Newsquality is understood as a synonym for professionalism. However, it is not related to gender parityof such information, or information equality. This analysis aims to estab- lish the connection between newsqualityandinformation equality, focussing on the pro- tagonists of those news reports and on the informationsources. Accordingly, newsqualityof the four main media in the Basque language and their web pages will be analysed, in order to assess them in terms of gender segregation (protagonistsandsources). As a result, this research aims to determine which variables are decisive fornewsquality, concerning gender equality.
Electronic meters are in common use; however, in smaller rural and remote communities, issues can include cost, sourcesof electricity, and availability of technical and servicing support and replacement parts. The whole-of-life costs – including cost of replacement parts as well as consumable items such as calibration standards and batteries – must be carefully considered when selecting an appropriate technology for turbidity measurement in low-resource settings. Turbidity tubes represent simpler, lower cost alternatives but sensitivity is a limitation, with a lower limit of 5 TU (WHO, 2008). This limits the effectiveness of turbidity tubes for operational monitoring of processes such as filtration; nevertheless, turbidity tubes remain among the most appropriate means of turbidity measurement in lower resource settings. Despite more recent developments in the application of smart-phone optical sensors for turbidity measurement, a significant technology gap remains with respect to durable, low-cost, low-technology turbidity meters that are sensitive below 1 NTU.
Web applications are characterized by the presentation to a wide audience of a large amount of data, the qualityof which can be very heterogeneous. There are several reasons for this variety, but a significant reason is the conflict between two needs. On the one hand information systems on the web need to publish information in the shortest possible time after it is available from informationsources. On the other hand, the most relevant dimensions are, form one side, accuracy, currency, and completeness, relevant also in the monolithic setting, form the other side a new dimensions arises, namely trustworthiness of the sources. With the advent of internet-based systems, web information systems, and peer to peer information systems, sourcesof data increase dramatically, and provenance on available data is diﬃcult to evaluate in the majority of cases. This is a radical change with respect to old centralized systems (still widespread in some organizations, such as banks), where data sourcesand data flows are accurately controlled and monitored. So, evaluating trustworthiness becomes crucial in web information systems. Several papers deal with this issue, see e.g.  and . These two requirements are in many aspects contradictory: accurate design of data structures, and in the case of web sites, of good navigational paths between pages, and certification of data to verify its correctness are costly and lengthy activities, while publication of data on web sites requires stringent times. Web information systems present three peculiar aspects with respect to traditional informationsources: first, a web site is a continuously evolving source ofinformation, and it is not linked to a fixed release time ofinformation; second, the process of producing information changes, additional information can be produced in diﬀerent phases, and corrections to previously published information are possible. Such features lead to a diﬀerent type ofinformation with respect to traditional media.
In a separating equilibrium, a good rm signals high quality through low prices, while a bad one charges a higher price (the prot maximizing price). The intuition is simple: a good monopolist suers less from separating through low introductory prices, because they result in more sales, increased knowledge of product qualityand nally better second-period prots. On the other hand, a bad monopolist benets more from high introductory prices, which induce low sales in the rst period, limiting the diusion ofinformation regarding qualityand allowing for second period sales, even though the realized quality was poor. In Spence's famous job-market signaling model, good-type workers signal high-quality via increased education, which at some critical point bad types are unable to replicate because education is assumed to be more costly for them. Here, the logic of the signaling mechanism does not depend on cost dierences across types, instead copycat behavior is prevented by repeat purchases due to the existence of a second-period with improved information. Thus, when allowing for experimentation, signaling generates an inverse relationship between price andquality. The situation in which a separating equilibrium exists is depicted in gure 2. Moreover, this equilibrium exhibits the following price dynamics: the price of high (low) quality products increases (decreases) over time, as consumers learn about product quality. Since the second period pooling price is linear in beliefs, it will be higher (lower) if good (bad) news were revealed in the rst period when the product was introduced.
We define political information environment as the quantitative supply ofnewsand public affairs content provided to a national audience by routinely available sources. For the purpose of this study, we will focus on the single most widely used source of political news in Europe, television. This televisual information environment tends to be dominated by certain program genres, chief among them conventional newscasts, but also news magazines, political talk shows, as well as discussion and interview programs. The amount, mix, and timing of these shows can produce a favorable or unfavorable opportunity structure for political information provision and consump- tion. Favorable opportunity structures are determined not only by the sheer volume ofinformation programs but also by their extensive distribution throughout the TV schedule, their integrative placement between popular shows, and their allocation to an attractive timeslot. Such a programming strategy offers the best chance of reaching and engaging “inadvertent” audiences. These are viewers who had not planned on watching the news but cannot help encountering them while awaiting delivery of their favorite entertainment program (Robinson 1973: 426). The ability of capturing inad- vertent audiences is said to be a defining characteristic of European public service television because news programs are broadcasted more frequently during times of peak viewing, thus assuring that even less motivated citizens encounter the news (Curran et al. 2009; Iyengar et al. 2009). The democratic value of reaching inadvertent audiences was first recognized by Blumler (1970: 83), who praised it as a smart “trap” for catching and educating the politically uninterested. The central theoretical under- pinning of the trap effect is incidental learning (Schoenbach 2008; Schoenbach and Lauf 2002). Today, its relevance can be illustrated with the concept of the “monitorial citizen” who scans rather than reads the information environment, and who engages in surveillance rather than purposeful information-gathering (Schudson 1998: 310). Multiple program slots provide better opportunities for monitorial citizens to perform their civic role.
Laboratory 1 presents a set of specific sources somewhat more “passive.” This phenomenon is particularly noticeably in the performance dimension: There is an ad-hoc committee that follows the evolution of the most important drugs and markets; although the functions of this committee are adequate for the laboratory needs, it is not less true that, for not paying attention to other sources, opportunities to develop good management practices are lost. It is important to discriminate qualitysourcesfor each dimension as they allow to clarify specific aspects of management. For example, by noticing the good reputation that the service of Laboratory 1 enjoys in the market, it is possible to inquire into the sourcesof this reputation and determine that customer service and its own distribution system, including an urgency system, are the primary sourcesofquality in this dimension. Eventually this information could be used for new corporate developments, especially in light of a new competitive environment that will be stimulated by the new patent law in Argentina.
There are some other factors stimulating innovation by means of a feeling of dissatisfaction. Dissatisfaction might be perceived by employees in day-to-day interaction with citizens whose needs and preferences are not being properly fulfilled by service delivery. Also, dissatisfaction might be placed in employees, who are willing to provoke a change due to a set of personal (either selfish or altruistic) motivations (Halvorsen et al., 2005; Borins, 2002). Likewise, motivation may be really necessary both at front-lines and managerial level in order the get high performance innovation as shown by Garcia-Goñi et al. (2008) for the health sector. Along with innovation drivers explained above, there are also factors enabling the innovation process, whose qualityand intensity in application will help to achieve innovation development and implementation. Public innovation enablers frequently mentioned include: participation of staff in designing and developing innovations; active involvement of organizations’ managers for promoting generation of ideas and giving support to their implementation; rewarding innovative behaviour; allocating resources for innovation; taking advantage of experiences andinformationsources outside the organization; making alliances and networks with other organizations and allowing experimentation and evaluation (Borins, 2006; Vigoda et al., 2005; Koch and Hauknes, 2005; Mulgang and Albury, 2003).
16. Flags denoting quality, and other information: “a” forsources used to register the astrometry of fields; “s” forsources variable on short timescales, as indicated by prob- abilities of < 0.1% that the event-arrival times for at least one observation were consistent with a uniform distribu- tion according to the KS test; “l” forsources that were variable on long timescales, as indicated by a probability of < 0.1% that the fluxes for all observations were consistent with a uniform distribution according to the KS test; “e” forsources that may be part of an extended, diffuse feature (Muno et al. 2004a); “c” forsources confused with another nearby source; “g” forsources that fell near the edge of a detector in one or more observations; “b” forsourcesfor which the source and the background spectra have a > 10% chance of being drawn from the same distribution according to a KS test; “x” forsourcesfor which the 0.5– 2.0 keV band photometry is inaccurate because the satellite was programmed to omit photons below 1 keV from the telemetry; and “p” forsources that suffered from photon pile-up.
Although the manipulation checks worked and the results were congruent with the hypotheses, there are other mechanisms beyond anchoring and negativity bias that could play a role, opening new doors for future research. The possible influence of the presence of researchers during the evaluation process of public services by participants is especially noteworthy. The mere presence of a researcher could stimulate social desirability and a tendency to answer according to the nature of the information presented by the researcher. With this in mind, additional research can be carried out in a laboratory context where participants receive the information through a computer and without the presence of a researcher during the evaluation of service quality. Another area where future research can provide additional insights is the consideration of active control groups (e.g., Temple & Ellenberg, 2000). In our first experiment, we included a passive control group (without previous information), whereas for the second experiment we did not consider a control group because we concentrated on the differences between formal vs. informal communication. However, the incorporation of active control groups in future research studies (e.g., receiving real information about the public organization being evaluated) could offer a richer picture of the impact of negative news on the reputation of the public sector.
In terms of confidence, the media consider the Police, Civil Guard, Military Emergency Unit (UME), and Red Cross to be the most reliable informationsources. Next comes Civil Protection, the security corps par excellence in emergencies in Spain. It is significant and paradoxical that the editors-in-chief give the same confidence to non-official sources (victims and affected people) as to official government sources in a context ofinformation threatened by phenomena such as misinformation and fake news. The emergency scenario is especially prone to the dissemination of data that is biased and distorted by the impact of social media. In this sense, we start from the premise that the cornerstone ofnews co- verage in a disaster must be public service with the dissemination ofnews that flees from alarmism, sensationalism and hoaxes. We consider that the results achieved on the mistrust of official government sources are revealing and highlight a problem: the significant discredit of institutional public communication in the management of the recent crises in Spain, generated by practices such as concealment ofinformation, manipulation and use of crises for political purposes (Mayo-Cubero, 2017, p. 234).
Nowadays, Geographic Information (GI) is increasingly captured, managed and updated by different cartographic agencies with variable levels of granularity, qualityand structure. This approach causes in practice the building up of multiple sets of spatial databases with a great heterogeneity of feature catalogues and data models. That means a coexistence of a great variety ofsources with different information, structure and semantic without a general harmonization framework. This heterogeneity, combined with the sharing needs of miscellaneous users andinformation overlaps from different sources, cause several and important problems to link similar features, to search, to retrieve and to exploit GI data.
revisión catorce instrumentos validados con dicho fin, pero no todos reunían los estándares recomendados para su empleo de manera general. El Pelvic Organ Prolapse and Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ) fue, hasta hace pocos años, el único cuestionario específico disponible para medir el impacto de las DSP en la función sexual. Se diseñó para mujeres sexualmente activas con prolapsos de los órganos pélvicos con y sin incontinencia urinaria. Posteriormente se validaron algunas versiones cortas del mismo como el PISQ-12, uno de los más empleados en la actualidad.
In the Asian context, the role of portals and their re-use of newspaper content is the particular target of discussions and new policies. The Korean Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism has been actively co- developing a so-called ‗Standardized Agreement on Digital Content‘ since 2008. 102 The standardized agreement specifies that the receiver of digital content is obliged to pay a fee to the provider of the content; either an agreed fixed amount or a fee which depends on the revenues derived from the digital content. Other conditions include the necessity of prior agreement before the content of third party providers is altered (see Box 7) and an agreement specifying the duration for which the third-party content can be used. Subsequently, the Korea Online Newspaper Association (KONA) 103 finalised ‗Rules of Use for Content‘ which it started to enforce with Internet portals in 2008. The guidelines which are only a model template i) limit news search and storage of portals to seven days, ii) prohibit the modification of the original news content by portals and aggregators, and iii) prohibit the unauthorized distribution and reproduction ofnews content by Internet users or bloggers. Portals such as Naver reacted sceptically to the rules claiming that the issue had to be solved with each separate company (and not the KONA which merely represents rights holders). The member companies of KONA have a preference for allowing Internet portals the use of their headlines only while the full content of articles should be provided via a direct link to their respective website (and not on the Internet portal itself).
8 Another key factor in the development of collaborative work is that related to the configuration of the work groups (Isotani, Inaba, Ikeda & Mizoguchi, 2009). There is an agreement in considering that heterogeneous groups lead to a better learning, due to the contrast of different point of view and the degrees of understanding coming from diversity, as well as the fact that the process for conforming and creating the groups seems to be crucial to ensure learning (Dillenbourg, 2002; Felder & Brent, 2001; Guitert et al., 2003; Exley & Dennick, 2007; Pujolàs, 2008). Exley & Dennick (2007) mention the importance for making the fundamental aims of collaborative work explicit, and fall upon the need to establish some basic rules and an attitudinal and rational framework for all the work the group has to carry out and the importance of making the schedule and distribution of tasks public and clear. Several authors (Haake & Pfister, 2010; Hernández, González-Sanmamed & Muñoz, 2014; Onrubia & Ángel, 2012; Sobreira & Tchounikine, 2012) study the need for generating collaboration scripts, which can provide the students with instructions on structuring, interacting and collaborating around the task or problem, becoming a means for an agreement and commitment between the students and the teacher, and to support the goal of organizing the work.
The psychometric properties of the constructs and items were summarised in Tables 3 and 4. The convergent validity of the instrument was assessed by the composite reliability and average variance extracted. The composite reliability estimate for each construct ranged from 0.83 to 1.00, suggesting an acceptable level of reliability (Hair, et al., ). The average variance extracted (AVE), ranging from 0.66 to 1.00, were all above the recommended 0.50 level (Hair et al., ). According to Fornell , factor loadings in excess of 0.70 could be considered excellent for convergent validity. All the factor loadings were greater than 0.70. Following Hair et al’s  guideline, all squared multiple correlations should be above the 0.40 threshold for convergent validity. In Table 3, the squared multiple correlations of individual items were high, ranging from 0.52 to 1.00. In Table 4, the average variance extracted for each construct was greater than the squared correlations between it and all other constructs. It indicated good discriminant validity (Fornell and Larcker, ).
Not only queries are different, but also query results are obtained in different manners, due to the differences in the information models of each service. The result of a BDII query is a set of LDAP entries, of an RGMA query a set of table rows, andof an ActOn-based query a set of RDF triples. Figure 4 shows three different ways to show the same Grid resource in the three services evaluated (i.e., ce02.tier2.hep.manchester.ac.uk, an EGEE Computing Element). Even if they have different syntax and size, in our experiment we count them as one piece ofinformation each. That is, we use each “Grid resource” obtained from a query as the basic unit for counting information, which will be used to calculate precision and recall, as described in Section 3.3.
We thank Ann Grifasi, Deborah Maddock Shelley Anderson and Monica Owen for their administrative assistance. We thank Aravin Duraik for developing the study electronic forms. Pfizer Inc is funding this study. The funder had no role in the study design, in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to submit this or future manuscripts for publication. Matth- ias Briel is supported by a scholarship for advanced researchers from the Swiss National Foundation (PASMA-112951/1). John You is supported by a Career Scientist Award from the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long- Term Care. Xin Sun is supported by two research scholarships from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (70503021, 70703025). Kara Nerenberg is supported by a RCT Mentorship Award from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR). Bradley Johnston is supported by a Duncan L. Gordon Fellowship from SickKids Foundation. Jason Busse is funded by a New Investigator Award from the CIHR and Canadian Chiro-
1. As requested by Decision COP9 SG-6 of the Subgroup on COP9, attached is COP9 DR2 Annex 2, which provides an initial estimate of the costs of delivering the 25 tasks the STRP has recommended to Standing Committee as priorities for the STRP’s work during the 2006-2008 triennium.
The term “ontology” has long been used in many ways and domains [1,9,13]. In the computer science world the ontologies are introduced by Gruber  as an “explicit specification of a conceptualization”. A conceptualization refers to an abstract model of how people commonly think about a real thing in the world, e.g. a chair. Explicit specification means that the concepts and relations of the abstract model have been given explicit names and definitions . An ontology gives the name and the descriptions of the entities of specific domains using predicates that represent relationship between these entities. It provides a vocabulary to represent and communicate knowledge about the domain and a set of relationship containing the term of the vocabulary at a conceptual level. Therefore, an ontology might be used for data integration tasks because of its potential to describe the semantic ofinformationsourcesand to solve heterogeneity problems [11,31].
The last option in the sidebar is “Teams” and it has one tab per analyzed team (“Atl´ etico de Madrid”, “F.C. Barcelona” and “Real Madrid C.F.”). As it occurs in “Newspapers” option, the information to be displayed is different if we click in one tab or another. For example, if you click on “Atl´ etico de Madrid” tab, the widgets mentioned before change their values with the data obtained only about the Atletico de Madrid team. In this case, the information compared in the widgets on top are the different newspapers where we have obtained the information. An example of this view can be observed in Figure 4.3.