Remarks. Aethiopella pilarandresae sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of 6 teeth on the mandible, mucro smaller than dens and postantennal organ with 20- 27 vesicles, differing from A. ariana in the number of sensilla on Ant. IV (7 vs. 8) and a trilobed apical bulb (vs. bilobed). Furcula is very different, all dental setae on the newspecies are similar, but in A. ariana 2 distal setae are thicker than others; mucro has a thin complete external lamella while in A. ariana it is thick, incomplete not reaching the tip. The Abd. V of A. pilarandresae sp. nov. has only 2 pairs of setae between the sensorial setae (vs. 3 pairs). The new taxon differs from A. caraibensis in its smaller size (0.6-0.9 vs. 1.2-2.7 mm), the shape of mandible (subequal teeth vs. 1 big basal tooth), the evident sensilla on Ant. IV (vs. inconspicuos), and the number of postantennal vesicles (20-27 vs. 36). A. delamarei has a similar size but differs clearly from the Nicaraguan species in having undifferentiated sensilla on Ant. IV (vs. evident), a small postantennal organ (12-15 vs. 20-27 vesicles) and mandibles with only 4 teeth (vs. 6). A. littoralis is larger than A. pilarandresae sp. nov. (0.8-2.0 vs. 0.6-0.9mm) and has barbulated setae (vs. smooth) and slightly capitate sensorial setae (vs. acuminate), and more mandibular teeth (9-19 vs. 6); additionaly the eugenital setae of males are spiniform (vs. setiform).
Osteology : No skeletons are available but sorne useful information has been obtained from x-rays. The holotype has a typical Bolitoglossa vertebral column, with an atlas, 1 4 trunk, 1 sa eral, 2 caudosacral and 40 caudal vertebrae. It is possible that the tail is regenerated ; if so, this species probably has a very long tail. MVZ 200853 clearly has a regenerated tail which has 25 caudal vertebras. The other adults have 3 8 (MVZ 200894) and 4 2 (UeR 4502) ; these are high numbers for a a small speciesof this genus. A juvenile (UeR 685 7) has 34 caudal vertebrae . Ribs are present on all trunk vertebrae but the last; but are also missing on one side of the next to last vertebra in UeR 4502. The transition from caudosacral to caudal vertebrae is marked by elongate transverse processes borne at the extreme anterior end of the first caudal verte bra which are swept strongly in an anterior di rection and terminate at a level equivalent to the midpoint of the last caudosacral vertebra. There is no overlap of the transverse processes of these adj acent vertebrae. Transverse pro cesses on the caudal vertebrae quickly regress toward the tail tip in the slender tails, and are nearly absent past caudal vertebra 1 2 to 1 5 . The processes gradually move from an anterior to a more midcentral position.
With few exceptions, the more abundant speciesof Euglossa in Mexico and Central America were described by Moure (1965, 1968, 1969, 1970) if they had not been named by earlier authors. Of the abundant species wruch have remained nameless, one was not collected until the use of cineole as an attractant, and the other had been confused with another and similar species. Of the other five species which are to be described here, none is represented by a large series of specimens. In mast cases, an effort has been made to obtain more specimens, and in each case, the effort has met with very limited success. Further collecting in other areas or at other seasons, or the use uf new chemical attractants, may result in the rapid collection of larger series, but it seems likely that larger series of these species will only gradually become available. We have not, to be sure, exhausted the Euglossa fauna of Mexico and Central America. The speciesof some groups are only very rarely attracted to cineole, vanillin and other known a!tractants, and there may well be large populations of such bees that are as yet unsampled. 1 know of a few unique specimens, each of wruch probably represents an undescribed species. After trus paper had been written, 1 obtained a good series of a very distinct new Euglossa
Examined material from British Museum Natural History Collection. One ♀ S. brevirostris Muir, paratype, ex beach grass, Napo River, Ecuador (1923), F.X. Williams leg., B.M. 1929-293; one ♂, one ♀ S. gracillis Muir, paratypes, Río de Janeiro, Brazil (1924), F.X. Williams leg., B.M. 1929-293; one ♀ S. ornatipennis Muir, paratype, on grass, Rezende, Brazil (1924), F.X. Williams leg., B.M. 1929-293; one ♂ Oxycranus procerus Matsumura, Nagazaki, Japan (1913), F. Muir coll., B.M. 1932-279; one ♂ S. procerus (Matsumura), Foochow, China (1935), M. S. Yang leg., Pres. by Com. Inst. Ent. B.M. 1948-548; one ♀ S. procerus (Matsumura), Nantou, Taiwan (1984), C. T. Yang col. and det.; one ♀ S. cf. rostifrons, Jacareacanga, Brazil (1984), M. Alvarenga leg., M. Asche det., B.M. 1971-165; one ♂ S. rostifrons on Paspalum conjugatum, Cayo District Central Farm, Honduras, E. García leg., Pres. by Com. Inst. Ent., B.M. 1988-26; one ♂ S. saccharivora (Westwood), Bermuda Sandys P., Fort Scaur (1988), M.R. Wilson & D. J. Hilburn leg., M. R. Wilson det.; one ♂ S. saccharivora (Westwood) on sugarcane, Grenada (1961), F.D. Bennett leg., M.S.K. Ghauri det., Pres. by Com. Inst. Ent., B.M. 1961-6; one ♂ S. viridis Muir, paratype, (1923), on rice Blairmont, F.X. Williams leg., B.M. 1929-293.
Plant epiphytic, monopodial, pendent, branching herb. Roots basal, from the main stem, fleshy, filiform, thin. Stems terete, somewhat flexuous, incipiently branched near the base of the main stem. Leaves numerous, distributed throughout the stems; sheath tubular, minutely rugose; blades linear-lanceolate, acuminate, short mucronate, coriaceous, slightly carinate, those on the main stem ca. 12, similar in size. Inflorescence apical, produced from the main stem, and presumably form the secondary branches; peduncle reduced. Floral bracts longer than the ovary, amplexicaul, imbricating, ovate-oblong, rounded. Flowers 3, distichous, greenish, the lip creamy yellow, column green at base, the apical half purple, clinandrium-hood white. Ovary terete, smooth, thin. Sepals partly spreading, narrowly elliptic, acute, 5-veined, margin slightly revolute, entire. Petals partly spreading, linear-elliptic, acute, 5-veined, margin entire, spreading. Lip entire, cordiform, acute, spreading, slightly convex in natural position, margin entire, spreading; bicallose, the calli thickened at the base and ending in low keels, with a prominent median keel stretching from the base of the lip to the apex. Column somewhat arching upwards above the middle, short, internally provided with a pair of lateral thickenings at the height of the rostellum, and forming a narrow channel; clinandrium hood prominent, funnel- shaped, fleshy, margin entire; rostellum at the middle of the column, slit. Anther obovate, 4-celled.
Background and Aims: Cochemiea is a genus which currently comprises five species occurring in Mexico. It is morphologically characterized by cylin- drical decumbent to prostrate stems and by a long red-scarlet zygomorphic perianth, presumably specialized for hummingbird pollination. As part of the ongoing taxonomic studies on the North Mexican flora, a population discovered by Thomas Linzen in 2012 in central Sinaloa (Mexico), previously identified as Mammillaria sp., actually refers to a Cochemiea species and cannot be ascribed to any of the known speciesof that genus. As a conse- quence, we here propose to describe this population as a a newspecies for science.
The species described below is especially interesting because it occupies an intermediate position between Moure's group T<?t1'agonisca ( MO U RE, 2 ) and Ihering's group Frieseomelitta (IHERING, 1 ) . The last group has been recently reestablished by MOURE (4) , who considers both groups as subgenera of Trigonf? .
Carapace length, 20.94, width, 18.42. Anterior eye row slightly procurved, posterior recurved. Eyes sizes and interdistances: AME 0.36, ALE 0.34, PME 0.24, PLE 0.29, AME-AME 0.69, AME-ALE 0.25, PME-PME 1.42, PME-PLE 0.12, ALE-PLE 0.40, OQ length, 1.79, width, 2.5, clypeus, 0.57. Fovea short, deep, recurved, width, 1.87. Labium length, 3.58, width, 3.27, with 138 cuspules. Maxillae with 139 cuspules in a group on the proximal prolateral angle. Sternum length 9.38, width 7.65, with many long setae. Chelicerae with 12 teeth on basal promargin, 14 basal retrolateral teeth smaller. Spination: femora I-IV and palp 0. Patellae I-IV and palp 0. Tibia I, 1-1p; II, 1v, 1-1d; III, 1-1p, 1-1r; IV, 1-1v, 1p, 1r; palp, 2-2-2-1p, 2r. Metatarsi I, 1v, 1p; II, 2-1-1v, 1-1p; III, 1-1-1-1v, 1-1-1p, 1-1r; IV, 1-1v, 1-1-1-1-2p, 1-1r. Tarsi I-IV and palp 0. Scopulae: entire and dense on tarsi I-IV. Metatarsi I and II fully scopulate, III, 1/2 scopulated, IV 1/3. Length of legs and palpal segments are given in Table I. Tibia and femur IV thickened. Tibial apophysis with two branches originating from a common base, retrolateral not constricted in the middle bearing a short strong black thorn and the prolateral hardly curved at tip (Fig. 2). Male palpal bulb pyriform, embolus long. Prolateral keels present, the PS forming the embolus edge distally and not pronounced; SA represented by a denticulate row extending by almost the entire embolus length; R present, pronounced (Figs 3, 4). Types I and III urticating hairs present. Sternum, coxae and legs ventrally covered by many long hairs. Carapace black bordered by short pinkish hairs, legs black with pinkish hairs dorsally on coxae and trochanters. Abdomen black covered by long reddish hairs. Leg rings very distinct on the apex of femora and patellae. Longitudinal stripes on the femora slightly distinct and very distinct on patellae, tibiae and metatarsi (Fig. 1).
Ecuador holds about 15% of the world’s described species in the family Orchidaceae, with 4,032 speciesof orchids, a third of which are endemic to the country (León-Yánez et al 2011, Neil 2012, Christenhusz & Byng 2016). The diversity of orchids from Ecuador is still understudied, and newspecies continue to be discovered and described every year (Doucette, Portilla & Cameron 2016, Wilson et al. 2016, Baquero 2017, Baquero & Iturralde 2017, Baquero & Zuchan 2017, Jost & Iturralde 2017, Wilson et al. 2017a, b). Within the large subtribe Pleurothallidinae, several taxonomic problems have been identified at generic and infrageneric levels (Chase & Pridgeon 2001, Karremans 2016). Traditionally, hundreds ofspecies have been included in the genus Pleurothallis sensu lato (Luer 1986), but morphological and molecular analyses evidenced its polyphyly (Pridgeon & Chase 2001). Several proposals to split it have been presented, with different generic and infrageneric definitions and circumscriptions (Szlachetko & Margonska 2001, Chase et al. 2003, Luer 2005). Pleurothallis
Ground color of alcohol-preserved speci mens pale straw color. Five large brown bars or oblique blotches on upper body; markings most intense along midline of body, usually reaching dorsal midline as paler brown "saddles", but only last bar extending onto lower sides and ventrum. First and second bars each often appearing as elosely approximated double bars. First bar below first dorsal and anteriormost rays of second dorsal fin. Second bar below posterior half of second dorsal fin. T hird bar under anterior one-third of third dorsal fin. Fourth bar centered below third dorsal fin. Fifth bar most intense, forming circular blotch on caudal pedunele and basal scales of caudal fm. Several dark markings on head: an oval spot behind eye and more diffuse blotch below eye, a dusky patch mostly along border of preoper ele and more prominent blotch on lower oper ele, scaled area at base of pectoral rays dusky. Proximal half of orbital tentaele dark.
Summary of Characteristics: Descriptors throughout this paper follow Campbell (1994), and McCranie and Wilson (1997). Snout rounded in dorsal outline, obtuse (sloping) in profile; canthus rostralis concave in dorsal out- line, rounded in cross-section; loreal area obtuse in cross-section; upper lip smooth; head slightly longer than broad; choanae moderate,
Materials and methods. The plant material was collected in Curimarca, Molinos District, Jauja Province, Junín Department (Fig. 1) in fieldwork in which the flora associated with the high Andean forests of Polylepis was evaluated. Photographs were taken in the field and laboratory for preparing and diagramming a Lankester Composite Digital Plate (LCDP). Searches were made in AMODATA, where 691 records were retrieved for Epidendrum from Junín, out of a total of 10,165 for Peru. Other herbaria recorded include AMES, AMO, B (photographs lodged at F), CAS, COL, F, G, GH, HB, HBG, HOXA, K, LE, LL, M, MA, MO, MOL, NY, OXF, P, PR, RENZ, S, SEL, TNS, UC, US, USM and WIS. These records are based on images taken at these herbaria through the years and do not necessarily include recent collections. Records of specimens and illustrations from David E. Bennet Jr. (at MOL and AMO) were also searched. The records for Junín were studied for possible matches. Comparisons were made with E. ampelospathum Hágsater & Dodson (2004) and E. ampelomelanoxeros Hágsater, E.Santiago & E.Parra (2013) (images of type and live material at AMO, as well as descriptions), the species most similar vegetatively to E. curimarcense. In addition, due to the floral and inflorescence details, the species was also compared to Epidendrum totoroense J.S.Moreno, Hágsater, E.Santiago & Erazo (2016). The pressed material was deposited at HOXA and HUT herbaria.
This paper contributes to taxonomic knowledge and bio-diversity of the tribe Litini in the Neotropical region. The few known antecedents for Neotropical region are partial, for example the genus Berticeja proposed by Povolný (1967), although with many doubts with respect to its systematic position, which he considered it belonged to Gnorimoschemini tribe. Later, Clarke (1969) catalogued and photographed the genitalia of some the species described by Meyrick (1914, 1917, 1923, 1926, 1931). The Litini are characterized by the presence of small patches of raised scales in forewing, gnathos with a tendency to reduction, without culcitula, phallus fused with part of the genital capsule and extremely elongate posterior apophyses (Huemer and Karsholt 1999). Lee and Brown (2008a) added new characters: the presence or absence of ocellus; male gnathos variable in shape; bulbous valva at the base, divided into a costal internal duct and a saccular internal duct; usually a rhomboidal signum with serrate margins; and a pair of transverse processes, a broad or narrow rhomboid base, sometimes at rounded or square obtuse angles. Amplusuncus gen. nov., was included in the tribe since it shares large part of the general characteristics of the group, for example: absent ocellus, a tufts of raised scales on forewing, bulbous
Introduction. The genus Porroglossum Schltr. was proposed by Schlechter in 1920 when some of the species previously placed in Masdevallia Ruiz & Pav. did not seem to fit among the rest ofspecies in this genus. 55 speciesof Porroglossum are known at the moment (Luer 1987, Dodson 2003, Merino, Doucette & Pupulin 2010, Chase et al. 2015, Karremans 2016), and new taxa continue to be added to the list (Luer 2010, 2011, Luer & Thoerle 2012, 2013, Doucette, McDaniel, Merino, Portilla & Cameron 2015). The most remarkable feature of the flowers of Porroglossum is the trigger-sensible lip, something that is otherwise only in Masdevallia teaguei Luer, and some species belonging to Specklinia Lindl. (ex Acostaea Schltr.) and Stelis (ex Condylago Luer). Porroglossum is one of the three genera in the Pleurothallidinae with a lip capable of moving when affected by an external stimulus (Luer 1987). A change in turgor in a layer of cells from a tiny structure of the lip called the claw, causes it to move into a “closed” position on where the callus of the lip presses against the frontal surface of the column-foot (Sweet 1970, Luer 1987). Some speciesof Porroglossum, section Porroglossum (Luer 1987), have glabrous peduncles and big, expanded, dorsal sepals, wider than the synsepal formed by the fused lateral sepals, the apex of the dorsal sepal,
Perennial, densely tufted, pale green foliage. Sheaths embracing the stalks, 8 mm wide, nerves prominent, glabrous, the margins auriculate. Auri- cules overpass the ligule up to 5 mm. Ligule a membranaceous rim, the tip laciniate, 1.5-3 mm long, truncate, glabrous, sometimes with a V-cut. Blades erect, cylindrical in cross section due to reduction of adaxial surface, up to 70 cm long, 2 mm wide, long attenuate, the apex acute, glabrous on both surfaces. Flowering stalks erect, 1.6-2 m tall with glabrous nodes and yellowish internodes. Brown ring below each node. Each node with 2-3 simple rames; each rame terminating into a spathe and a digitate group of racemes. Synflorescence a false panicle made by 2-5 digitate racemes per peduncle, well exserted from the spathe. Racemes erect mostly 4-5 cm long, each with 7-15 pairs of spikelets. Rachis joints and pedicels filiform, widening slightly towards the apex; glabriuscule, with scattered hairs of 1-2 mm long on the margins increasing towards the apex. Callus well develo- ped with a dense crown of hairs up to 2 mm long. Spathe lanceolate, short, 3-4 cm long. Spikelets 2 at each node of the raceme, one sessile, the other pedicellate. Sessile spikelet (4-) 5 (-6) mm long, linear-lanceolate. First glume chartaceous, 2-kee- led, 2-nerved, 1.3-2 mm wide, flat to slightly con- cave, glabrous, the tip scabrous, the margins infle- xed, firmly clasping the second glume. Second glume slightly shorter than the first, 3-nerved, strongly keeled, the keel antrorsely scabrous the margins finely ciliolate towards the apex. Sterile lemma 2 keeled. Fertile lemma bifid at the apex, awned from between the lobes, the margins cilio- late. The awn (5-) 7 (-9) mm long, measured from the tip of the first glume. Palea a thin, membra- nous scale, about as long as the sterile lemma. Sta- mens 3, anthers 1 mm long, functional. Stigmata whitish. Cariopsis dark brown 3 mm long. Pedicel
Epiphytic, cespitose herb, 15–40 cm tall when leafy. Pseudobulb ca. 13 × 6 cm, terete, elliptical- spindle, of 1–9 internodes. Leaves ca. 25 × 4 cm, oblong-lanceolate, distichous, plicate, deciduous. Inflorescence basal, 1–2 symultaneous, many- flowered (12–20) racemes, straight or curved at the apex, ca. 25 cm long, provided with basal bracts. Male flowers resupinate, fragrant, brown, the labellum yellow-green. Pedicel ca. 45 mm long, including the short ovary. Floral bracts lanceolate- ovate, 9 × 3 mm. Dorsal sepal oblong-elliptic, acute, concave, membranous, ca. 29 × 7 mm. Lateral sepals elliptic, acute, convex, membranous, ca. 30 × 7 mm. Petals elliptic, convex, membranous, ca. 26 × 5 mm. Labellum 3-lobed, sacciform, cordate when spread, fleshy, 6–7 mm long, 10.0–10.8 mm wide, 9 mm deep, the lateral lobes elliptic with the margin sometimes undulate, the midlobe triangular, round, with two subglobular calli at the base. Column trigonous, erect, ca. 18 mm long, 3–4 mm wide toward the apex, yellowish-green stained brown; rostellum 6–8 mm,
Holomitrium Brid. is a genus with about 30 species in the world, of mostly medium to large-sized acrocarpous mosses. The genus is distinguished from most other genera of Dicranaceae by a combination of five features: strong single costa, well developed alar cells, long sheathing perichaetial leaves, erect capsules, and undivided peristome teeth (Allen, 1990, 1997; Price, 2002, 2012). Until now this genus in South America has been known from the Andean region, the northern areas of the continent, Brazil (Allen, 1994) and Paraguay (Price, 2012).