This is often referred to inthe literature as a form of relational (or obligational) contracting based on goodwill trust, loyalty, reciprocity and shared value systems (Sako, 1992). Instead of seeking to drive down the price by taking advantage of competition inthe market, purchasers enter into longer term contracts with a select number of preferred suppliers. One advantage of this arrangement is that transaction costs may be greatly reduced. A climate of trust between purchasers and providers can ensure (in theory at least) that neither side will act opportunistically. Contracts may be left implicit or open ended with less need to specify the obligations of each side in detail or engage in extensive monitoring. Insocialcare, where there is often ambiguity concerning the means and ends of service provision, this may be especially beneficial. A degree of trust and mutual understanding between par- ties could make it easier to negotiate service requirements and to anticipate and respond in more flexible ways to changing circumstances. Because contracts are embedded in more particularistic social relations between trading partners with a sense of mutual trust, transactions can take place without prior agreement on all the terms and conditions of trade. This means that contracts can be incomplete, and contingencies, which are not fully specified can be overcome without recourse to protracted legalistic bargaining and arbitration. Finally an “engaged model” of contracting might facilitate joint approaches to problem solving, innovation and, in some cases, even shared equity arrangements to pool risk and share benefits (Colling, 2006). Insocialcare, these arrangements might be supported by the fact that many independent sector providers themselves have extensive professional training and, quite often, past experience working within public organisations, thus helping to engender trust and mutual understanding.
3.2. Life reformand educational reforminthe capital of Bárczy after 1906 The life reform efforts andthe pedagogical reform ideas came into contact with each other inthe professional and emancipation movements ofthe elementary school teachers, who were an increasingly important professional force, as well as inthe urban reforms of István Bárczy in Budapest. István Bárczy, the liberal mayor, headed the capital between 1906 and 1918. During this decade, the Bárczy era, the city developed into a cosmopolitan city. The majority ofthe «building mayor’s» buildings, schools, public buildings, apartment buildings, still stand today. This period saw the expansion ofthe city administration, public transport, lighting andthe municipal system. As part ofthesocialand cultural policy programme, the construction of numerous small apartments and schools began. Significant steps were taken to expand adult education, and under the leadership of Ervin Szabó inthe 1910s a modern network of libraries was established in Budapest. After 1909, the extensive construction of schools formed an important part of Bárczy’s cultural-political programme, inthe course of which 36 new schools were built and numerous school buildings renovated within three years. At that time, 55 schools and 967 new classrooms were built in Budapest. The schools also included official housing. In addition, they also took careofthe heating systems ofthe buildings, the classrooms’ furniture andthe designing ofthe schoolyards and roof terraces. In 1913 the curriculum for the Budapest schools was published and workshops were established for the production of teaching materials. As a result of these actions, the equipment of public schools inthe capital improved considerably (Németh 2006, pp. 81).
The debate on childcare policy reform also raged outside the interministerial group as well. Most NGOs and researchers supported the idea of publicly provided childcare services, and surveys showed that most mothers preferred the public childcare system. However, nearly 95 per cent ofthe childcare providers were from the private sector; thus, the Private Childcare Providers’ Association presented the largest opposition to KWDI’s universal public childcare proposal. Pointing to the lack of efficiency and flexibility inthe public childcare system, they put the full force of stakeholder pressure to bear on the government, asking it to not make childcare services public. The Korean Childcare Teachers’ Association (KCTA), the majority of whose membership worked in private sector childcare centres, was divided on the issue. In its view, the universal public childcare policy presented both opportunities and constraints. Making childcare centres public would imply formalization of their employment status as public service workers, which meant employment security, union representation, higher wages and better working conditions; but it would most likely entail stricter certification requirements. Inthe end the KCTA opted to avert risks by accepting the private provisionof childcare. The interministerial processes over childcare policy reform took over a year and a half. During this time, the committee’s policy proposal was given to the vice-ministers of all the relevant ministries, discussed within each ministry, and debated within the committee before an agreement was reached and presented to the President. The President then organized an all- ministers committee meeting, inviting academics and policy experts inthe childcare sector, along with members of civil society, to discuss the plan.
instruments, which have a stronger development and a more general application, yet are less sensitive to the requirements of comprehensiveness ofthe PPED (except in relation to the indicators of fulfillment ofthe GES), andthe internal transversal instruments that have a stronger development inthe poles Ministry/health care services (management commitments), National Health Fund/Undersecretariat for Health CareNetworks/ health care services (health careprovision services agreements) and health care services/municipalities (Local Health Plan or Networked Programming), a weaker development inthe relationship between health care services/hospitals and a nonexistent development between health care services /Regional Ministerial Health Secretariats. In any case, the predominance of external instruments, particularly those from the Budget Bureau (Dirección de Presupuestos), guided principally by a sector-based logic, demonstrate that ministerial goals and performance indicators are rarely conceived as "comprehensive" and, therefore inter- institutional, goals. Besides, the evaluations are generally associated with the annual quantitative budget procedure, rather than with mid- and long- term qualitative-programmatic achievements, as is generally the case with transformations related to public health.
c) Practice. Adequate: When the caregiver always prepares a warm and safe bath environment, adopts safety procedures (sitting bath, installation of grab bars and use of anti-slip mats) and avoids interruptions during bathing. Thecare- giver also observes daily changes inthe skin ofthe elderly, performs oral hygiene upon waking and after each meal, cleans and dries the perianal region after urinary and intes- tinal elimination and cares for the patient’s feet, drying be- tween the fingers, stimulating exercises and looking for any change. Inadequate: When the caregiver sometimes or nev- er prepares a warm and safe bath environment, sometimes or never adopts safety procedures (sitting bath, installation of grab bars and use of non-slip mats) or sometimes or nev- er avoids interruptions during bathing. Also, the caregiver does not observe daily changes inthe skin ofthe patient, does not perform oral hygiene upon waking and after each meal, does not always clean and dry the perianal region after urinary and intestinal elimination and does not always care for the patient’s feet, drying betweenthe fingers, stimu- lating exercises and looking for possible changes.
Inthe domain of a balanced recognition, the results obtained with preprocessing methods demonstrated a better behavior in three classifiers such as CHAT, BN and MLP. With this is possible to conclude that the neuronal model needs a balanced recognition to obtain a good classification performance. In addition, it is convenient to use the Wilson method inasmuch as with fewer samples can obtain a good performance by class. In this sense, when the Wilson method is used, the HACT performance improves in comparison with results obtained with the Smote method and without a previous preprocessing. On the other hand, it was possible to observe that the BN and MLP networks performance inthe context balanced recognition improve when Smote method is considered. This situation cannot be observed with the experiments obtained with the Wilson method and considering a previous preprocessing.
Abstract. Ecological communities are organized in complex ecological networks. Trait- based analyses ofthe structure of these networksin highly diversiﬁed species assemblages are crucial for improving our understanding ofthe ecological and evolutionary processes causing specialization in mutualistic networks. In this study, we assessed the importance of morphological traits for structuring plant–hummingbird networksin Neotropical forests by using a novel combination of quantitative analytical approaches. We recorded the visitation of hummingbirds to plant species over an entire year at three different elevations in Costa Rica and constructed quantitative networks based on interaction frequencies. Three morphological traits were measured in hummingbirds (bill length, bill curvature, and body mass) and plants (corolla length, curvature, and volume). We tested the effects of avian morphological traits and abundance on ecological specialization of hummingbird species. All three morphological traits of hummingbirds were positively associated with ecological specialization, especially bill curvature. We tested whether interaction strength inthenetworks was associated with the degree of trait matching between corresponding pairs of morphological traits in plant and hummingbird species and explore whether this was related to resource handling times by hummingbird species. We found strong and signiﬁcant associations between interaction strength andthe degree of trait matching. Moreover, the degree of trait matching, particularly between bill and corolla length, was associated with the handling time of nectar resources by hummingbirds. Our ﬁndings show that bill morphology structures tropical plant–humming- bird networksand patterns of interactions are closely associated with morphological matches between plant and bird species andthe efﬁciency of hummingbirds’ resource use. These results are consistent with the ﬁndings of seminal studies in plant–hummingbird systems from the neotropics. We conclude that trait-based analyses of quantitative networks contribute to a better mechanistic understanding ofthe causes of specialization in ecological networksand could be valuable for studying processes of complementary trait evolution in highly diversiﬁed species assemblages.
In theory, the new regime should have increased transmission of world market signals to local producers. However, post-liberalization interventions may have obstructed integration. On the one hand, trade liberalization was accompanied by the creation of a variable tariff scheme—known as the price band system—in eight politically sensitive crops. On the other hand, liberalization was followed by a profound agricultural crisis in 1992, caused by currency appreciation, tariff reductions, acute drought conditions and falling world commodity prices (Jaramillo and Junguito, 1993). The crisis prompted the government to adopt a number of ad hoc measures to restrict exposure to international competition in selected crops. Such measures included pressures on local processors to purchase crops at pre-arranged prices, minimum import prices and modifications ofthe price band methodology. Despite these measures, the value of agricultural imports has grown at a record pace—27 percent annually—between 1990 and 1996.
The comparative study has been elected as research method andthe two regions the Greek-orthodox communities of Macedonia andthe Black Sea region have been chosen as main research field for the following reasons: Both Macedonia andthe region ofthe Black Sea were inhabited by mixed Christian, Muslim, and Jewish etc. populations. Secondly the orthodox populations of both areas belonged to the intellectual climate of Ecumenical Patriarchate who was acknowledged just after the conquest of Instabul (Constantinople) by Mohamed the Conqueror (1453) as the head ofthe Rum millet (Kardaras, 1996) thanks to the privileges (veratia) granted to him (Runciman, 1968). Hence the Orthodox Church inthe Ottoman Empire was in essence transformed into an institution to the exclusive jurisdiction of which included the organization ofthe Rum millet’s education or social welfare, namely the organization ofthe education and welfare ofthe orthodox population (Konortas, 1998). For example those who were under the religious sovereignty ofthe orthodox Patriarch, could be recognized as members ofthe Rum millet’s community (Carmichael, 2007) and could take part to the orthodox millet’s community operations (Turczynski, 1971, pp. 468-486; Hobsbawm, 1991, pp. 46-49). It has to be remembered that until the middle ofthe 19th century the millets inthe ottoman context were considered as purely religious-cultural communities (Marantzidis, 2007) which determined the identities ofthe Sultan’s subjects (Stamatopoulos, 2006). Accordingly the millet system may be defined as a political organization which granted to the non-Muslims the right to be organized into communities possessing certain delegated powers under their own ecclesiastical heads.
Whilst utilizing the corporate website for providing information to a range of stakeholders is applauded, companies can make extensive use of web technology. The Web has emerged in leaps and bounds over the years, and while it has extensive usage for e-commerce activities, corporate communication is another area where it could be successfully utilized. Continuous communication, use of presentation features (such as audio and video clips, webcasts, and even video conferencing), greater interactivity and personalization are envisaged for web based environmental communication inthe future. Increased academic research in this area and development of methods that could capture the dynamic nature of change of information on websites will also be beneficial.
Recently, researchers have begun to use SNA to gain a more holistic view of how human and natural systems interact (Johnson and Griffith 2010; Crona et al. 2011). This body of research has shown the significance ofsocialnetworksin information flows within andbetween communities. Sharing information and resources through socialnetworks is largely based on trust and occurs between kin, friends, and acquaintances (Crona and Bodin 2006; Ramirez-Sanchez and Pikerton 2009; Salpeteur et al. 2016). In that sense, an important aspect ofsocialnetworks research is the principle of homophily, or the tendency of individuals to associate with similar others. Homophily insocialnetworks has been suggested as a useful concept for the study ofthesocial relations that influence, create, and maintain gender differences (Smith-Lovin and McPherson 1993; McPherson et al. 2001). For example, in a study among the Tsimane’, Díaz-Reviriego et al. (2016) found that most exchanges of medicinal knowledge and plant material occur within female networks, suggesting both that women maintain greater plant richness in homegardens than men but also networks are gendered and present homophily. Further research also suggests that the position of an individual inthesocial network at least partially predicts his/her knowledge or expertise, where people with higher centrality tend to hold more knowledge than less central people (Hopkins 2011; Calvet-Mir et al. 2012). Indeed, location in a social network provides both possibilities and constraints for accessing resources and knowledge through other people inthe network given that, in each particular situation, networks either support or constrain access to people.
Since this series was launched in 1967 practices and concepts of educational planning have undergone substantial change. Many ofthe assumptions which underlay earlier attempts to rationalize the process of educational development have been criticized or abandoned. Even if rigid mandatory centralized planning has now clearly proven to be inappropriate, this does not mean that all forms of planning have been dispensed with. On the contrary, the need for collecting data, evaluating the efficiency of existing programmes, undertaking a wide range of studies, exploring the future and fostering broad debate on these bases to guide educational policy and decision-making has become even more acute than before. One cannot make sensible policy choices without assessing the present situation, specifying the goals to be reached, marshalling the means to attain them and monitoring what has been accomplished. Hence planning is also a way to organize learning: by mapping, targeting, acting and correcting.
Inthe period between December 1, 2013 and De- cember 1, 2014, 86,925 patients were treated inthe DPE, of which 1,143 were newborns (1.3%). A total of 1,103 patients were enrolled inthe study, 40 were excluded due to technical problems at the time of clas- sification. The mean age was 15.2 ± 7.6 days (95% CI: 14.8-15.7) and 95% came from urban areas. Other cha- racteristics ofthe study population are shown in Table 1. Three newborns were classified as level I (3/1,103), one due to septic shock, one for gastroschisis and one with marked jaundice and history of seizures, who en- tered cardiac arrest, was resuscitated and died shortly thereafter. The most frequent reasons for consultation at levels II and III are shown in Table 2. The correlation betweenthe priority levels and categories of hospita- lization and consumption of resources are presented in Figures 1 and 2, respectively. The time ofcareand length ofthe emergency stay according to priority le- vels can be seen in Table 3. Eighty-two percent ofthe patients were cared for within 20 mins of arrival at the DPE. Analyzing secondary data, infants less than 7 days old were hospitalized in 32.6% (64/196) ofthe cases, while those aged ≥ 7 days in 20.5% (186/907) (OR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.32-2.67, p <0.0005). There were no
However, it has not been compared the situation ofthe Chilean economy and its pension system inthe actual IA system vis-`a-vis the situation if thesocial security reform would not have been implemented. If this comparison is possible, there might be interesting policy discussions and potential recommendations to be made. 1 In one hand, we may compare the fiscal situation under both regimes. In fact, note that one ofthe main reasons ofthe 1981 social security reform was the expected negative impact ofthe demographic transition on the financial situation ofthe PAYG system which would be expected to cause significant fiscal deficits inthe near future. The implementation ofthe alternative IA system effectively produces these fiscal deficits to disappear inthe long run. However, thereform required substantial transition costs related to recognition bonds the Chilean government must issue to individuals that had already contributed to the PAYG system but switched to the IA system. Those bonds are paid upon retirement and therefore the transition cost subsists until all the individuals that had contributed to the PAYG system retire. Therefore, from the Chilean experience one ofthe discussions that can be made is the one concerning the comparison betweenthe permanent financial situation ofthe PAYG system vis-`a-vis the transition costs of transforming thesocial security system towards an IA based system.
En primer lugar, la experiencia de incorporar los programas de responsabilidad social nace de la necesidad de un ambiente de negocios óptimo. Hay una mezcla entre solidaridad cristiana y pragmatismo de las empresas para que puedan desarrollarse dentro de un ambiente propicie. Si bien unos programas de responsabilidad social están orientados a lo productivo, otros contribuyen por medio de la asesoría y la introducción de nuevas tecnologías. Finalmente, un tema surgido de las conversaciones fue la idea de hacer lo correcto. Ello es definido como la posibilidad de que las personas puedan cumplir sus deseos sin que la pobreza sea impedimento. También se habla, por otro lado, de la urgencia de acompañar al Estado en la toma de decisiones porque todavía existen problemas serios y el gobierno necesita ayuda de todos.
Chile), showing that a country does not need to be dollarized to achieve a stable inﬂation level. Our results suggest that in Latin America countries the pricing of risk (EMBI) depends mostly on global factors. Nevertheless, its evolution affects foreign lenders’ prospective debt investments, as well as domestic economic activity, except in dollarized countries. These results may suggest the following conclusions. First, dollarization may ensure that currency mismatches will not occur during domestic economic crises; thus, the EMBI is more stable and these countries’ access to debt mar- kets is easier due to their lower vulnerability to EMBI shocks. Second, dollarized countries are not as dependent on inter- national reserves (they use the US dollar both to develop their economies and to pay their debts), as their non- dollarized counterparts which need international reserves to pay their debts but use national currencies to develop their economies. This comparative analysis between two dollarized and ﬁve non-dollarized countries suggests that dollarization may isolate the evolution ofthe broadest emerging market debt benchmark, the EMBI. These results are particularly interesting since there are some non- dollarized Latin American countries which are already doing (relatively) well on their own. We think that they should encourage ﬁscal discipline in order to avoid a debt crisis situation since, in a default context, due to the interre- lationship between their economic activity andthe EMBI evolution; they would face much more trouble than dollar- ized economies.
ers. As a result, its member countries are divided into “structural” creditors and debtors, with the latter group comprising ldcs and, more recently, countries mak- ing the transition from central planning to market economies. With this divi- sion, the essence ofthe institution as a cooperative has dwindled. Knowing that they were unlikely to borrow from the IMF, the major economic powers have had fewer qualms about continually expanding its power and role. For exam- ple, many European members ofthe IMF signed on to conditions calling for greater labour market flexibility in Asia without pausing to reflect on the situa- tion in their own countries, where extremely rigid labour markets have resulted in soaring unemployment. This contradiction has less to do with an apparent double standard than with the unlikelihood of many European nations ever being subject to IMF strictures.
Behavior is the way to act and react. Behaviors are always backed by human psychology. Every person behave in his own way. Behavior has its own influence on person’s social living as well as on its social relations. The behavior impulses are different in male and female. Both genders act differently under the same situation. Behavioral factors of teachers not only affect thesocial relationships but also affect the academia. Student’s colleagues and even the departments suffered due to negative behavioral impulses shown by the female teachers. The one ofthe reasons behind their negative behavior is the socioeconomic status of themselves or their spouse. High social status or one can say higher social class exhibits more unethical behavior (Piff, Stancato, Côté, denton, & Keltner, 2017). Socio-economic status is the measure of individual’s abilities to cope with the society that how well he/she is established in himself that he can meet the demands ofthe society. The measures which calculate the socioeconomic status also measures thesocial position as well (Hollingshead, 1957). The socio-economic status of a person consists of his power, wealth and prestige. It can also be said that socioeconomic status can be defined as a financial and sociological collective measure of an individual's work involvement andof an individual's or family monetary andsocial position as compared to the others, due to high salary, high training, and well renown occupation. It is often estimated as a combination of direction, pay and profession.