difficulties for high school students, because agreeing with Nunan (1999) “in authentic discourse, the interlocutors have a great deal of work to do to ensure that they are talking about the same thing” (p. 227). Thus, the project´s research objectives were to identify those aspects that might hinder the improvement of the speaking skills in EFL learners, and to help students to improve oral production and then to encourage them to efficiently communicate in English. Different activities were implemented to make the students feel more relaxed in the English class, taking into account their context, feelings and background. We set up situations they could easily cope with in real life, this way each team shared ideas and experiences and put them all together to reach a common goal. In order to achieve these research objectives, the implementation of collaborative strategies has proved to be efficient. About collaborative learning, understood as equals to
A partir de estos antecedentes, nuestra propuesta es estudiar la evolución técnica y económica de IKA, analizando volúmenes de producción y mercado, su dotación y sus indicadores financieros principales. Es decir, indagar cómo la mecanización y el incremento de la composición orgánica del capital, motorizados por la competencia, repercutieron sobre la performance y la marcha del negocio. Buscamos determinar las causas que llevaron a la empresa de una posición dominante y de ser una de las más grandes del país, pasando por una expansión de su actividad con absorciones de otras compañías terminales y autopartistas, a su crisis y posterior venta. Hay elementos que dan cuenta de este derrotero, como pueden ser decisiones gerenciales incorrectas, o la estrategia de “desinversión” de los principales accionistas extranjeros. Aun así, consideramos que estos factores no son necesariamente concluyentes. Buena parte del destino final de IKA está en la propia competencia en el mercado interno, cuyo mecanismo es el cambio técnico. Es decir, a partir del ingreso de nuevos competidores con mayor capacidad; lo que llevó a un incremento en la carga financiera por los esfuerzos de expansión para enfrentar esa misma competencia. IKA buscó, como el resto, aumentar la productividad y reducir costos, y fracasó en ese intento como varias de las terminales que se instalaron en ese primer período. Entendemos que el estudio de ciertas variables de los balances puede mostrar indicios al respecto.
Notwithstanding the continuous search for better governance in develop- ing countries, there is to date no consensus about the meaning of governance in both policy and academic circles. This paper offers to explore the relationship between concept and reality by redefining governance in ways that are slightly different from most conventional definitions of the term. This definition does not separate the theoretico- conceptual form of the term from the reality of governing societal entities. Drawing on the work of Jan Kooiman (2003), special emphasis will be placed on interactions as the guiding principles of any governance framework. In other words, governance frameworks emanate from the interactions of actors within governance contexts, while striving at the same time to guide the present and future behaviour and actions of actors. Central to this approach to the understanding of governance are issues of dynamism, intentionality, and diversity. That is, static governance frameworks will always fall behind rapidly changing structural contexts. Vol. 8, No. 1, March 2007