equatorial F-region electric fields andthe interplanetary magneticfield is theelectricfieldof magnetospheric origin. If there is a substorm-related, magnetospherically induced electricfield oriented from dusk to dawn across the nightside, the ring current will move closer to the Earth, causing an increase in themagneticfield at the surface that will be proportional to the distance to the ring current. Since distance is the integral ofthe velocity andtheelectricfield, and if the magnetospheric field penetrates to the equator, as it must, E and ∂B/∂t will be correlated. During a substorm, magnetic energy stored in the distorted magnetosphere is released into the atmosphere as accelerated electrons and Joule heating. At such a time, themagneticfield relaxes to- wards dipole, which is the lowest energy state. This is called dipolarization, which is associated with the release of stored magnetic energy into the ionosphere-atmosphere system. Such an event was reported by  using the THEMIS instrumentation. Since themagneticfield lines can be considered to be frozen into the plasma, an eastward electricfield must be associated with this dipolarization. They found that the equatorial magnetospheric electricfield was in the range of 2–6 mV/m. Observations of penetrating electric fields (PPE) at the equator showed that the PPE is at least 0.5 times the equatorial field . Themagneticfield at the center of a current loop is inversely proportional to the radius a , that is, B = KI/a . Thus,
Piura and Jicamarca magnetometers. Theelectricfield measurements have a time resolution of 5 min and some data gaps. The sudden increase in the magnetometer H deviations at 0047 UT is related to the solar wind pressure impulse, and two other increases in the H deviations at 0306 and 0600 UT (2200 and 0100 MLT) are coincident with the substorm onsets. There are several important features in this case. (1) A westward electricfield perturbation occurs after each substorm onset, which is consistent with the eastward electricfield perturbation onthe dayside. (2) There are three positive peaks in theelectricfield at 0440, 0650, and 0740 UT, and these peaks are related to the corresponding northward turnings ofthe IMF shown in Figure 5a but are not caused by the substorm onsets. Ionosphericelectricfield perturbations caused by northward IMF turnings are westward onthe dayside and eastward onthe nightside; such IMF-induced ionosphericelectricfield perturbations are also clear in Figure 3. (3) The magnetom- eter H deviations increase after each substorm onset and are not related to the substorm-induced westward electricfield perturbation. The westward electricfield perturbation would cause, if any, a decrease in the magnetometer H component. The IMF-induced eastward electricfield perturbations at Figure 5. (a) Solar wind pressure and IMF B z measured by Wind on 18 April 2001. (b) Magnetospheric
The LO effect is not a unique mechanism for producing a deviation ofthe I-V curve from linearity. If the vortex ve- locity exceeds the speed of sound in the crystal the dissipa- tion increases due to Cherenkov emission of sound waves. Each moving vortex creates an electricfield acting onthe crystal lattice and produces a shock wave 共 the Cherenkov cone 兲 . In a thin film with a magneticfield perpendicular to it the situation is two dimensional andthe cone reduces to two lines. The velocity of a crystal lattice is localized onthe shock wave but the force acting onthe lattice is localized onthe vortex positions. The Cherenkov contribution to the total dissipation is proportional to the product ofthe velocity andthe force and hence the dissipation is enhanced when there is a match between vortex positions andthe shock wave. If moving vortices are arranged into a vortex lattice then the matching condition can be easily reached when a direction ofthe shock wave coincides with some direction ofthe vortex lattice. Since the direction ofthe shock wave is determined by vortex velocity 共 electricfield 兲 maxima of dissipation can be reached at some particular values oftheelectricfield. According to this, the I-V curve should have a series of maxima as a function of voltage. This is the origin ofthe
The main novelty of this paper, compared to previous works onthe subject (such as Colaiuda et al. 2008; Haskell et al. 2008; Lander & Jones 2009; Ciolfi et al. 2010), is that we do not require the star to be barotropic, i.e., we do not require it to have a one-to-one relation between pressure and density, p = p( ρ ). The reason for this is that neutron star matter is a multispecies fluid, in which different kinds of particles coexist, at the very least neutrons, protons and electrons. The relative abundances of these particles can be adjusted by weak interactions (such as beta decays; Urca processes in astrophysical jargon) and diffusive processes. However, thetime-scales for these processes are much longer than thetime for the fluid to reach a hydromagnetic equilibrium (force balance) state, which is likely to happen in a few Alfv´en times (ofthe order of seconds). In the process of settling to this hydromagnetic equilibrium, each fluid el- ement is free to move following the relevant forces, but it conserves its composition (relative abundances of species), which will thus not be exactly a function of pressure and density. Once the equi- librium is reached, the star will be radially stratified (Pethick 1992; Reisenegger & Goldreich 1992) to zeroth order, but the spherical symmetry (and with it the stratification) will be slightly perturbed by the presence ofthemagneticfield.
onthe angle between p IND andthe neutron spin, suggest the definition of an asymmetry which could be detected in the scattering of polarized neutrons from heavy nuclei. We have introduced this asymmetry and discussed all possible sources of background asymmetries. We have also com- pared the new NLQED amplitude with ordinary electric scattering amplitudes, particularly the one due to the po- larization ofthe neutron in an electricfield due to its quark substructure. The conclusion from this detailed analysis is that the asymmetry due to NLQED should be observable using epithermal neutrons, and even using thermalized neutrons from a hot moderator. This would be the first ever experimental confirmation of nonlinearity in electro- dynamics due to QED vacuum fluctuations. The numerical predictions for the asymmetry made in this paper were calculated using definite values for the parameters R and a. These were derived from the condition that theelectricandmagnetic fields should be below their critical values, beyond which the weak-field expansion ofthe effective Lagrangian breaks down. While the value ofthe asym- metry A for small q does not depend on R, it does depend on a as seen from Eq. (23) Hence, the numerical results given here should be correct up to a numerical factor of order one.
show a discontinuity, which by Ampere’s law Eq. (38) re- produces the original meridian current distribution, Eq. (39). Theelectric intensity is evaluated as the rotational ofthe mag- netic induction via their Maxwell connection Eq. (40), with the explicit forms of Eqs. (41)-(42); exhibiting field lines in each meridian plane with a discontinuity in the radial di- rection at the spherical boundary connected with the surface charge distribution by Gauss’ law, Eq. (43), and consistent with the relationship betweenthe charge and current ampli- tudes; the polar angle components are continuous, consistent with Faraday’s law; their field lines turn out to have the same shapes, Eqs. (44)-(45), as those ofthemagnetic induction for themagnetic dipole source Eqs. (15)-(16), allowing for the difference in their respective coefficients Eqs. (46)-(47) and Eqs. (17)-(18). Figures 5a, b, c illustrate their behaviour in the vicinity, inside and outside, ofthe source spherical sur- face, where the normal components are discontinuous, for increasing values ofthe frequency. Figures 6a, b, c illustrate theelectric intensity field lines for the TM modes ofthe reso- nant cavities determined by the vanishing ofthederivativeofthe product ofthe radial coordinate andthe ordinary spheri- cal Bessel function, or the positions ofthe extremes of such a product, Fig. 4a, guaranteeing also the vanishing ofthe ex- ternal fields, Eqs. (37) and (42); notice that thefield lines end radially at the source spherical surface where the charges are distributed.
Picture the Problem Thefield lines for theelectric dipole are shown in the sketch to the left andthefield lines for themagnetic dipole are shown in the sketch to the right. Note that, while the far fields (the fields far from the dipoles) are the same, the near fields (the fields betweenthe two charges and inside the current loop/magnetic dipole) are not, and that, in the region betweenthe two charges, theelectricfield is in the opposite direction to that ofthemagneticfield at the center ofthemagnetic dipole. It is especially important to note that while theelectricfield lines begin and terminate onelectric charges, themagneticfield lines are continuous, i.e., they form closed loops.
In the process of films deposition, the FM layer was always deposited first than the AF one. As a result, the uniax- ial anisotropy easy axis induced in FM layer is given by a combination of two mechanisms: (i) grain formation mecha- nism due to the oblique deposition and (ii) the application ofthe in-situ magneticfield during deposition. Both mecha- nisms have different microscopic contribution for the result- ant FM layer anisotropy and they compete against each other as a varies from 20 to 70 (see Fig. 1(a)). As the AF atoms are being deposited onthe FM layer, they are submitted to combined effects that control the resultant direction ofthe AF lattice magnetizations: (i) microscopic textures built onthe FM surface due to the elongated grains; (ii) the superpo- sition ofthe local field created by FM grains with the applied in-situ field; and (iii) the oblique deposition that itself might induces microstructrures characteristics ofthe IrMn. Therefore, we must to / u 6¼ / E consider in Eq. (2).
Trujillo Bueno et al. (2005) () used a theoretical modelling ofthe Hanle and Zeeman effects together with spectropolarimetric observations in the He I 10830 line to infer themagneticfield vector in a fieldof quiet-sun spicules. They used observations carried out in 2001 with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP) mounted onthe German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) at the Ob- servatorio del Teide. The height above the solar limb of their observations was of 2000 km, similar to the heights ofthe analysis conducted in this study. Their data consist of several slit images, the equivalent of drawing a “straight line” over the data presented here at each time frame at a particular height above the visible limb. Furthermore, a temporal sum was applied to increase the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), resulting in an effective cadence of almost 5 min. Their inference provided the full magnetic vector, resulting in magneticfield strength values ofthe order of 10 G. They did not discard, however, the possibility ofthe presence of much stronger magnetic fields in future observations, as is reported here.
The introduction ofthe Goldstone boson field π(x, t) to parametrize the breaking oftime translation invariance has invigorated our understanding of cosmic inflation from the effective field theory (EFT) point of view [12, 13]. In particular, it has led to a reliable model independent description ofthe generation of primordial curvature perturbations, without the need of a detailed knowledge ofthe ultraviolet physics (UV) taking place at very short distances (or sub-horizon scales). In this scheme, curvature perturbations are intimately related to the Goldstone boson field, whose action appears highly constrained by the symmetries ofthe original ultraviolet UV-complete action. In particular, the unknown UV-physics is parametrized by self-interactions ofthe Goldstone boson that non-linearly relate field operators at different orders in perturbation theory. This framework has of- fered a powerful approach to analyze the large variety of infrared observables predicted by inflation, including the prediction of non-trivial signals in the primordial power spectrum and bispectrum [8, 14–25].
Prior to the Raman measurements the NWs morphology and their environment are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). If we want good and reliable Raman measurements it is crucial to find isolated NWs with a clean environment. Firstly, the absence of foreign particles ensures a “clean” Raman spectrum, with Raman radiation coming only from the NW. Secondly, the composition ofthe NW varies along its axis, then the measurement method will consist of a longitudinal series of Raman spectra, recorded every 100 nm along the NW axis. This permits to easily locate the NW ends, where the signal falls off, andthe presence ofthe HJ when the spectrum changes dramatically. The presence of other NWs in the vicinity ofthe one being studied could interfere with the measurement if they are close enough.
The Raman lidar model LR331D400 is described in detail by [10,11]. A Nd:YAG laser generates laser pulses at 355, 532 and 1064 nm with a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The laser beam is vertically transmitted into the atmosphere. The backscattered radiation is collected by a Cassegrain telescope with a primary mirror of 400mm‐diameter and transmitted to the signal detection unit. The backscattered signals are detected at the three emitted wavelengths, and also at 387 and 607 nm resulting from Raman
Themagneticfield strength was measured using a magneticfield-to-voltage transducer with an integrated Hall probe. The sensor is a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor one-axis Hall probe (model I1A) integrated into a transducer (YM12-3-5-5T) (SENIS GmbH, Zurich, Switzerland). The Hall element in the probe occupies an area of 150 μm × 150 μm, providing a very high spatial resolution and angular precision. The Hall probe measures along a single axis perpendicular to its surface. All measurements represent the strength ofthemagneticfield vector (usually represented with the international symbol B) along the axis perpendicular to the base surface ofthe cylinder. An integrated temperature sensor onthe probe provides temperature compensation for better accuracy. The sensor is also protected against inductive currents that could disturb the measurement. The decay ofthe static magneticfield with distance was measured by increasing the distance betweenthe Hall probe andthe magnet surface, keeping the base ofthe sensor parallel to the surface ofthe magnet. For M60qr we performed measurements both onthe cylinder axis and parallel to the cylinder axis. Note that because themagneticfield is normal to surface ofthe magnet only along the cylinder axis, our measurements parallel to the cylinder axis represent a lower bound ofthe actual strength ofthemagneticfield. Themagnetic permeability of human tissues is similar to air or vacuum , so any differences in magneticfield strength between air and human tissues are negligible for the purpose of tSMS.
The ocean acoustic tomography  is a technique to measure a distribution of temperatures over large regions ofthe ocean by accurately measuring propagation timeof sound waves that propagate through the ocean. A number of transducers consisting of a sound source and a receiver are installed around the sea area to be measured. Propagation times of sound waves that propagate between these transducers are measured accurately. Measured changes in propagation time are converted to changes in temperature distribution through inverse problem analysis. In these analyses, the propagation path of an eigenray is usually assumed to be unchanged, andthe difference in propagation time for a pulse is converted to the difference in temperature. However, the ocean contains many inhomogeneous media such as sea current, oceanic front, eddy, and microstructure. Those inhomogeneities have strong effects onthe paths of sound wave propagation, making it difficult to process signals for the ocean acoustic tomography, and particularly to identify eigenrays.
Picture the Problem We can use the expression for the period of this spring-and-mass oscillator to find the spring constant κ . We can express the induced current in the loop by relating it to the induced emf and relating the induced emf to the velocity ofthe loop. Knowing that the loop is executing SHM, we can express its velocity as a sinusoidal function oftime. We can use the expression for themagnetic force on a current-carrying wire in a magneticfield to express the damping force acting onthe loop.
where ↑ and ↓ indicate the spin up and down degrees of freedom. The rest ofthe symbols have the same meaning ofthe Hamiltonian in Eq. (1.7). In this ap- proximation the two-body interaction is reduced to a single body self-interaction, like an external field. Eq. (1.8) Hamiltonian is given referred to a ground state of Cooper pairs presented below. The propagating bands of this Hamiltonian are shown in Fig. 1.1. They can be interpreted physically as the excitation energies ofthe quasiparticles not bounded to a Cooper pair (where ∆ is the Cooper pair breaking energy). These quasiparticles have simultaneous nonzero components ofthe particle and hole degrees of freedom. An electron-like quasiparticle has a greater electronic component while in a hole-like one is the other way around. No propa- gating states are found inside the gap because in non-topological superconductors no quasiparticle excitations can be found for energies lower than the Cooper pair binding energy. Superconductivity in combination with the Rashba and Zeeman effects will make the superconductor topological allowing a perfect mixture of both degrees of freedom at zero energy. In this manner, the Majorana neutral quasi- particle can be obtained. The kind of Hamiltonian presented in Eq. (1.8) is called Bogoliubov-deGennes Hamiltonian. Here, it is written using second quantization notation although it is equivalent up to a basis change to the more familiar version shown below in Eq. (1.12).
In order to study on land the features ofthe main aeromagnetic anomalies, new total fieldmagnetic intensity measurements have been acquired with a proton precision GSM9 magnetometer with 1 nT precision. The position at each station was given by a GPS Garmin e-Trex with 5 m accuracy. The altitude is obtained using a barometric altimeter with 0.5 m precision. The distance between measurement sta- tions is around 500 m. Themagnetic anomalies have been determined after the correction of diurnal varia- tions, taking into account the ROA (San Fernando,
Previous hypotheses are consistent with theoretical frameworks such as the Expectancy theory (Vroom, 1964) andthe Collective effort model (CEM; Karau & Williams, 1993). Expectancy theory andthe Collective effort model (Expectancy theory in a collectivistic setting) state that individuals will be willing to exert effort on a collective task, if they believe their effort will result in performance that is instrumental in obtaining valued outcomes. If the individual believes performance on a task and a good relationship with co-members depends on his or her individual effort and sees this task and / or the relationship as an instrument in obtaining an ultimate valued outcome (e.g. better pay, job satisfaction, recognition, acceptance from co-workers or a sense of belonging in the group) it would be expected that this individual be motivated to work harder. As a result, Social loafing will be less contingent on expectations on co-workers andthe relationship between ECW and SL will be weaker with high Task and Relationship meaningfulness and stronger with low Task and Relationship meaningfulness.
continue into the ambient plasma. The currents required to deflect the beam are proportional to its kinetic energy, and inversely proportional to the curvature radius ofthe deflected trajectories andthe intensity ofthefield. Provided that the background density is much lower than the beam density (typically several orders of magnitude), fulfillment of current continuity ∇ · j = 0 demands very large velocities outside ofthe plume. Therefore, electron inertial effects and collisions will strongly limit the value ofthe cross-beam j that can develop, and hence the magnitude ofthemagnetic force j × B that deflects the plume. The effect is difficult to assess from our simple axisymmetric model, requiring a more detailed analysis. Ideally, in the case of zero ambient density, a clean plasma edge, and α = 90 deg, when themagneticfield tries to deflect ions and electrons in opposite directions a strong electricfield E ' −u i × B would appear to avoid charge