surface with integument strongly imbricate, less so on posterior surface; basal area distinctly obliquely striate, striae reaching apical margin, medially striae become more minutely rugulose and granulose. Forewing with basal vein distad cu-a by 1.5 times vein width; 1rs-m basad 1m-cu by 2 times vein width; 2rs-m distad 2m-cu by 6.5 times vein width; marginal cell length 2.5 mm, width 0.63 mm; first submarginal cell slightly shorter than combined lengths of second and third marginal cells (as measured along their posterior borders); second submarginal cell scarcely narrowed anteriorly; anterior border of second submarginal cell along Rs slightly shorter than anterior border of third submarginal cell; distal hamuli arranged 3-1-3 on hind wing. Inner metatibial spur with ﬁ ve short teeth, not including apical portion of rachus. Metasomal terga and sterna imbricate; sternum IV with apical margin weakly concave medially; apical margin of sternum V with deep U-shaped apical emargination; sternum VI as in C. townesi (vide Brooks & Engel, 1999); hidden sterna and genitalia as in ﬁ gures 3 and 4, respectively.
Thenewspecies described below was discovered independently about 10 years apart in two widely separated locations: the Cordillera Abitagua in the east-centralAndesof Ecuador, and the Sibundoy Valley in the southeastern AndesofColombia, ca. 300 km away. On morphological grounds it appears to be most closely related to Neooreophilus werneri (Luer) Archila and N. cordilabius (Luer) Archila fromtheAndesof southeastern Ecuador, and N. chelosepalus (Luer & Hirtz) Archila, which is thought to have been collected in theAndesof western Ecuador.
present in ex situ cultivation. Finally, the two species have unambiguously distinct geographic distributions. D. irmelinae occurs ~200 km further north from D. verticulosa, in a different cordillera (see below). The populations ofthe two species are separated by the Cauca river valley (~600–900 m), which acts as a geographic barrier that creates reproductive isolation between the two taxa. To date D. verticulosa has not been reported in the Western Cordillera ofColombia. Although overall D. irmelinae is phenotypically most similar to D. verticulosa fromtheCentral Cordillera, when only speciesofthe Western Cordillera are compared, the phenotypically most similar speciesfromthe Western cordillera is D. gigas Luer (Luer). The later taxon differs from D. irmelinae in that it lacks any significant pubescence or maculate pigmentation in the sepals (vs. densely pubescent sepals), has narrower leaves (vs. broader leaf blades), and thinner, typically erect inflorescences (vs. lateral to usually descending) that do not produce as many flowers per inflorescence. Table 1 compares floral traits and geographic distributions of D. gigas, D. x aphrodes Luer & Escobar, D. dalströemii Luer, D. x hawleyi Luer, and D. trinympharum Luer with D. irmelinae. Within the genus Dracula, these species share some phenotypic similarity with thenew taxon described here.
Introduction. Telipogon Kunth is a neotropical orchid genus, which currently contains around 260 accepted species (Martel unpublished data). Speciesof this ge- nus can be found from southern Mexico to Central America, the Caribbean and in theAndes, from Ven- ezuela to northern Bolivia between 500 and 3600 m (Martel & Nauray 2013, Collantes & Martel 2015). Telipogon species are usually associated as having col- orful and showy flowers (see Dodson & Escobar 1987, Dodson 2004). However, some Telipogon species pos- sess very small and non-showy flowers; those species were formerly included in the genus Stellilabium. The genus Stellilabium was transferred to Telipogon based on molecular data (Williams et al. 2005). Recently, Martel et al. (2017) proposed to use the term “min- iature Telipogon” to distinguish the Telipogon species that fit with the characteristics ofthe former Stellilabi- um. Thus, miniature Telipogon are characterized as be-
Summary of Characteristics: Descriptors throughout this paper follow Campbell (1994), and McCranie and Wilson (1997). Snout rounded in dorsal outline, obtuse (sloping) in profile; canthus rostralis concave in dorsal out- line, rounded in cross-section; loreal area obtuse in cross-section; upper lip smooth; head slightly longer than broad; choanae moderate,
glabrous and scaly sheath, usually mucronate. The roots few to many, very close to the base or separated by the knots on the rhizomes thin to thick or fleshy. Ramicauls ascending to erect without pseudobulbs, unifoliate covered by 2 glabrous or scaly mucronous tubular sheaths. The inflorescences, lateral without an annular ring near the apex. Leaves erect in relation to the stem twigs, thick, smooth to rough, verrucous of green color to dark green sometimes stained of purple, elliptic, cuneate and narrow towards the anterior margin on the short petioles. Inflorescences, solitary with a not resupinated flower; peduncles longer or shorter than leaves, with a bract near the middle and another close to the base; floral bracts cucullated, inflated, acuminate, which surround the pedicel and much ofthe ovary; robust pedicel, with a filament much longer than the pedicel itself; trivalved soft ovary. Sepals conspicuous and membranous, of varied colors, soft, glabrous and frequently with tiny cilia, the middle sepal, free, usually downwards, acute to obtuse, the apex often ends in a thin tail; the lateral sepals connate in a sinsepal, generally upwards, free, acute to obtuse, the apex frequently acuminate and thin, sometimes ends in a bifid tail. Petals conspicuous, membranous, thin, similar to the sepals shortly ciliates, the apex acuminate, ends in a thin tail. Lip small, fleshy, transverse, the apex acute, obtuse to rounded, the soft margin to fimbriated and sometimes bimarginated with or without an apiculum, the disc more or less carinate
We surveyed sequence variation in 15 Y-chromosomal loci (M19, M25, M120, M143, M194, M199, M323, M346, M378, MEH2, N14, P106, P292, P48, and P89) after ampliﬁcation using the primers and conditions in Kara- fet et al. (2008). Although these loci carry known SNPs in Native Americans (see Fig. 1), they have not been thoroughly screened by sequencing in South American individuals (Karafet et al., 2008). Except the SNP M19 that is present in Ticuna and Wayuu Indians (Bortolini et al., 2003), and SNPs at MEH2 and M346 that seem to be present in most of Native American haplogroup Q chromosomes (see Fig. 1), all other known SNPs were absent or very rare in South America (this study and unpublished data). All fragments were sequenced in 12 selected individuals (8 Q1a3a and 4 Q1a3*; selection cri- teria below) to identify new SNPs as well as to screen for variation at known SNPs. The PCR products were ei- ther puriﬁed following Exonuclease I and Alkaline Phos- phatase (Amersham Biosciences) treatment or PEG/NaCl precipitation. Both DNA strands were sequenced using a MegaBACE 1000 sequencer (GE Healthcare) or ABI3130xl Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems). High quality sequences were aligned and checked for quality and accuracy using the Phred, Phrap, and Consed pro- grams (http://www.genome.washington.edu) to visualize and check manually all chromatograms for the presence ofnew polymorphisms. Whenever a putative polymor- phism was identiﬁed, the sample was re-ampliﬁed and resequenced for conﬁrmation.
We thank Gabriela Bianci and Walter Fischer (both formerly at FAO, Rome) who collected and sent the first specimen and pho- tographs to NLC during the course of prepar- ing the Sciaenidae section ofthe FAO Identi- fication Sheets for Central East Pacific. We thank Karsten Hartel, fish collection manager and Anne Everly, assistant fish collection manager at MCZ, for making the rendezvous of fish specimens and information among three distant authors. K. Hartel read earlier versions of this manuscript, and his kind sup- port and friendship made this and other fish studies possible for NLC at the MCZ. Karl Leim and Bruce Collette have sponsored NLC as research associate at MCZ, Harvard University and NMNH, Smithsonian Institu- tion, respectively. Support fromthe Smith- sonian Tropical Research Institute and the Smithsonian Short-term Visitors program made the 2000 Darien Expedition possible. The ready assistance ofthe crew of RV Urra- ca is acknowledged as is help from W. Bussing, T. Duda, R. Cooke, C. Tapia, K. Kaiser during the Darien Expedition. PB also thanks STRI for financial support to partici- pate in this expedition. Keiko Moore ofthe National Systematics Laboratory National Marine Fisheries Service made improvement to the illustrations.
During the analysis performed some figures and original descriptions ofspecies caught our attention. Eigenmann & Eigenmann (1889) designate the variety Ancistrus cirrhosus dubius, usually accepted as Ancistrus dubius, whose specimens come from two localities in Brazil, Gurupá and Tabatinga. Gurupá is located at Pará state, near Marajó Island, very distant fromAndes, the other Tabatinga is closer, but may be with a limited influence of Andean rivers characteristics. The original description is limited to few characters indicated in the key included. According to the key A. dubius has the caudal fin lunate, dorsal fin I,7 vs. I,8 in A. cirrhosus, and color pattern consisting of: Body dark brown and back with two darker cross-bands; head irregularly marbled. At the ACSI images database a photo of paratype, MCZ 7983 is found (Morris, et al. 2006). Specimen is a juvenile female (70 mm SL) without color, but on belly dissipated (vanished) white dots can be observed. The available photo at ACSI seems to be similar to A. malacops, pectoral-fin “spine” looks elongated, unfortunately caudal-fin is damaged and avoid appropriate compare, but Eigenmann & Eigenmann (1889) explicitly indicated a lunate caudal fin. The caudal fin lunate is present in A. alga, but the color pattern reported is very different. According the few morphological characters and distance between the localities it seems appropriate indicate that A. dubius is a different species to those reported in this work. However, comparisons with newly captured specimens are need to establish the taxonomic status of A. dubius.
Diagnostic characters: Larger than sympatric L. limao. which near Kourou lacks the ferruginous malar arca and stiff, black hairs on the scutellum and margins ofthe metasomal terga; specimens of limllO from Sao Paulo , Brasil, Kourou, French Guiana, and Barro Colorado Island, Panamá lacked the uniform covering of stiff, black hairs on the median tibia; limao also possesses five hamuli on the hind wing, rather than six; an identification of L. guyanensis was made in error by Roubik ( 1 979b), based on a description provided by Schwarz ( 1 948) of L. limao, which did not fit the specimens collected at a nest in French Guiana (see Roubik, 1 979b); Lestrimelitta is reported to vary substantially and possibly contains several sibling species, or distinct subspecies of limaD (l . Camargo, personal communication); a male paratype of L. limao rufipes Friese from Sao Paulo , Brasil, proved identical to L. limao eollected from a nest in French Guiana and also to the iIIustrations given by Schwarz ( I 948) of L. limao from Sao Paulo, based on the structure ofthe genitalia .
Remarks. Proeulia uniformata is included in this genus based on the following features: antennae with short cilia, labial palpi porrect in both sexes, hindwing with R and M1 stalked for over 1/2 their lengths, M3 with CuA1 connate; male genitalia with uncus simple, gnathos plate simple, valva wide at base, sacculus longer than wide, and phallus stout with a single large, strongly developed, elongate cornutus. In the female genitalia, the area near the ostium is sclerotized, the ductus bursae is short, with a sclerite fromthe anterior surface ofthe corpus bursae, and a signum is present.
anterior median supraocular; frontal narrow, much longer than wide; frontoparietals small, widely separated by frontal; interparietal much smaller than parietals but separating them, pos- teriorly touching smaller interoccipital; pari- etal separated from supraocular by uppermost temporal; nasal single, large nostril posterior to suture between supralabials 1 and 2; 2-2 small, quadrangular postnasals; three loreals, first taller than long; second loreal quadrangular; third loreal slightly smaller; canthal ii quad- rangular, not fused with second loreal, larger than third loreal, touching loreals one and two, second internasal, prefrontal and canthal iii; canthal iii large, contacting anterior most lateral and median supraoculars above; five median supraoculars; first median supraocular contacts prefrontal; no large anterior supercili- ary (possibly fused with canthal iii); four small lateral supraoculars; seven small supercili- aries; primary temporals 5-5, lowermost four contacting postoculars; 7-6 scales between postoculars and ear opening; four large pos- toculars juxtaposed to suboculars; three sub- oculars; posterior subocular large, rectangular; median subocular elongate, narrow; anterior subocular small; 11-10 supralabials, 8 or 7 to below middle of eye; 9-9 infralabials; mental narrower than rostral; azygous postmental; five pairs of chin shields, first pair in contact with one another and second and third infralabials, others separated by one to five scales; cycloid dorsal scales striate without a median keel; 79 dorsal scales from interoccipital to base of tail; ventral scales smooth; 86 transverse rows of ventral scales from postmental to vent; 31 scales around body; digits laterally com- pressed, with slightly rounded lamellae; finger lengths 2>5>1, 3-4 longer than others, equal to one another in length; toes relatively long and slender, lengths 4>3>5>2>1; 24 lamellae under toe 4; 8 precloacal scales; caudal scales striate with a strong median keel except on base of tail; subcaudal scales not striate but with a strong median keel.
Harrison (1992) reported on stomach con- tents of a few Coniophanes piceivittis and C. schmidti. He found that these snakes feed on frogs, lizards and blind snakes. Based on these findings we can assume that C. michoacanen- sis also feeds on reptiles and amphibians. Many frogs and lizards were found at night in tunnels under the highway to Caleta de Campos (for a complete species list reference Vargas-Santamarı´a and Flores-Villela, 2006). Harrison (1992) also reports that pregnant females have no more than four fully yolked eggs at a time; one fully developed egg, ready for deposition, was found in one specimen of C. piceivittis from Oaxaca, collected in December, and a specimen from Veracruz, collected in July; a female C. schmidti from Campeche had four yolked eggs in June. Neonates, with umbilical scars, are found between late July and November and measure between 140 and 175 mm SVL (Harrison, 1992). Coniophanes piceivittis and C. taylori occupy habitats similar to those of C. michoa- canensis, in tropical deciduous forests, al- though they have also been collected in other types of dry forests and in subhumid forests. Only a few specimens of C. taylori from
Abstract. A newspecies, Anoda reflexa Díaz-Contreras and Cruz-Durán (Malvaceae, section Liberanoda) is described from Guerrero, Mexico. It is related to A. thurberi A. Gray and A. pubescens Schltdl. However, it differs from both in the size and color ofthe flower, type of stem pubescence, and geographic range. A table is included comparing the most important characters that allow the identification of A. reflexa, as well as an identification key.
The sympatric species H. hesperus and lutescens agree in the more densely punctate mesoscutum with punctures separated by less than a puncture width. They also agree with one another, and differ from nearctic species, in having an apical filament on the male gonostylus. The metasomal terga ofthe male are not constricted basally nor are the tergal margins depressed. The sixth metasomal sternum ofthe male has a weak longitudinal depression and the posterior margins ofthe fourth and fifth are slightly concave in both species. The two species differ from one another as indicated in Table 1 and Figs. 7 to 10. The known localities for each are shown in Figs. 1 1 to 12. Both occur from sea leve! to at least 1260 m, occurring together at that altitude 8 miles southeast of Tehuitzingo, Puebla, Mexico. The two species also occur together
Vanilla rivasii Molineros-Hurtado, González, Flanagan & Otero belongs within Vanilla subgenus Xanata. Vanilla rivasii has affinity to the V. hostmannii group, possessing the thickened veins in the lip apex and the distichous arrangement ofthe basal bracts ofthe inflorescence characteristic of this group. Vanilla rivasii may be distinguished fromthe other Vanilla species in the group by the frequent terminal position ofthe inflorescence, although occasionally this can be lateral. The bracts ofthe inflorescence are smaller than those of related species such as V. cribbiana Soto-Arenas, V. ruiziana Klotzsch, and the sympatric V. dressleri Soto-Arenas. Flowers are larger, with deeply recurved sepals. The lateral sepals are fused in the basal third. The mid-lobe ofthe labellum is F iGure 2. Vanilla rivasii, photograph ofthe flower in situ.
Asplenium L. is characterized by usually clathrate rhizome scales, stipes containing two vascular bundles basally that are fused in “x” form distally and sori elongate to linear with indusium (Moran, 2011). Asplenium is different fromthe similar genus Diplazium Sw. by 20-28 (vs. 15-20) cells in the annulus of sporangia, one (vs. 2 or 3) rows of cells in the stalk ofthe sporangium and vascular bundles in X-shaped (vs. two separate and elliptic strands) in the distal part ofthe stipe (Moran, 2011).
Materials and methods. The plant material was collected in Curimarca, Molinos District, Jauja Province, Junín Department (Fig. 1) in fieldwork in which the flora associated with the high Andean forests of Polylepis was evaluated. Photographs were taken in the field and laboratory for preparing and diagramming a Lankester Composite Digital Plate (LCDP). Searches were made in AMODATA, where 691 records were retrieved for Epidendrum from Junín, out of a total of 10,165 for Peru. Other herbaria recorded include AMES, AMO, B (photographs lodged at F), CAS, COL, F, G, GH, HB, HBG, HOXA, K, LE, LL, M, MA, MO, MOL, NY, OXF, P, PR, RENZ, S, SEL, TNS, UC, US, USM and WIS. These records are based on images taken at these herbaria through the years and do not necessarily include recent collections. Records of specimens and illustrations from David E. Bennet Jr. (at MOL and AMO) were also searched. The records for Junín were studied for possible matches. Comparisons were made with E. ampelospathum Hágsater & Dodson (2004) and E. ampelomelanoxeros Hágsater, E.Santiago & E.Parra (2013) (images of type and live material at AMO, as well as descriptions), thespecies most similar vegetatively to E. curimarcense. In addition, due to the floral and inflorescence details, thespecies was also compared to Epidendrum totoroense J.S.Moreno, Hágsater, E.Santiago & Erazo (2016). The pressed material was deposited at HOXA and HUT herbaria.
described and illustrated. Thenewspecies is known only from road edges associated with oil palm plantations (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in the south ofthe Deparment of Cesar. Morphological novelties for the genus and possible taxonomic affinities ofthenewspecies are discussed.