We start from microscopic information. It is assumed to be stored on holographic screens. Note that information has a natural inclusion property: by forgetting certain bits, by coarse graining, one reduces the amount of information. This coarse graining can be achieved through averaging, a block spin transformation, integrating out, or some other renormalization group procedure. At each step one obtains a further coarse grained version ofthe original microscopic data. The gravitational or closed string side of these dualities is by many still believed to be independently defined. But in our view these are macroscopic theories, which by chance we already knew about before we understood they were the dual of a microscopic theory without gravity. We can’t resist making the analogy with a situation in which we would have developed a theory for elasticity using stress tensors in a continuous medium half a century before knowing about atoms. We probably would have been equally resistant in accepting the obvious. Gravity and closed strings are not much different, but we just have not yet got used to the idea.
In The Gutenberg Galaxy McLuhan distinguished basically three historical periods: orality, the typographic and mechanical era, andthe electronic age. McLuhan’s theories on orality can be traced back to thetheoriesof Parry and Lord, 140 but also to the investigations that ethnopsychiatrist J.C. Carothers conducted in Africa on the importance of literacy and visuality, as opposed to the orality that predominated among non-literate people. 141 In contrast to Innis, who considered orality mainly in relationship to time, the notion of acoustic space allowed McLuhan to think about it in spatial terms, and—as I have discussed above—to underline its connection to the ear. 142 Instead, the typographic era, which was preceded by the invention ofthe alphabet andthe culture of manuscripts, was associated with the invention and spread ofthe printing press—the first movable type printing press was invented by Johannes Gutenberg in Mainz, circa 1450—, the development of pictorial perspective, andthe beginning ofthe so-called “Scientific Revolution”. McLuhan underlined the link between the invention ofthe printing press andthe purported hegemony of sight in modern Western culture, which apparently entailed the vanishing or obscuration of a pre-modern sensorial world where hearing andthe other senses were more important. Besides, like Carpenter, McLuhan believed that the electronic age, associated with technologies like the telephone, the radio, the phonograph, or the television, was in many aspects akin to the experience of preliterate cultures, since “we encounter new shapes and structures of human
a catalogue about silent films, belonging to the field of fiction, made between 1914 and 1923 in Argentina. The notion of absence organizes, from the title, the research work that is mainly concerned with the retrieval of frames through various graphic publications as well as the transcription ofthe intertitles. Besides, the approach includes debates with previous studies, a complete system of signing, the analysis ofthe link between the cinema of those years with other disciplines –such as music, theatre and literature- andthe discovery of films of various genres.
The “monstrous certainty” is another example ofthe ambivalence between humans and aliens, destroyers and destroyed, murderers and murdered; violence, inshort. Pedrolo’s novel talks about violence, sacrifice and suffering, which carry ambivalent values of destruction and redemption. The characters’ feeling of guilt also reminds us ofthe biblical story of Adam and Eve, the parents of humanity. Trauma is also a consequence of violence and suffering, as the other survivors ofthe attack show, such as the man they discover who, having lost his children, commits suicide, or the Italian woman cradling the skeleton of her baby— and even the aggressive Italian men who want to kill the boy and rape the girl. Terribly shocked by their tragedies, Alba thinks that it is a “sign (...) that they were still human” (426). Violence is necessary to save humankind and to defend from others’ aggressiveness, like those three individuals who want to assault Alba during the journey through Italy, as mentioned before. In their case, they do not use violence to dominate or exert control over others; they are not either victims of paranoiac violence in the wake ofthe alien attack even though they are fully aware of their weakness and helplessness. Feeling in tune with the nature, they represent just a tiny part ofthe existing: “That calamity made them feel smaller than ever” (407).
We have analysed the abundance ratios [X / Fe] as a func- tion ofthe surface gravity in member stars of clusters in which both dwarf and giant stars were observed. The results of [Y / Fe], [Zr / Fe], [Ba / Fe] and [Ce / Fe] for NGC 6633, NGC 2420, and M67 are shown in Fig. 1. The behaviour of lanthanum is not shown since IDR 5 contains La abundances for almost exclusively giant stars. The aim of Fig. 1 is to highlight possible di ff er- ences in the abundances ofthe s-process elements due to the di ff erent stellar parameters. In these plots, we have normalized the abundance ratios ofthe member stars of each cluster to its median abundance and have excluded stars with abundance un- certainties larger than 0.2 dex. From this figure, we do not ob- serve, within the uncertainties, any systematic trends ofthe abun- dance ratios [Y / Fe], [Zr / Fe], and [Ce / Fe] with surface gravity for giant and dwarf member stars ofthe same cluster. How- ever, for [Ba / Fe], we notice that the stars with very low grav- ity in NGC 2420 have Ba abundance 0.2 dex higher than the other member stars. In the range of log g from 2.5 to 4 there is no trend of [Ba / Fe] versus log g and therefore no di ff erences between dwarf and giant stars. To probe how much the over- estimation of Ba abundance in low-gravity stars might be im- portant, we have selected a sample of Milky Way field stars with −0.1 < [Fe / H] < 0.1. In Fig. 2, we plot their [Ba / Fe] versus log g, which indicates that there are no systematic differences between giant and dwarf stars. In addition, in our sample, the number of stars with very low gravity (stars with log g < 2.5 are ∼3% ofthe sample of Milky Way field stars) is very small and their eventual over-abundances of Ba should not influence our results.
However, if we maintain that capitello and ranno are distinct materials, there is no repetition. The opening lines can be translated, «Take up twice-baked ashes and make capitello. And make ranno from them (the type of ashes that dyers use) and keep it clean and clear. And then put the ranno to boil in a glazed pot. And when the ranno boils, add a cup of quicklime to it.» This translation assumes that the -ne suffixed to fanne refers forward to «the type of ashes that dyers use». Usually, the –ne suffix refers backwards; however, if this were the case here, the phrase «the type of ashes that dyers use» would fit even less well into the text. Moreover, it would not make sense for the –ne suffix to refer back to the capitello, implying that the ranno should be made from capitello, when there are then no instructions for making the capitello itself. If the above interpretation is correct, then the author first states that the recipe is for capitello and that ash is required, and then goes on to explain how to make it, by making ranno from the ash and then converting it into capitello by adding quicklime.
The environments in which first and second language acquisition take place are very different. In our classrooms we will find pupils who have already developed one language. This knowledge may be an advantage because we can start the learning in a higher step. However, it can be a handicap because learners make incorrect guesses thinking that the second language works like the first one. Younger learners have opportunities to practice their second language using songs and games in the classroom. They are exposed to the second language many hours every day. Taking into account these aspects, there have been implemented different methodologies which have been improving over time, in the next paragraphs some of them are going to be explained.
sult was confirmed by Haas et al. (1993), Whitney et al. (1993), Barth, Weigelt, & Zinnecker (1994), Thiebaut et al. (1995), and Fischer, Stecklum, & Leinert (1998). There has been discussion in the lit- erature concerning which ofthe stars is responsible for the outflow activity. Whitney et al. (1993) fa- vor the infrared companion as the source ofthe out- flow andofthe recent optical variability. However, Lamzin et al. (1998) propose that the main source of stellar wind and optical variability in this binary system is the optical primary (the SE component).
Once a heat engine embodied in oligomeric elongation is set in motion, the more likely-elongation could be the faster one in the resource in-take, competing with the possible contenders. An evidence of experimental nature is available from a simulated hydrothermal circulation of reactants, including both glycine and alanine as the starting ones (Ogata, et al. 2000). The predominant initial dipeptides were glycylalanine; however, once the resources for synthesizing glycylalanine were depleted and alanylglycine appear in the reaction solution by whatever means, it started dissecting and feeding upon the pre-existing glycylalanine for its own growth. Although alanylglycine cannot compete with glycylalanine for feeding upon monomeric glycine and alanine, it can regard glycylalanine as a resource to be fed upon for its own growth, once the monomeric resources are depleted. Underlying the vicissitudes of heat engines is the domina- tion ofthe faster resource in-take.
The stories about witchcraft in northeastern of Mexico always present how some situations that seem daily and normal end up covering up their true reality that is negative and harmful, that is, people, things or situations that seem good, in reality they are evil situations. The cover-up mentioned above occurs in an irruption ofthe alien in the own, where the alien is that which does not belong to the daily reality ofthe speaker and that is therefore considered as threatening and dangerous. The own usually appears as the daily, the usual and ordinary in the lives of these people. This paper shows the linguistic expressions with which the own, the alien and that inversion ofthe reality ofthe speakers ofthe southeast ofthe Mexican state of Coahuila are referred to in a series of 21 oral narratives on witchcraft. These references use differences between fright, fear, terror and horror to discursively express this process. When the borders between the own andthe alien are blurred, the linguistic expressions return to these narratives in horror stories and raise the notion, from witchcraft, of an upside down world.
Althusser, aunque apoyaba las alianzas con los partidos moderados, advir- tió de sus limitaciones y peligros. En este sentido, compartía la desconfianza general de los líderes del PCF hacia el Partido Socialista y estuvo de acuerdo con la promoción de lo que se llama en este artículo una “alianza táctica” entre los dos partidos. En la década de 1960, la insistencia de Althusser en la predominancia de la “estructura” sobre la “superestructura” chocó con el marxismo humanista (representado por Roger Garaudy), que era considera- do más compatible con la proposición de forjar una alianza estratégica con los socialistas. De hecho, algunos líderes del PCF temían que las posiciones de Althusser pondrían en peligro la “política de unidad” del partido (Lewis, 2007, pp. 140-143). En Note on the ISAs, publicado en 1970, Althusser ar- gumentaba que los revolucionarios que hacen alianzas con los moderados terminan “muy frecuentemente subordinados a ellos”. Además, “participando en el juego, [ellos] son absorbidos por el juego, y abandonan la lucha de clases en favor de la colaboración de clases”. Concluye que “un partido comunista no tiene por qué entrar al Gobierno de un Estado burgués… para “administrar [sus] asuntos”, ya que su papel es “ampliar el alcance de la lucha de clases y prepararse para la caída del Estado burgués”. En este sentido, el Partido Comunista es un “‘partido de nuevo tipo’, completamente diferente de los partidos burgueses” (Althusser, 2014). Estas posiciones sobre el partido, que fueron la consecuencia lógica de la teoría estructural del Estado, pueden ayu- dar a explicar por qué el PCF no fue capaz de mantener relaciones de trabajo sólidas con el Partido Socialista y de desarrollar una alianza verdaderamente “estratégica” para alcanzar metas a largo plazo.
The geographical isolation ofthe highlands of Mexico (Transvolcanic Belt, Sierra Madre del Sur, andthe highlands of Chiapas-Guatemala) andthe climatic fl uctuations ofthe Pleistocene allowed the evolution of faunistic elements in situ, producing numerous allopatric and parapatric present-day distributions, probably as a result of vicariance events occurring in the ancestral populations (for a well documented example, with genetic and geologic evidence, see Wake and Lynch, 1982, in the section called Nuclear Central America, and Johnson, 1990, Crother et al., 1992). These distributional patterns can be traced in a substantial portion ofthe taxa present in this area, which also show several endemic species with limited distribution; species ofthe genera, the former Hyla, Craugastor, Rana, Pseudoeurycea, Chiropterotriton, Abronia, Adelphicos, Botriechis, Geophis, Rhadinaea and Tantilla, are among the most conspicuous endemics. This observation has been supported by Wake (1987) in his study ofthe salamander ofthe family Plethodontidae. Ramamoorthy and Lorence (1987) discussed this same allopatric event in relation to several species of plants in central Mexico. Crother et al. (1992) show the same for Bothriechis; Reyes Castillo and Halffter (1978) and Reyes Castillo (1982) show evidence ofthe same allopatric event when discussing the distribution ofthe pasalid beetles; the same can be said for Kohlmann and Halffter (1988) in their review ofthe distribution ofthe genus Ateuchus ofthe family Scarabaeidae; and Halffter (1987) in his review ofthe distribution ofthe entomofauna in general. Shaffer (1984) mentions that the genera of salamanders Ambystoma and Rhiacosiredon (now Ambystoma) evolved in isolation from northern species on the Transvolcanic Belt in the last 10 to 12 million years ago. He states that when the Transvolcanic Belt was formed, many ofthe species were already isolated; although he asserts that it is possible that the isolation could have occurred later, during the Plio- Pleistocene.
En “Musicand Trance” (1994), Judith Becker desarrolla algunas de las ideas que posteriormente profundiza en Deep Listeners (2004). Relaciona la música y el trance con la sinapsis neuronal y con la topografía y química del cerebro. Para ejemplificar sus hipótesis, hace referencia al ritual Rangda/Barong de la isla de Bali. Su objetivo es el mismo que en su libro publicado diez años después: integrar los avances de las ciencias biológicas con los conocimientos sobre música y trance derivados de los relatos en primera persona y de la literatura psicológica y antropológica. Esta autora afirma que la medición de la actividad cerebral exclusivamente no puede dar respuesta a la complejidad del fenómeno y por esta razón hace uso de diversas teorías cognitivas para explicarlo. No obstante, afirma que las neurociencias pueden contribuir en la comprensión de los mecanismos subyacentes del trance y la función de la música en él. Utiliza premisas del conexionismo y de modelos emergentes de la mente, ya que en el cognitivismo tradicional el cuerpo no tiene cabida ni tampoco el conocimiento etnográfico. Sin embargo, las teorías englobadas dentro del paradigma de la Embodied Mind consideran que el cuerpo forma parte indisociable de la mente. Este paradigma supone que mente y cuerpo forman una unidad. Las primeras experiencias del ser humano al nacer son manipulativas y sensoriales y éstas dan estructura al pensamiento. Comprendemos el mundo a través de nuestra propia subjetividad corporal y nuestra comprensión de este está filtrada por la corporeización.
The recent transformations that the comunication field has experimented, have impacted in all the orders ofthe social life. This article will particulary focus on the emergency of differents denominations for democracy, which share a similar spirit and try to interpret the scenario that the advent ofthe media as the main actor ofthe politic life has configured. These definitions include terms as audience’s democracy, opinion’s democracy, media’s democracy or mediocracy. In other words, forms of democacy in which the media exercises the power effectivily and sets up the conditions in which deliberation and public opinion are produced nowadays. This brieft conceptual journey will be useful as a frame to approach to some distinctive traits ofthe massmediatic politic culture. Along these lines, it is intended to create a first approximation to the way in which the media framed political life with their specific kind of discourse to define some sense’s parameters about sociopolitical reality in this electoral year’s context.
Underlying Thomas’s basic precept is not merely a simple ontology of mate- rial things but rather a combination of insights regarding philosophy of mind, ontology and epistemology. That means that the substance, which would be treated in ordinary ontology, should not only be regarded as an individual exis- tence but also one that has the ability to recognize the world and to act freely. By adopting Boethius’s well-known definition of ‘person’, Thomas stays within the great philosophical definition of man as a being equipped with mind and spirit, a definition that we already know from Plato and Aristotle. “Person,” says Thomas, “describes that which is most perfect in all of nature, namely the independent existence of a creature blessed with reason.” 10