PDF superior Motivation as a basic pilar in learning. The roles of teachers and students in the process of teaching and learning the English language

Motivation as a basic pilar in learning. The roles of teachers and students in the process of teaching and learning the English language

Motivation as a basic pilar in learning. The roles of teachers and students in the process of teaching and learning the English language

Autores como Coll y Solé (1990) o Harmer (1983), afirman que el rol del profesorado ha cambiado debido a que el rol del alumnado también lo ha hecho. Como consecuencia, el profesor tiene ahora un rol menos dominante en el aula, aunque esto no quiere decir que el respeto hacia el profesorado deba cambiar o deba ser inferior. Además, estos autores definen los siguientes roles del profesor en el proceso de enseñanza de una lengua extranjera:  Organizador: el maestro debe organizar actividades tanto para trabajar la competencia comunicativa como para

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The Influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The Influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The Ex-post Facto design was used in this study and the instruments for data collection were designed by the researchers. The data collection consisted of 18 items on four-point Like type scale, which measured teacher’s work quality in terms of teaching, assessment of a student’s academic performance and classroom control, as a result the analysis presented in , shows that the calculated F-ratio for all the sub- variables of the teacher’s work quality were each greater than the critical. The implication is that-teachers whose schools had low class sizes performed better than their counterparts whose schools had very high class sizes, indicating results that there was a significant influence of class size on all sub-variables of teachers’ work quality.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Based on the above conclusions, a few recommendations can be suggested: First, regarding the instructional implications that large classes have on the teaching-learning process, this research suggests and recommend that teachers, as information facilitators of the students, keeping on the responsibility of increase and update their own knowledge, instructors should learn modern techniques and skills in order to improve the amount of activities, competitions, debates, games etc. so students can improve their knowledge in a better form, remember it and then apply this in their lives, according to the drift of the modern times.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

As we can see in chart two, from the one hundred eighty interviewed students, sixty of them totally agreed that there is a proper balance of student-student and teacher-student interaction which correspond to 33% of the population. Seventy three students agreed with this statement, which correspond to 41% of the population. Thirty eight students partially agreed with this statement, which correspond to 21% of the population. Meanwhile, nine students disagreed with this statement, which correspond to 5% of the population. In eight of basic, the objective was talking about where people are from. McMahon (1997) states that learning should be a social and collaborative activity. In this large class, the students exchanged different skills and information which allowed them to interact in a natural context and specially enjoy the class. The advanced students answered most of the questions in the class, and the teacher interacted only with these advanced students while the rest of the classroom did not participate in the activity.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Students get distracted by doing assignments from other subjects. Concerning this item, it can be seen that 5.92 % of students responded to this item as they totally agree while 17.07 % of students answered this item as they agree, which means that in large classes it is possible to do other assignments during English classes. Opposing to that point of view, 25.44 % of students have answered that they partially agree while 48.78 % of students marked the answers as disagree and 2.79 % did not respond. These results reflect that large classes do not allow students get distracted by doing assignments from other subjects; on the contrary, they are focused on the task that they are performing in the class. Maintaining students engaged and focused on the activities in a classroom with a lot of students requires teache rs’ permanent monitoring. Regarding monitoring UNESCO (2007) makes reference to having teachers constantly moving and monitoring the class while talking due to the fact that this might considerably reduce distraction. Jones (2007) adds that teachers ought to monitor students’ works discreetly, not only during pair or groups work but during any activity.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

One of the main reasons for this reaction, besides the large number of students is the lack of motivation provided by the teacher, as mentioned by Weimer (2006) motivating students to participate in classroom discussions is a complex subject. There are some students who assume they do not have to participate as long the assigned work is completed on time, test scores are good, and attendance is satisfactory. As a matter of fact, they prefer other students do the participating, since they think participation does not improve the classroom experience. There is one important aspect to be considered in the current research, and this is the large number of students observed in every class. If we take into consideration the time every class lasts - approximately 40 minutes- then; of course, individual participation results almost impossible to be done. Consequently, even though a good number of students prefer to listen and observe rather than engage in the class discussion, it is a good idea to provide students written material, so that they come up with a brief comment, analyze and critique the activities in class. This will confirm that student is engaged and responded to class.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

to work with large classes, she gave some general suggestions to manage the class. For example, she proposed to memorize the name of the students of course is a large process, but with practice can be improved, use clear eye contact with individuals may produce a positive engagement, use other systems for attracting the attention of the students, such as hands up, ringing a little bell, use a whistle, to create a way that they speak and interact with a partner or in groups, challenge them to stablish a certain amount of routines, keep students involved from the start of the lesson. Even though Brown (1994) stated that language classes should have more than dozen students enough to provide diversity and students interaction, large classes present some problems such as individual teacher-student attention is minimized, teachers` feedback is limited, and student’s opportunities to speak are lessened. And he gave
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Before keep on indicating the results obtained in the survey, it is necessary to state that there are students that never raise their hand when a teacher asks them a question despite the fact that they know the right answer. This sometimes happens because some students are shy and are also afraid of being embarrassed if they make a mistake. This limits their participation in EFL classes and does not enable the teacher to give feedback when needed. As a result, the teacher cannot use questions as a means of identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the students who are shy and who do not like to participate in class very often.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

recommendations on how to manage large classes; he states that it would be useful if teachers teach the class in small groups instead of trying to teach the whole class all at once. He says that a large class should be divided into two or three groups, establishing simple rules for controlling behavior of all learners, students have to do tasks efficiently with a minimum of noise even when they are not directly supervised. It is believed that the smaller the groups, the easier to teach and this will enable teachers to pay closer attention to individual learners, thus reducing the chances of serious learning problems. Another suggestion given by the same author is that teachers must train all the learners on how to lead a group, and this can be done by giving everyone a chance to be the group leader, making sure the members of the group take turns for being it.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The Ecuadorian government has acknowledged there are issues hindering the growth of English as a foreign language amongst high school students in the public sector. The average pupil leaving a public secondary school graduates with an average of 65% in English according to the National Secretariat for Higher Education, Science and Technology (SENESCYT). The government is acting proactively in fighting the low level of English found throughout the public school system. Some recent examples of this are the mandatory B2 level, according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Language, of all English teachers where Ecuador has teamed up with the world renowned nonprofit organization English Testing Service (ETS) to ensure English teachers have the appropriate level to be instructors. Also there has been the implementation of the program "Go Teacher" assisted by the University of Mississippi in the United States of America where Ecuadorian teachers receive training and scholarships to become better at their profession.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in ecuadorian high schools

Harmer (2000) states that the different seating arrangements are seen under different approaches that show the advantages and disadvantages in the teaching learning process, and their influence on the different activities like group or individual work, debates, etc., therefore, the author mentions that classrooms with orderly rows make possible a clear view of the students from the teacher and vice versa, if there are aisles between rows, this will help the teacher to make personal contact with individual students and thus reinforce the pupils´ learning. By the same way, Harmer says that orderly rows allow teachers work with the whole class in suited activities to this kind of classroom arrangement like grammar explanations, audiovisual activities, board tasks, practice of language under controlled conditions (i.e. repetitions), it is important that teachers involve the whole class when they asks questions even students at the back, and even more the quiet students. Also, the author recommends that teachers should ask learners from all parts of the room in a randomly way, that is, to avoid that students know when they are going to be asked, so they will be attentive all the time. In conclusion, orderly rows have their
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

It is crucial that the institutions not only check these plans, but also give the corresponding feedback to the teacher in order for the plan to be related and goes according to the syllabus, and according to the goals that the institutions have. This is important since the lesson plans contain everything that goes in the lesson, and through these plans the institutions can verify if the classes area accomplishing the curricula expected for that level. During the observations, it could be seen that topics in many cases repeat again and again, it means that the students study for example simple present in second course and in third course this topic is repeated again, this produces that students get fossilized with the knowledge, they do not advance since what they are learning is repeated and repeated. They manifested that sometimes they get bored because they study the same and the same even though they are in a different level. That is why, the government has put more emphasis on controlling the material and the lesson plans of teachers, and this way it can control what teachers are teaching, how, when, etc. this control pushes the teachers to work responsibly with students and take into consideration the topics and activities that can really benefit students.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The results about instructional issues show that students’ agreement is 12.12% over disagreement. Thus the majority of the interviewed students agree that teachers present activities that allow students to practice the four basic skills of the English language: speaking, listening, reading and writing. Moreover, those activities also help students to apply what they have learned in class. Even though the classes are large, most of the students are attentive and participate in the class activities which indicates that the chosen activities catch the students’ attention and engage them in the learning process. It is also seen that the class activities give students the chance to work individually, in pairs or groups. Additionally, the seating arrangements used help for the successful development of the different activities, students do not get distracted by doing other subject assignments and they are not allowed to cheat during the tests, so there are not major disciplinary problems in the researched classes. However, it is worthy to mention that students do not get regular feedback, and the activities that require whole class participation such as plays, competitions, debates or games are not being used because of the large number of students. About social effects, the opinions are almost divided. The level of agreement is just 1.08% over the level of disagreement, but the results show that students are able to interact between them and with the teacher and there are enough opportunities for interaction during the different lessons. Besides, students cannot use electronic devices without being discovered by the teacher. On the other hand, the teacher cannot remember all students’ names, and the same student is rarely asked to answer several questions because of the large number of them.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools.

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools.

In previous studies, Finn, Pannozzo, & Achilles (as cited in Bray & Kehle, 2011) indicate that less than 20 students per class is considered small, and more than 20 is considered a large one. Both authors explained that the fact of having large or small groups in the classroom does not necessarily result in higher achievement or failure rates because there are different factors that are very important in students when learning another language. As a result, what really matters is how well teachers are prepared.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

however, all of the students should be given the chance to participate in many of them. The challenge lies in selecting the type of activity to match the purpose or objective of the lesson. Each student has a 2 or 3 minute opportunity to express his or her point of view on a given topic while others listen him or her. The teacher can also make a brainstorm where the students individually think about an issue or a problem, lists its possible causes and asks them to share their ideas and compile a list of possibilities. Another technique is called a concept model which consists on giving handouts to the students or listing words on the board. These words will form series of leading questions. Students work in small groups then figure out how something works or builds a conceptual model. According to graph N° 5, 39% of students partially agree with the use of role plays, debates and games, while 26% of them agree. In addition, 22 % of students totally agree, and 13% disagree. Regarding this aspect, the students appear to recognize that teachers apply activities such as role plays, debates, and games.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The fourth study, from Bamba (2012), was done to find out how large classes impacted the teaching practices and the learning outcomes and ways that large classes could provide an optimum learning environment. An exploratory qualitative research was done interviewing five teachers from the Ivory Coast to understand their perception of large classes. The findings revealed that all five teachers had difficulties parting lessons in a large class even though they all received the same teacher training at a prepared university. The problem was basically that not every environment is the same and should be dealt with in their own way. Other relevant findings were mentioned as how creating a proper environment, being dynamic, and others, is not enough, but the implementation of some of them and deriving their own conclusions will help the teachers make better use of these strategies to build a more creative and engaging class. He also suggests that teacher should plan their activities ahead to be ready for the activities to be applied. The activities which the teachers have applied in their classes demonstrate that they are of great use for the English learning process.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

One of these methods is Grammar Translation Method that has been used by language teachers for many years. It was thought that, through the study of the grammar of the target language, students would become more familiar with the grammar of their native language and that this familiarity would help them speak and write their native language better. Students study grammar deductively; that is, they are provided the grammar rules and examples, are commanded to memorize them, and then are requested to apply the rules to other examples. They also learn grammatical paradigms such as verb conjugations and memorize native-language equivalents for target-language vocabulary words (Larsen, 2000).
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The Influence of Large Classes in the English Language Teaching Learning Process in Ecuadorian High Schools

The Influence of Large Classes in the English Language Teaching Learning Process in Ecuadorian High Schools

The space is also a big concern when working with large classes; the more students are in the class, the less space they will have to work in. Most of the participants of the study have shown agreement with how they are grouped to do something and how tasks are performed in the available space in terms of easiness. 84.94% in the first case just mentioned, and more than 80% in the second case confirm that fact, which also means that the teachers are exerting a good management over the class. It is clearly visible that the group, partner and individual activities are the ones that fit situation of the classes surveyed here. Roger (1983) mentions some ways to optimize the classroom space by arranging the students’ desk in different forms, all meant to ease the class communication.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching- learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching- learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Another study done by Nakabugo, Opolot-Okurut, Ssebbunga, Maani and Byamugisha (2008) consisted in three main purposes: to increase the number of teachers to allow more than one teacher per class, to provide schools with the necessary resources, and to enable teachers to develop the confidence and skills to improve the learning environment in large classes. Some difficulties that this research faced were the limited physical space for movement and interaction, few desks, and limited number of instructional materials. Students learned in such poor conditions and there were also danger of easy spread of infectious diseases such as flu and cough.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Other authors suggest other games that are helpful when working with large classes. Carbone (1998) has many suggestions for fun activities. One activity consists in pasting a famous person´s name behind each learner, and each learner must guess who it is by asking questions. Another game focuses on spelling words correctly based on a specific theme. Besides, teachers can simply play with the students by making them write do wn a question to the teacher’s answer depending on the specific theme. Another game is about naming a certain category and then each student must say another word that relates to the category named. When a learner is not able to name a word pertaining to the category, that student loses and must name a new category for the remaining students to continue playing. The student that wins is the one who names all the words.
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