BENEM?RITA UNIVERSIDAD AUT?NOMA DE PUEBLA FACULTAD DE LENGUAS Facultad de Lenguas MEXICAN ENGLISH TEACHERS? NARRATIVES ABOUT THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH IN PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOLS A THESIS SUBMITED TO THE[.]
resource to catch students‟ attention. As analysed no teachers used this type of resource to teach lessons which do not allow the learning process to be completed successfully. Lightbown & Spada (2006) also expose that other people who can be called aural learners, seem to learn better by hearing sounds or explanations. However, taking into account the observed classes just one teacher used a CD recorder to teach the lesson, during the time the lesson lasted students were aware ofthe topic and they get involved in it with no difficulty, since they enjoy doing this type of tasks where they receive oral input of different accents a part form the instructor. As a result, the lack of resources usage or the lack of frequency in using them is preventing them to master the use ofthe abilities mentioned before.
seating arrangement for the students, according to how the teacher sees the class. The teacher could organize the class in horizontal rows, if the intention is to guide the students’ attention towards him at all time. There is also the option of using orderly rows. In this arrangement the teacher has a clear vision of all the students. It makes lecturing easier; enabling the teacher to maintain eye contact with the people he or she is talking to and inthe case that the teacher has designed a discussion class organizing a circle arrangement would be must appropriate. Harmer (2007) clarifies this point by mentioning that classes which are arranged in a circle make a solid statement regarding what the instructor and the students believe in. Finally, if theteachers sit with their students in a circle, it would make the environment friendlier; as a result, the attention will move from the teacher to the group.
These recommendations came from theteachers themselves as they reflected on classroom conditions and how they use classroom space, such as: construct adequate storage to house materials for instructional programs, particularly in laboratory sciences, plan for flexible arrangements of people, furnishings, and equipment by limiting built- ins and immobile fixtures, locate all technology resources together and away from windows, construct larger classrooms in secondary schools to accommodate student mobility and support instructional programs, construct additional space for computer workstations located in classrooms, build separate workspaces for teachers to use for planning and conferencing with parents, students, and colleagues and, create
Feedback aboutthe task is more effective when it clarifies misconceptions rather than adding more information aboutthe assignment but the disadvantage is that it is only used in one task at a time. Feedback aboutthe processing ofthe task guide students to do the activity; it is necessary that students assume roles to complete the given assignment. In Feedback about self-regulation, students are responsible for their own learning. Main problem is that this type of feedback is effective with learners that demonstrate and internal disposition to require more information in order to complete the task. Finally, feedback aboutthe person shows several disadvantages because, as the author explains, it is not focused on the learning process. In addition, the use of this type of feedback tend to create a false believe on students that intelligence is a fixed
The second study conducted by Sharma (2007) was directed to study the condition of different types of government schools; it includes the common classroom settings, the condition of classroom movement oftheteachers, and the condition of classroom interaction. In order to prove it, three different observation forms were made: one to get the information aboutthe classroom setting, one for the movement oftheteachers, and one for the classroom interaction. The results of these observations were interpreted statistically and descriptively. The conclusions of this study are the following: the classroom setting of most ofthe government aided schools at primary level ofthe district is not suitable for the beginners. The small crowded classroom with polished cemented chalkboard attached on the front wall, is the principal teaching material. Teachers do not seem to be prepared for the lesson. There is a narrow space left between blackboard and the first row benches which brings problem for the movements ofthe teacher. Similarly space between two columns is found very narrow, that is the reason why most oftheteachers do not try to conduct different activities to develop communicative competence.
Englishin bilingual and monolingual schools, to improve the current levels of communicative competence” (Ministerio de Educación Nacional, 2004-2019), but it is necessary working the necessities ofthe students, not all the students have the same level of competence according to López et al (2008) “The processes of transition to bilingualism inpublicschools have special requirements due to the educational guidelines that govern them, the diversity and quantity of their population and the features of their teaching staff”(p.41). This transition to bilingualism is perfectly attainable since the characteristics set forth by the author are not difficult to realize, changes that allow meeting the requirements are possible, segmenting the students according to their abilities, teaching staff could be selected according to the group of students who will receive theEnglish language education.
Groves (2009) states that lesson design is our daily plan into the classroom and it is useful intheteaching process. When we are planning our classes, we should develop different activities because we have different students with several ways of learning. Planning lessons help to establish a sequence among all the lessons. When you plan a lesson, you save time inthe sense that your students can understand in a better way the subject to be taught. Before you design a lesson plan, you should know your students and their needs, you need to know the employment of several techniques according the learning style of each student, and you should have enough knowledge aboutthe subject matter. Inthe lesson design, you must give enough time for each activity to do, and you always should remember introduce retro alimentation for your students. A lesson plan must have the following steps: general aims, specific aims, previous knowledge, introduction, development, presentation, exposition, and recapitulation, and arrangement. If you have many students in your classroom, you can give a group feedback or note the errors more relevant and write them on the board.
In 2007, when Correa became the new president of Ecuador, the education in our country experienced some important changes. One ofthe first things he did was increase the number of mandatory English hours inpublicschools to five. His government also made some changes regarding teacher and student rights. For example, teachers now have to demonstrate a higher lever ofEnglishin order to teach. Every two years they have to take a TOEFL test and get a B2 level certificate or higher. The results ofthe test will affect their ability to find employment. Student’s rights have also changed in recent years, as well as their attitudes towards learning. When they get to school for the first time they think they will not fail the school year, which is learned the hard way, as most of them have a really hard time at the end ofthe school year, having to deal with most teachers to be given a second opportunity to pass.
Language activities are considered crucial both to promote students’ understanding and to carry out effective lessons, they are what teachers and students do in order to achieve a specific learning aim (Brown, 2001:59; Erkmen, 2010:11). Certain types of activities and task-based approaches provide important learning experiences in class. When asked aboutthe incorporation of new activities into the development of their lessons, 67% ofthe participants believe that it is necessary to complement the activities proposed by the student textbook, with additional ones that really respond to the learners’ language needs. 33% though manifest that sometimes use complementary activities, because the high number of weekly lessons and students per class, leaves them very little preparation time.
There are many researchers and debaters about class size reductions who are skeptic when demonstrating the evidence for efficiency and educational improvement standards. Blatchford (2003) supports the idea that there is trouble when the number of students goes over 30. One ofthe best things in education is to have smaller classes which allow for a better quality ofteaching and learning. Furthermore, (Jerner & Loomis, 2007, p. 1, 2, 3) assert “ Smaller class sizes enable teachers to spend the t ime and energy needed to help each child succeed and enhance safety and discipline inthe classroom”. Although research tends to support the belief that small classes give optimal effects, not all studies on the subject reflect this affirmation; working in small-class- settings is not necessarily a synonym for increasing learning.
This research was directed to analyze the factors that affect theEnglish language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools. The sample analyzed consisted of fifteen students and fifteen teachers, who were surveyed and interviewed to determine their skills and competences and a similar number of classrooms observed to find out their physical conditions. The research was carried out at daytime and ev ening in four public high schools and one “fiscomisional” in rural and urban areas of Quito. To collect data, the techniques used were surveys and note taking; additionally, the applied instruments were observation forms, interviews and questionnaires. The quantitative analysis, description and interpretation of results were based on the information gotten from: Teacher’s and Student’s Questionnaires and Interviews, Observation Sheets and researcher’s field observations. The most relevant factors found were students’ basic level ofEnglish knowledge, use of few teaching resources and a high percentage of Spanish use in class, the overcrowded classrooms and inappropriate physical conditions, which affected negatively.
In China, Fung-King (2009) developed a study to find out aboutthe perceptions of EFL among English language teaches who have learned Englishin a traditional manner and to understand the current Englishteaching approach and how possible it is to be changed. The main objective was to know how Chinese mainland teachers perceive English language teaching (ELT) these days and whether they are ready for the paradigm shift. There were 214 primary school teachers who answered questionnaires and two teachers were selected to develop demonstration classes from where information was registered and studied. Fung-King concluded that teachers believe that communicative classes are more useful than traditional English classes. However, most oftheteachers need more teaching training to develop more effective classes using this new approach.
The findings ofthe statement number 4 are consistent with the recommendations of Hammer (2007) and Woodward (2001) about using group activities in overcrowded classrooms. Furthermore, the educators must have followed some ofthe tips specified by Woodward (2001) in order to implement tasks that require more than one pupil, for example, theteachers might have carried out interesting tasks, gave clear instructions to the students, indicated the usefulness ofthe activities, among others. Consequently, the class size did not influence on the situation investigated through the fourth question.
Teachers’ beliefs, or teacher cognition, is a term used to refer to the complex system of beliefs, knowledge and attitudes which teachers possess and which potentially influence their classroom practice (Borg, 2003). However, the relationship between beliefs and prac- tices is a complex one, as beliefs can influence practices, but practices can also influence beliefs (Buehl & Beck, 2015). Whether or not beliefs are translated into classroom practice depends on contextual factors such as school policies and curriculum mandates, but also on internal factors such as teachers’ knowledge and self-awareness (Borg, 2003; Buehl & Beck, 2015). It has also been shown that beliefs about planned aspects ofteaching tend to correspond better to teaching practice than beliefs about unplanned aspects such as error correction (Basturkmen, 2012). Teachers’ attitudes have been found to be shaped by a combination of factors, such as practical experience, but also theteachers’ own experience as language learners (Borg, 2003). The study ofteachers’ beliefs can help researchers gain insight inthe decisions teachers take inthe classroom and it is also vital that teacher training programmes take teacher cognition into account.
As we have seen inthe graphs above the number of students is another decisive factor that teachers consider affect the development of a productive teaching-learning process. One ofthe int erviewed teachers said “As we know thousands ofpublicschools across the country are seeing their class size swell because of budget cuts and teacher layoff, undermining a decade-long push not only by parents but administrator and policy makers to shirk c lasses’ size”. In fact, how the number s of students in classes have risen across the country has been directly affecting theteaching-learning process. Do you use teaching resources (TV, tape/cd recorder, computer(s), projector (s), smart board, and supplementary materials)?
After that , the field research started . Two public high schoolsofthe city of Cariamanga were selected. The survey aimed to determine whether or not large classes affect theEnglishteaching-learning process. The students were asked an open – ended question aboutthe effect of large classes on them which were classified into three major areas: instructional, psychological and social. The gathered data was registered in tables, to do this, the quantitative method was taken into account. The research techniques used in this study were: Questionnaire , Note-taking. Instruments like questionnaire and tables were also applied. To analyze the results of this
The second point that Scrivener (1994, p.54, 55) has taken into account is the time that the teacher has to distribute in class. He suggests using timetables; this instrument helps “to understand what work is being done in your class.” Therefore, a time table has advantages that give students a whole idea about what will happen in a classroom. It shows a clear idea ofthe lesson plan to other teachers, and also a time table is like a „skeleton‟ because, it has details and specific information about activities, minutes, days, materials and processes which will be applied in class.
Aduwa-Ogiegbaen & Iyamu (2006) based their study on three questions (a) Do secondary school teachers use instructional resources frequently inteachingEnglish language? (b) Do theEnglish Language teachers use appropriate methods inteachingEnglish Language frequently? (c) Do secondary school students in Nigeria learn English language in an environment conducive to learning? The main instruments used for this study were a questionnaire and observation schedules. The researchers designed the questionnaire by generating a list of items, which solicited students' responses on teaching strategies, instructional resources/media used by theteachers and theteaching-learning environment. The specifications for each ofthe two data collection instruments used inthe study were as follows: (a) Questionnaire: This instrument had four sections dealing with demographic. (b) Observation: Research assistants were trained to observe each classroom and some classroom proceedings during administration ofthe questionnaire noting the features or characteristics ofthe learning environment. Based on their results they claimed that thepublic secondary schoolsin Nigeria were far behind time in offering multiple pathways to theteaching and learning English as a second language. Public secondary schoolsin Nigeria should be provided with adequate and a variety of instructional media, technologies such as audio and video recordings, language laboratories and computers. These instructional media can be more effective teaching tools for English Language lessons as they offer an authentic learning experience when interwoven with existing curriculum.
The use of a questionnaire, which was piloted with theteaching staff, remained fundamental for the investigation. One hundred copies ofthe revised questionnaire were distributed to English departments inthe universities above, but only seventy-five were taken into consideration since the others never returned. This questionnaire was made up of three parts, open ended questions which asked for personal information, close ended questions which relate to participant´s knowledge and facts and opinions. This last part was divided in four sections; general and physical conditions of their current classrooms, teaching and learning conditions in large classes, degrees of difficulty ofteachingin large classes, and opinions towards teachingin large classes and ideal classes.