Autores como Coll y Solé (1990) o Harmer (1983), afirman que el rol del profesorado ha cambiado debido a que el rol del alumnado también lo ha hecho. Como consecuencia, el profesor tiene ahora un rol menos dominante en el aula, aunque esto no quiere decir que el respeto hacia el profesorado deba cambiar o deba ser inferior.
Además, estos autores definen los siguientes roles del profesor en el proceso de enseñanza de una lengua extranjera: Organizador: el maestro debe organizar actividades tanto para trabajar la competencia comunicativa como para
The Ex-post Facto design was used in this study andthe instruments for data collection were designed by the researchers. The data collection consisted of 18 items on four-point Like type scale, which measured teacher’s work quality in terms ofteaching, assessment of a student’s academic performance and classroom control, as a result the analysis presented in , shows that the calculated F-ratio for all the sub- variables ofthe teacher’s work quality were each greater than the critical. The implication is that-teachers whose schools had low class sizes performed better than their counterparts whose schools had very high class sizes, indicating results that there was a significant influence of class size on all sub-variables ofteachers’ work quality.
Based on the above conclusions, a few recommendations can be suggested: First, regarding the instructional implications that large classes have on theteaching-learningprocess, this research suggests and recommend that teachers, as information facilitators ofthestudents, keeping on the responsibility of increase and update their own knowledge, instructors should learn modern techniques and skills in order to improve the amount of activities, competitions, debates, games etc. so students can improve their knowledge in a better form, remember it and then apply this in their lives, according to the drift ofthe modern times.
As we can see in chart two, from the one hundred eighty interviewed students, sixty of them totally agreed that there is a proper balance of student-student and teacher-student interaction which correspond to 33% ofthe population. Seventy three students agreed with this statement, which correspond to 41% ofthe population. Thirty eight students partially agreed with this statement, which correspond to 21% ofthe population. Meanwhile, nine students disagreed with this statement, which correspond to 5% ofthe population. In eight ofbasic, the objective was talking about where people are from. McMahon (1997) states that learning should be a social and collaborative activity. In this large class, thestudents exchanged different skills and information which allowed them to interact in a natural context and specially enjoy the class. The advanced students answered most ofthe questions inthe class, andthe teacher interacted only with these advanced students while the rest ofthe classroom did not participate inthe activity.
Students get distracted by doing assignments from other subjects. Concerning this item, it can be seen that 5.92 % ofstudents responded to this item as they totally agree while 17.07 % ofstudents answered this item as they agree, which means that in large classes it is possible to do other assignments during English classes. Opposing to that point of view, 25.44 % ofstudents have answered that they partially agree while 48.78 % ofstudents marked the answers as disagree and 2.79 % did not respond. These results reflect that large classes do not allow students get distracted by doing assignments from other subjects; on the contrary, they are focused on the task that they are performing inthe class. Maintaining students engaged and focused on the activities in a classroom with a lot ofstudents requires teache rs’ permanent monitoring. Regarding monitoring UNESCO (2007) makes reference to having teachers constantly moving and monitoring the class while talking due to the fact that this might considerably reduce distraction. Jones (2007) adds that teachers ought to monitor students’ works discreetly, not only during pair or groups work but during any activity.
One ofthe main reasons for this reaction, besides the large number ofstudents is the lack ofmotivation provided by the teacher, as mentioned by Weimer (2006) motivating students to participate in classroom discussions is a complex subject. There are some students who assume they do not have to participate as long the assigned work is completed on time, test scores are good, and attendance is satisfactory. As a matter of fact, they prefer other students do the participating, since they think participation does not improve the classroom experience. There is one important aspect to be considered inthe current research, and this is the large number ofstudents observed in every class. If we take into consideration the time every class lasts - approximately 40 minutes- then; of course, individual participation results almost impossible to be done. Consequently, even though a good number ofstudents prefer to listen and observe rather than engage inthe class discussion, it is a good idea to provide students written material, so that they come up with a brief comment, analyze and critique the activities in class. This will confirm that student is engaged and responded to class.
to work with large classes, she gave some general suggestions to manage the class. For example, she proposed to memorize the name ofthestudentsof course is a large process, but with practice can be improved, use clear eye contact with individuals may produce a positive engagement, use other systems for attracting the attention ofthestudents, such as hands up, ringing a little bell, use a whistle, to create a way that they speak and interact with a partner or in groups, challenge them to stablish a certain amount of routines, keep students involved from the start ofthe lesson. Even though Brown (1994) stated that language classes should have more than dozen students enough to provide diversity andstudents interaction, large classes present some problems such as individual teacher-student attention is minimized, teachers` feedback is limited, and student’s opportunities to speak are lessened. And he gave
Before keep on indicating the results obtained inthe survey, it is necessary to state that there are students that never raise their hand when a teacher asks them a question despite the fact that they know the right answer. This sometimes happens because some students are shy and are also afraid of being embarrassed if they make a mistake. This limits their participation in EFL classes and does not enable the teacher to give feedback when needed. As a result, the teacher cannot use questions as a means of identifying the strengths and weaknesses ofthestudents who are shy and who do not like to participate in class very often.
recommendations on how to manage large classes; he states that it would be useful if teachers teach the class in small groups instead of trying to teach the whole class all at once. He says that a large class should be divided into two or three groups, establishing simple rules for controlling behavior of all learners, students have to do tasks efficiently with a minimum of noise even when they are not directly supervised. It is believed that the smaller the groups, the easier to teach and this will enable teachers to pay closer attention to individual learners, thus reducing the chances of serious learning problems. Another suggestion given by the same author is that teachers must train all the learners on how to lead a group, and this can be done by giving everyone a chance to be the group leader, making sure the members ofthe group take turns for being it.
The Ecuadorian government has acknowledged there are issues hindering the growth ofEnglishas a foreign language amongst high school studentsinthe public sector. The average pupil leaving a public secondary school graduates with an average of 65% inEnglish according to the National Secretariat for Higher Education, Science and Technology (SENESCYT). The government is acting proactively in fighting the low level ofEnglish found throughout the public school system. Some recent examples of this are the mandatory B2 level, according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Language, of all Englishteachers where Ecuador has teamed up with the world renowned nonprofit organization English Testing Service (ETS) to ensure Englishteachers have the appropriate level to be instructors. Also there has been the implementation ofthe program "Go Teacher" assisted by the University of Mississippi inthe United States of America where Ecuadorian teachers receive training and scholarships to become better at their profession.
Harmer (2000) states that the different seating arrangements are seen under different approaches that show the advantages and disadvantages intheteachinglearningprocess, and their influence on the different activities like group or individual work, debates, etc., therefore, the author mentions that classrooms with orderly rows make possible a clear view ofthestudents from the teacher and vice versa, if there are aisles between rows, this will help the teacher to make personal contact with individual studentsand thus reinforce the pupils´ learning. By the same way, Harmer says that orderly rows allow teachers work with the whole class in suited activities to this kind of classroom arrangement like grammar explanations, audiovisual activities, board tasks, practice oflanguage under controlled conditions (i.e. repetitions), it is important that teachers involve the whole class when they asks questions even students at the back, and even more the quiet students. Also, the author recommends that teachers should ask learners from all parts ofthe room in a randomly way, that is, to avoid that students know when they are going to be asked, so they will be attentive all the time. In conclusion, orderly rows have their
It is crucial that the institutions not only check these plans, but also give the corresponding feedback to the teacher in order for the plan to be related and goes according to the syllabus, and according to the goals that the institutions have. This is important since the lesson plans contain everything that goes inthe lesson, and through these plans the institutions can verify if the classes area accomplishing the curricula expected for that level. During the observations, it could be seen that topics in many cases repeat again and again, it means that thestudents study for example simple present in second course andin third course this topic is repeated again, this produces that students get fossilized with the knowledge, they do not advance since what they are learning is repeated and repeated. They manifested that sometimes they get bored because they study the same andthe same even though they are in a different level. That is why, the government has put more emphasis on controlling the material andthe lesson plans ofteachers, and this way it can control what teachers are teaching, how, when, etc. this control pushes theteachers to work responsibly with studentsand take into consideration the topics and activities that can really benefit students.
The results about instructional issues show that students’ agreement is 12.12% over disagreement. Thus the majority ofthe interviewed students agree that teachers present activities that allow students to practice the four basic skills oftheEnglishlanguage: speaking, listening, reading and writing. Moreover, those activities also help students to apply what they have learned in class. Even though the classes are large, most ofthestudents are attentive and participate inthe class activities which indicates that the chosen activities catch thestudents’ attention and engage them inthelearningprocess. It is also seen that the class activities give studentsthe chance to work individually, in pairs or groups. Additionally, the seating arrangements used help for the successful development ofthe different activities, students do not get distracted by doing other subject assignments and they are not allowed to cheat during the tests, so there are not major disciplinary problems inthe researched classes. However, it is worthy to mention that students do not get regular feedback, andthe activities that require whole class participation such as plays, competitions, debates or games are not being used because ofthe large number ofstudents. About social effects, the opinions are almost divided. The level of agreement is just 1.08% over the level of disagreement, but the results show that students are able to interact between them and with the teacher and there are enough opportunities for interaction during the different lessons. Besides, students cannot use electronic devices without being discovered by the teacher. On the other hand, the teacher cannot remember all students’ names, andthe same student is rarely asked to answer several questions because ofthe large number of them.
In previous studies, Finn, Pannozzo, & Achilles (as cited in Bray & Kehle, 2011) indicate that less than 20 students per class is considered small, and more than 20 is considered a large one. Both authors explained that the fact of having large or small groups inthe classroom does not necessarily result in higher achievement or failure rates because there are different factors that are very important instudents when learning another language. As a result, what really matters is how well teachers are prepared.
however, all ofthestudents should be given the chance to participate in many of them. The challenge lies in selecting the type of activity to match the purpose or objective ofthe lesson. Each student has a 2 or 3 minute opportunity to express his or her point of view on a given topic while others listen him or her. The teacher can also make a brainstorm where thestudents individually think about an issue or a problem, lists its possible causes and asks them to share their ideas and compile a list of possibilities. Another technique is called a concept model which consists on giving handouts to thestudents or listing words on the board. These words will form series of leading questions. Students work in small groups then figure out how something works or builds a conceptual model. According to graph N° 5, 39% ofstudents partially agree with the use of role plays, debates and games, while 26% of them agree. In addition, 22 % ofstudents totally agree, and 13% disagree. Regarding this aspect, thestudents appear to recognize that teachers apply activities such as role plays, debates, and games.
The fourth study, from Bamba (2012), was done to find out how large classes impacted theteaching practices andthelearning outcomes and ways that large classes could provide an optimum learning environment. An exploratory qualitative research was done interviewing five teachers from the Ivory Coast to understand their perception of large classes. The findings revealed that all five teachers had difficulties parting lessons in a large class even though they all received the same teacher training at a prepared university. The problem was basically that not every environment is the same and should be dealt with in their own way. Other relevant findings were mentioned as how creating a proper environment, being dynamic, and others, is not enough, but the implementation of some of them and deriving their own conclusions will help theteachers make better use of these strategies to build a more creative and engaging class. He also suggests that teacher should plan their activities ahead to be ready for the activities to be applied. The activities which theteachers have applied in their classes demonstrate that they are of great use for theEnglishlearningprocess.
One of these methods is Grammar Translation Method that has been used by languageteachers for many years. It was thought that, through the study ofthe grammar ofthe target language, students would become more familiar with the grammar of their native languageand that this familiarity would help them speak and write their native language better. Students study grammar deductively; that is, they are provided the grammar rules and examples, are commanded to memorize them, and then are requested to apply the rules to other examples. They also learn grammatical paradigms such as verb conjugations and memorize native-language equivalents for target-language vocabulary words (Larsen, 2000).
The space is also a big concern when working with large classes; the more students are inthe class, the less space they will have to work in. Most ofthe participants ofthe study have shown agreement with how they are grouped to do something and how tasks are performed inthe available space in terms of easiness. 84.94% inthe first case just mentioned, and more than 80% inthe second case confirm that fact, which also means that theteachers are exerting a good management over the class. It is clearly visible that the group, partner and individual activities are the ones that fit situation ofthe classes surveyed here. Roger (1983) mentions some ways to optimize the classroom space by arranging thestudents’ desk in different forms, all meant to ease the class communication.
Another study done by Nakabugo, Opolot-Okurut, Ssebbunga, Maani and Byamugisha (2008) consisted in three main purposes: to increase the number ofteachers to allow more than one teacher per class, to provide schools with the necessary resources, and to enable teachers to develop the confidence and skills to improve thelearning environment in large classes. Some difficulties that this research faced were the limited physical space for movement and interaction, few desks, and limited number of instructional materials. Students learned in such poor conditions and there were also danger of easy spread of infectious diseases such as flu and cough.
Other authors suggest other games that are helpful when working with large classes. Carbone (1998) has many suggestions for fun activities. One activity consists in pasting a famous person´s name behind each learner, and each learner must guess who it is by asking questions. Another game focuses on spelling words correctly based on a specific theme. Besides, teachers can simply play with thestudents by making them write do wn a question to the teacher’s answer depending on the specific theme. Another game is about naming a certain category and then each student must say another word that relates to the category named. When a learner is not able to name a word pertaining to the category, that student loses and must name a new category for the remaining students to continue playing. The student that wins is the one who names all the words.