PDF superior Two novelties in genus Platystele (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Costa Rica

Two novelties in genus Platystele (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Costa Rica

Two novelties in genus Platystele (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Costa Rica

Plant minuscule, epiphytic, caespitose, erect, up to 1.3 cm tall, including the inflorescence. Roots basal, flexuous, filiform. Ramicauls erect, slender, abbreviated, enclosed by tubular, imbricating, slightly compressed, membranous sheaths. Leaves elliptic, erect, thick, conduplicate, subacute, emarginate, abaxially keeled and terminating in a short apiculus, 6.5–9.0 × 2.1–2.7 mm, narrowed at the base into a conduplicate petiole. Inflorescence racemose, distichous, successively flowered, with one flower open at a time, up to 1 cm long, peduncle to 8.5 mm long, pedicels 1 mm long. Floral bracts acute, conduplicate, to 3–5 mm long. Ovary terete, smooth, to 5 mm long. Dorsal sepal narrowly lanceolate-elliptic, acute, with a conspicuous mid-vein, spreading widely, 4.8 × 1.4 mm. Lateral sepals subequal to the dorsal sepal, narrowly ovate, with a conspicuous mid-vein, acute, with a conspicuous mid-vein, spreading widely, 4.3– 4.5 × 1.8–2.0 mm. Petals spreading widely, narrowly linear-ligulate, acute, 1-veined, 4.5–4.8 × 0.8–1.1 mm. Lip ovate-elliptic, shortly acuminate, apically incurved (in the only specimen), glabrous, with a small glenion at the base, 4.0 × 1.7 mm. Column short, sub- cylindrical, 0.6 mm long. Anther apical, Pollinia not seen. Stigma subapical, transversely bilobed at each side of the anther.
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Two new species of Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Costa Rica in the P. phyllocardia group

Two new species of Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Costa Rica in the P. phyllocardia group

Introduction. The species of Pleurothallis R.Br. close to Humboltia cordata Ruiz & Pavón (1978) [= Pleurothallis cordata (Ruiz & Pav.) Lindl.] represent one of the largest groups of taxa within the genus (Luer 2005). Phylogenetically, they are closely related to a group of species that includes the type of Pleurothallis, P. ruscifolia (Jacq.) R.Br. (Pridgeon et al. 2001, Pridgeon & Chase 2001). The affinities among the species of the group were first recognized by John Lindley (1859), who created Pleurothallis sect. Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae for the species with terete- angulate stems, cordate leaves and fasciculate flowers; these were later considered a subsection within sect. Pleurothallis Luer (Luer 1988). The section has been treated at the generic rank by Szlachetko and Margońska (2001), who created Zosterophyllanthos, and by Luer (2005), who included the species of Pleurothallis sect. Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae into a broadened concept of Acronia C.Presl (1827). Neither of these alternative treatments has gained general consensus in botanical works (Pridgeon 2005, Karremans 2016).
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Novelties in Costa Rican Stelis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae): two new species and a new record in the “Dracontia group”

Novelties in Costa Rican Stelis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae): two new species and a new record in the “Dracontia group”

alternatively placed in genus Dracontia, are described and illustrated based on living material. They were both found in oak forests at high elevations on diverse peaks of the Talamanca mountain range in Costa Rica. The first, S. dies-natalis, was found on Cerro Buena Vista and Cerro Urán, and is somewhat similar to S. hydra but can be distinguished by the relatively short inflorescence, the dark purple flowers with a yellow lip covered by dark purple warts, the apiculate apex of the petals and the lip with a shortly acuminate apicule. The second, S. aenigma, was initially believed to be a specimen of S. dies-natalis when it was collected on Cerro Utyum, but it can be easily distinguished by the few-flowered inflorescence that barely exceeds the leaf, the reddish flowers, the sigmoid lip and the cucullate, obtuse anther. Stelis platystylis, a species previously known from Mexico to Nicaragua is illustrated based on living material from Costa Rica.
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A new cumacean (Crustacea) genus from beaches of Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica

A new cumacean (Crustacea) genus from beaches of Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica

female in general body shape and details of appendages, although smaller and with less elongate pseudorostral lobes (Fig. 4A). Eyelobe more truncate. Carapace dorsal crest with only two or three serrations (Fig. 4B). Antenna 1 similar to that of female (Fig. 3F). Antenna 2 highly modified into clasping structure; article three longest; distal articles with several short setae along ventral margin and armed distally with two recurved setae; flagellum not distin­ guishable (Fig. 4C). Exopod present only on pereopod 1. Two pairs of pleopods, each with elongate peduncle and very short rami; inner ramus without external process. Pleopod two with several rows of outwardly-directed scales on posterior surface of peduncle (Fig. 4D).
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A new species of tree frog, genus Phyllomedusa, from Costa Rica

A new species of tree frog, genus Phyllomedusa, from Costa Rica

anteriorly below eye, and extending nearly to snout; lateral line continuing pos­ teriorly on doroslateral surface of body and thence on side of anterior haH of tail. Snout and top of head and body heavily pigmented. In life, snout and dorsum grayish brown, sides of body bluish gray, venter silvery blue, caudal musculature pale grayish brown, caudal fin transparent with brown flecks on proximal edges of anterior one- half of both dorsal and ventral fins. Mouth having shallow lateral fold; median part of upper lip bare; rest of mouth bordered by two raws of papillae; 'scattered small papillae median to fringing rows laterally; upper beak deep and in form of broad arch having slight1y expanded wings; lower beak massive; both beaks having short, moderately pointed serrations; tooth-rows 2/3; upper rows about equal in length; second upper row interrupted medial1y; first and second lower rows nearly as long as upper rows; second lower
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Bionomics of black flies (Diptera:Simuliidae) in Costa Rica VII Genus Simulium subgenus Hearlea

Bionomics of black flies (Diptera:Simuliidae) in Costa Rica VII Genus Simulium subgenus Hearlea

Abstract: Black fly populations were studied i n 1 00 streams i n Costa Rica for a period of two years. Among the specimens collected in the field were larvae and pupae of th� subgenus Hearlea. A comparison of available material from Canada, Mexico, Guatemala and Panama allowed us to identify the species of Hearlea as Simulium (Hearlea) chiriquiense Field, 1 9 6 7 . This is the first report of this subgenus and species for this country ; distribution and other ecological data are presented.
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Ultrastructure of bamboes from the Dendrocalamus genus (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) cultivated in Costa Rica III: Dendrocalamus giganteus [Spanish]

Ultrastructure of bamboes from the Dendrocalamus genus (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) cultivated in Costa Rica III: Dendrocalamus giganteus [Spanish]

Abstract : Dendrocalamus giganteus is one of the biggest, strongest and most used bamboos. An ultrastructural analysis of samples from a Costa Rican population showed that there are three forms of cuticular wax accumula- tions, shaped like ceric papillae. In the abaxial zone of the leaf lamina there are square structures composed by two silica cells in the boundaries and double ceric papillae in the lateral parts; in the center there are spherical papillae. These structures are unique for this species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(Suppl. 2): 59-63. Epub 2006 Dec. 01.
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A new species of the zephyrinid nudibranch genus Janolus (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) from North America and Costa Rica

A new species of the zephyrinid nudibranch genus Janolus (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) from North America and Costa Rica

some brown spots (Fig 1A). Around the eyes, there is a translucent light cream mask. A pink spot extends from behind the rhinophores to the anterior part of the cardiac area. There is another pink spot in front of the rhinophores with two opaque white spots to the sides. The cardiac area is opaque white in color. The anus is opaque white with a small stalk. Rhinophores are dark cream with light apices and some cen- tral dark brown spots. The inter-rhinophoral crest is opaque white with a few cream spots. The digestive gland within the papillae is chocolate brown. The background color of the papillae is light cream with some large brown and opaque white spots. The smaller papil- lae on the digestive gland are yellow. There are some green reflective specks distributed homogenously on the body. Dorsally, the foot
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A new species of Costa Rica salamander, genus Bolitoglossa

A new species of Costa Rica salamander, genus Bolitoglossa

Bolitoglossa nigrescens (type locality : Boquete Road Camp between Villa Mills and San Isidro del General, Provincia de San José, Costa Rica) is known only from the holotype, which we have examined. TAYLOR (2) reported that the single known individual was an adult female. The specimen measures 45.1 mm standard length and has a broader head (standard length 6.0 times head width) and fewer maxillary teeth ( 17) than any of the type series of B. epimela. The hind limbs are also shorter (9.3 mm) than in B. epimela of similar size. The two species have similar amounts of webbing, but the hands and feet of B. nigresciJIns are thicker with subcylindrical digits and larger subterminal pads. Both are similarly colored. Color, amount of webbing, and possibly size are the only characters relating B. nigrescens and B. epimela. It appears that; a
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Life history and systematics of Albusambia elaphoglossumae (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): A new genus and species of musotimine with leaf mining biology from Costa Rica

Life history and systematics of Albusambia elaphoglossumae (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): A new genus and species of musotimine with leaf mining biology from Costa Rica

The basal color of Undulambia adults is brown, not white, as in Albusambia and Neurophyseta. Wings of Undulambia are incised, and those of Albusambia and Neurophyseta are entire. Forewing costal swelling is absent in Albusambia and Neurophyseta, but pres- ent in Undulambia. In the male genitalia of Undulambia the valva is long and equal in width throughout, not widened posteriorly as in Albusambia and some Neurophyseta spe- cies. The body of Undulambia larva is round, not dorsoventrally flattened, and not inter- segmentally constricted as in Albusambia. In Undulambia the mandible consists of one line of teeth, not two as in that of Albusambia. Other than the host plant record, the bio- logical and morphological data of the larvae of Neurophyseta are not available. Unlike the vertex of the pupal head of Albusambia, Undulambia does not have a prominent medial dorsoventral depression. Undulambia has a somewhat rugose, broadly flattened prothorax with two anterolateral horn-like structures that protrude twice as much as in the smooth pro- thorax of Albusambia. Albusambia has lateral conical depressions posterior to the anus, but Undulambia lacks these depressions. Pupal data on Neurophyseta is incomplete.
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Ultrastructure of bamboes from the Dendrocalamus genus (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) cultivated in Costa Rica I: Dendrocalamus latiflorus [Spanish]

Ultrastructure of bamboes from the Dendrocalamus genus (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) cultivated in Costa Rica I: Dendrocalamus latiflorus [Spanish]

Abstract: The bamboo Dendrocalamus latiflorus is easily affected by sudden changes in temperature and humidity, which cause it to bloom. We used a scanning electron microscope to describe the ultrastructure of young culm (2 years old), culm bracts, buds, abaxial surface of the leaf lamina and flowers. The most notice- able ultrastructural features were the presence of two types of operculated cells in the sterile flower glums, the abundant cuticular wax, the presence of reticulated punctuations in the xylem and pollen grains with interlocking disks or cups. The operculated cells and the interlocking disks are taxonomically important features. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(Suppl. 2): 43-50. Epub 2006 Dec. 01.
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Ultrastructure of bamboes from the Dendrocalamus genus (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) cultivated in Costa Rica II: Dendrocalamus latiflorus var  latiflorus [Spanish]

Ultrastructure of bamboes from the Dendrocalamus genus (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) cultivated in Costa Rica II: Dendrocalamus latiflorus var latiflorus [Spanish]

Abstract: We used a scanning electron microscope to observe leaf laminae, culms, branches, culm bracts and branch buds of Dendrocalamus latiflorus var. latiflorus grown in Costa Rica. In the abaxial epidermis of the leaf lamina we found two types of ceric papillae, rounded and elongated, the latter surrounding the low dome stomata. Only the adaxial surface of the central nervature (leaf lamina) has big hook-shaped trichomes. In the abaxial zone of the culm bract there are thin elongated trichomes, similar to those from the bract of Dendrocalamus giganteus. The branch buds are covered by bicelular trichomes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(Suppl. 2): 51-57. Epub 2006 Dec. 01.
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The venomous coral snakes (genus Micrurus) of Costa Rica

The venomous coral snakes (genus Micrurus) of Costa Rica

HEAD PATTERN : The black head cap patteros are plotted by locality for al! specimens examined (Fig. 2 ) . On the Atlantic lowlands aH examples except one have a head cap of pattero B, with the black extending onto the supraoculars and frontal for about two-thirds of their length, to leave the pos­ terior thirds yellow. A single snake (AP 6844) from Nicaragua: Río San Juan : Machuca, on the Río San Juan has a head pattern like those found in members of the complex in western Nicaragua and adjacent northwestern Costa Rica. On the Pacific versant all samples from west of the eastern margins of the great lakes in Nicaragua and in northwestern Costa Rica have black head caps of pattern C. Coral snakes from extreme southwestern Costa Rica have black head caps of pattero B. The figure suggests a rather rapid shift from north to south in head cap pattern along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, over the distance of 5 5 km between the vicinity of Parrita and the low coastal range southwest of San Isidro de El General, both in Provincia de Puntarenas. The examples at Parrita have e head patteros and agree with the samples from the northwest. Examples fram near San Isidro de El General have a black head cap oE the B pattern wilh the supraoculars completely inc1uded in the cap and only the posterior one-fourth of the frontal is yellow. Examples from south­ west of San Isidro de El General toward the coast have B head cap patterns but with the posterior third of both supraoculars and frontal yellow. In this regard, the specimens resemble Atlantic lowland examples and specimens fmm further south on the Pacific versant toward the Panama boundary.
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A new species of hognose pitviper, genus Porthidium, from the southwestern Pacific of Costa Rica (Serpentes: Viperidae)

A new species of hognose pitviper, genus Porthidium, from the southwestern Pacific of Costa Rica (Serpentes: Viperidae)

5 to 6. Canthals are elongated and slightly pig- mented. One individual (UCR 3359) lacks a postcanthal, the others possess one. Intercanthal count differs among individuals, ranging from 6 to 9 scales. In all examined specimens, internasals are not separated total- ly, although one scale is usually inserted between them. Ventral scales are not different between males and females examined, as 138 and 144 were observed for both sexes. On the other hand, undivided subcaudals in males are 30 and 33, whereas in both females 26 sub- caudals were counted. Interrictals range from 25 to 29. Dorsal scales rows are consistently higher in the neck and midbody than at the vent: observed formulas are 25-25-20, 25-24- 19, 27-24-19, 25-25-19. Nasofrontals range from 23 to 29 scales. One or two oculabials were observed. The number of dorsal blotch- es in the body is 15 and 16, and in all speci- mens more than 70% of the blotches are not fragmented.
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A new genus and two new species of tripterygiid fishes from Costa Rica

A new genus and two new species of tripterygiid fishes from Costa Rica

Color of four freshly collected males, possibly in breeding coloration: body intensely black, scale margins jet black leaving only a small white center portion. Fírst two or three cross bars merging, a pale interspace discernible between third and fourth bars. Posterior four-fifths of caudal fin and anal fin jet black. First and third dorsal fins black and dusky respectively. Second dorsal fin and rays of pectoral and pelvic fins red. Upper head red­ orange with black markings. Upper margin of orbit and iris bright red. Pale orange below head. Belly with blue-green sheen.
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A new blind snake (genus Typhlops) from Costa Rica

A new blind snake (genus Typhlops) from Costa Rica

DESCRIPTION : Body substantially cylindrical, very slightly (lattened ven­ trally. Head not widened but somewhat flattened. Tail very short, little reduced in size anterior to terminal cone which ends in a short pointed sp:ne. Snout curved, not sharp, markedly Qverhanging lower jaw. NQstrils not visible from aboye. Rostral curved upward from underside of jaw over snout, to ·a point s1. ght­ iy anterior to Jevel of eyes; measured between nostrils about % as broad as head; posteri�r margin bluntly rounded. Four supralabials bordered aboye by two nasals, preocular and. ocular. Nasals completely divided by a suture from first supra­ labial-rostral contaet through nostril to rostral aboye nostril. Nasals separated by rostral. Supralabials increasing in size posteriorIy; first supralabial smallest, long­ er than high, in contact with rostral and anterior nasal; second supralabial higher than long, bordered aboye by both nasals and preocular; third supralabial mueh h:gher than long, in contact with preocular and ocular; fourth supralabial very large, much higher than long, in contact with ocular and extending for about half its length posterior to ocular. Preocular slightly larger than ocular, higher than broad, in contact with supraocular aboye leve! of eye. Ocular broadest be!ow leve! of eye. Eye prominent, covered by ocular and placed anterior and aboye c,enter of scale. Supraoculars mueh broader than long. Prefrontal broader than long, separating nasals and supraoculars. Frontal posterior to supraoculars. Fron­ tal and interparietal separating parietals. Median and posterior head series (supraoeulars, prefrontal, frontal, interparietal and parietals) slight1y larger than dorsal scales. Mental scale small, chin seales a little, smaller than body seales. 20-20-2Ó scale rows 'around body; all rows of equal size. Four preanal scales. Median 'd oqal seales (prefrontal to tail cone) 394; 10 dorsal seales included in one. head:width me�sured out ,longitudinally at mid-body. Median caudal series 7.
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A new species of salamander (genus Bolitoglossa) from Costa Rica

A new species of salamander (genus Bolitoglossa) from Costa Rica

Description of Holotype: An adult female with a somewhat truncated, rounded snout of moderate length. Nostril relatively small ; labial protuberances of nasolabial groove short but moderately well-developed. Canthus rostralis short, slightly arched, distinct. Standard length 6.5 times head width; standard length 4.6 times snout-gular fold length. A deep gro ove below eye extends along full length of opening, follo­ wing curvature of eye, but does not communi­ cate with lip. Eye moderately large and protu­ berant. A very indistinct postorbital groove extends posteriorly from eye as shallow depres­ sion for 1 .5 mm, then proceeds sharply ventrad at level of posterior end of mandible and ex­ tends across guIar area as a weakly defined nuchal groove, parallel to the well defined guIar fold. Vomerine teeth 1 8, arranged in a single row on each si de extending to the lateral mar­ gin of the internal nares in a relatively flat arch. The teeth become directed toward the posterior vomerine patch, from which they are separated by a very small (0.2 mm) gap. Maxillary teeth 3 5 , very small, extend about two-thirds through eye. There are three very small prema­ xillary teeth. Tail long, 1 .26 times SL, rounded and with only slight basal constriction. Posti1iac gland obscure. Limbs of moderate length, limb interval 3 ; SL 4.6 times forelimb ; 4.5 times hind limb ; 9.8 times foot width. Hands and feet slightly webbed, with two phalanges free ofweb on longest digits and all digits somewhat free of the web ; all but the first digit have well develo­ ped subterminal pads. The fingers in order of decreasing length: 3 , 2, 4, 1 ; toes in order of decreasing length: 3, 2, 4, 5, 1 .
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sp  nov  (Gasteromycetes) from Costa Rica

sp nov (Gasteromycetes) from Costa Rica

Rica, in the following localities: Cartago, Guarco, La Estrella, immature, 31-V-1994, leg. B.A. Strack, USJ 55147; Guarco, under Quercus sp., two almost mature basidiomata, 15-VI-1996, leg. J. Ammiratii, USJ 64256; Cartago, Turrialba, CATIE, Bosque Florencia, a mature basidioma in process of disintegra- tion, 14-III-1977, leg. L. San Román, USJ 21675. Microscopic observations were carried out using 5% KOH as mounting medium, and ultramicroscopic ones coating samples of gleba with gold-palladium. Photographs were taken using an Hitachi S-2360 belonging to the Centro de Investigación en Estructuras Mi- croscópicas at the University of Costa Rica.
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Myxomycetes asociados con ramitas leñosas

Myxomycetes asociados con ramitas leñosas

As a general observation, twigs from temperate deciduous forests were more productive than twigs collected in other types of forests or woodlands. The least productive set of samples (23% positive cultures, just five species and only 0.5 species per culture) was collected from a high-elevation oak forest (CR-2) in Costa Rica, but a second set of samples from a secondary tropical forest in Costa Rica (CR-1) had only 43% positive cultures, four species and only 0.2 species per culture. In contrast, two sets of samples from temperate deciduous forests (KP and VA) yielded >85% positive cultures and the highest species totals (16 and 20) recorded for any of the study areas. However, a set of samples from a deciduous forest in Arkansas, USA (AR-1) was relatively less productive (67% positive cultures and just four species). The high species totals for the first two sets of samples would seem to reflect, at least in part, the high overall diversity of the woody plants contributing twigs in these two study areas (Stephenson, personal observation). This apparent pattern of increasing diversity of myxomycetes with increasing diversity of woody plants is probably not surprising. Stephenson [9] reported the same type of pattern for the assemblages of myxomycetes associated with forest floor litter in five study areas in southwestern Virginia, USA. Additional evidence is provided examination of the species totals recorded from study areas in which the total number of species of woody plants present was very low (essentially only a single species), which was the case for the study area (NZ) in southern New Zealand.
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Exploración Taxonómica y de Factores de Virulencia en una cepa de Photorhabdus SP aislada en Costa Rica

Exploración Taxonómica y de Factores de Virulencia en una cepa de Photorhabdus SP aislada en Costa Rica

móviles, ni fue identificado por IslandView3, por lo no existe evidencia que de soporte a esta hipótesis. Una explicación alternativa es que este locus en realidad sea un Tc. De hecho, SpvA y SpvB muestran considerable homología con TcdA1 y TcdB1 (Yang y Waterfield, 2013), y TccA y TcaC (Rodou, Ankrah y Stathopoulos, 2010), respectivamente. La proteína hipotética anteriormente mencionada tiene un tamaño similar a SpvA, y al realizarle un blastp mostró un 65% de homología con un componente de Tc de Xenorhabdus nematophila, el cual puede corresponder al Tc faltante para identificar el elemento completo. Sería interesante mapear los reads crudos Illumina contra diferentes Tc para corroborar si se pueden reconstruir y poner a prueba esta hipótesis in vitro mediante su expresión heteróloga. Como este tipo de elementos funcionan únicamente cuando se encuentran tres subunidades (A, B y C), se comprobaría su identidad si se observa el fenotipo de virulencia esperado en una cepa que exprese los tres productos. Si la inserción de los elementos individuales tuviera un efecto similar, sería probable que se trate de otro tipo de toxina.
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