All the students were non-English native speaking students who had been studying the language for a large number of years. However, their level of fluency varied, since very often they had not been able to practice the language in a real English environment. The objective was to analyse whether: 1., through the use of English in the class, combining all the skills (listening to the lecturer, classmates, videos,…, reading instructions, case studies, bibliography, writing assignments, blogs, news, oral presentation); 2., including mostly par- ticipative work such as simulations, games, presentations, role plays, etc.; and 3., with the use of new technologies (video making, blogs, games, prototypes…), the students acquired different skills, such as: structuring their speech better, communicating better, both written and orally, became more effectivein teamwork, debating controversial issues, etc. The study also focused on whether, in general, the atmosphere in class improved, whether students acquired better skills for relating with others, whether attitudes towards working with people from different cultures were enhanced, etc. A total of 37 items were assessed.
If we analyse this distinction, it is reminiscent of the one postulated by Saussure in 1916, between language and speech. According to Saussure, language is the system used as a means of communication. It lies in the subconscious of individuals and is comprised of signs. Speech is the realisation of the communicative act of using language. It is the voluntary and social act of the speaker, and depends on the context in which he or she is communicating (Saussure, 1916). From our point of view and that of many experts, communicationsuccessin a second language lies ineffectivecommunication, and not in the formal correctness of language (Boonkit, 2010; Graddol, 2006). This effectivecommunication can be achieved with proper use of language without involving its perfect use with no mistakes. However, we have to ask ourselves if effectivecommunication occurring in a less-than-perfect second language meets the objectives of functionality or, conversely, if both communicative and linguistic quality are required to achieve functionality. The business environment, in which we have conducted the research presented here and analysed effectivecommunication and quality with which it occurs through the evaluation of such oral production.
On the other hand, the Swiss are known for their commendable work ethics and in fact, their attitude is almost superior in nature. Swiss communication style depends greatly on personality, but they are generally polite and direct incommunication. The Swiss tend to be private people and asking personal questions is not common. It is not polite to be too close during conversation at least an arm´s length should be maintained. If you accidentally brush someone on the train or touch on the bus, it is generally considered polite to excuse yourself. Families and friends often touch when speaking but it is rare for acquaintances to do so. It is certainly not accepted inbusiness settings. Eye contact is a sign of respect and should be maintained, regardless of whom they are speaking with. Direct eye contact is not just acceptable, it‘s required. Not having eye contact with a person, no matter if it‘s a boss, a child, a grocery store clerk etc., is considered rude. Titles are very important to Swiss. They address people by their full, correct title, no matter how extraordinarily long that title may seem to foreigners. This is also true when addressing a letter.
Background: Despite well known worldwide differenc- es in hepatocellular carcinoma incidence, which re- flect different risk profiles, current recommendation of surveillance with ultrasound and alpha-fetoprotein twice-a-year has been restricted to cirrhotic patients. To evaluate the generalizability of this recommenda- tion, we reviewed the clinical charts of hepatocellular carcinoma cases in a Mexican scenario. To evaluate efficiency, we performed a literature based cost-effec- tiveness analysis. Methods: Charts pertaining to 174 consecutive patients with histologically proven hepa- tocellular carcinoma, seen at a tertiary health care centre were analysed. A decision tree, based on the surveillance and recall algorithm of the European As- sociation for the Study of the Liver was constructed. Ultrasound and/or alpha-fetoprotein, performed ev- ery six or twelve months were the diagnostic alterna- tives, and accurate diagnoses, direct medical costs and cost-effectiveness ratios were the outcomes of interest. Results: Male:female ratio was 1.2:1, underlying liver disease was secondary to alcohol in 44% and to hepa- titis C virus in 26%, documented cirrhosis was present in 42%. Cost-effectiveness ratios for twice-a- year ultrasound and alpha-fetoprotein ranged from $303.09 to $346.22 U.S. dollars per accurate diagnosis, and for annual ultrasound from $115.86 to $116.42 U.S. dollars. Conclusions: Male gender, hepatitis C and cirrhosis were not predominant characteristics in our series. If a hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance program were to be instituted in our setting, or where
tem biology approach to identify early gene signatures that correlate with, and predict the later immune response in humans vaccinated with the live at- tenuated yellow fever vaccine YV-17D, or with the infl uenza vaccines. He explained and discussed the role of system biology in the prediction of vac- cine immunogenicity, particularly amongst high risk populations such as infants or the elderly. Then, Dr. Ennio de Gregorio (Novartis Vaccines and Diagnos- tics, Italy) talked about the immune profi ling of vac- cine adjuvants, basically the oil-in-water emulsion MF59 and the novel TLR-dependent agonists Small Molecule Immune Potentiators (SMIPs). MF59 in- jection promotes the local expression of chemokine genes leading to the recruitment of innate immune cells and the resulting antigen uptake by DCs and their migration to the proximal lymph nodes. This process is independent of NLRp3 infl ammasome and type I interferons but depends on MyD88. The goal now is to identify the relative contribution of different components of MF59 to its adjuvanticity. In addition, Dr. Ennio de Gregorio presented data of optimized formulations of SMIPs as promising adjuvants for safe and effi cacious vaccines.
As previously mentioned, one of the principal goals of franchisors in the 21st century is to ensure the survival of their chains. They can achieve this goal in two ways: by developing trustful relationships [27–29] or by avoiding conflict with franchisees [7,30–32]. To analyze how franchisors develop trustful relationships, studies have focused on measures of relationship quality , the franchisee’s perceived relationship value , the moderators of the relationship , interpretation and perception asymmetries between franchisor and franchisee , the control mechanisms adopted to avoid free-riding and opportunistic behaviors , and the role of the wider business network . To analyze how franchisors avoid conflict with franchisees, studies have focused on the influence of investments and the franchisor’s support [7,30,31] and the effects of the allocation of decision rights . Grunnhagen and Dorsch  found that the allocation of rights for decisions regarding local advertising, personnel, and merchandising—variety of products and store display—improve franchisor-franchisee relations. Franchise-specific aspects, however, such as the economic clauses in the contract—up-front franchise fees, royalties, and the initial investment—can also encourage a trustful relationship between franchisor and franchisee and avoid franchisor-franchisee conflict, which jeopardizes the chain’s survival.
Our work is located in qualitative research; it counts with two main characteristics that mainly belong to this kind of study: First, we based on Johnson’s words the first characteristic (2004) who says that it should be a "research relying primarily on the collection of qualitative data" (p.359) On this research this qualitative data was collected by using some field notes and from observations of what happened in the classroom, then we used a semi-structural interview. In addition, we carried out some observations during the teaching practicum, the information obtained from them were the guide to understand the matter of using oralcommunication and interaction to enhance the foreign language learning process. Bearing in mind the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and the different characteristics of the interaction carried during English language classes; also, linked to qualitative data and its relevance for this research, the analysis of the facts obtained through the application of the different qualitative research instruments gave us the final findings and answers to our research question.
In the national school of Kazakhstan, during the dictionary work, preference is given to such types of work: the formulation of a certain sentence in other words, the selection of synonyms, work with the meanings of words with the help of a dictionary, work with the methods of word formation to understand the semantics, explanation with the help of examples of the meanings of idioms, phraseological phrases, self-identification of signs of style. Attention to the search for information using electronic resources to compare the native culture and the studied contributes to the understanding of unity and national identity. For example, commenting on the cases of different laughs in the Russian language and native, students are imbued with an understanding of the sound symbolism of the native language, in Kazakh, for example, the relationship between the signifier and the signified gave rise to an abundance of ideophones with their sound semantics (Khusainov, 1988). One of the common ways’ students explain the meaning of words is a contextual approach.
researcher was in charge of observing to gather data that will allow the researcher to reflect and make a further plan to continue with the cycle. The study was carried out with the participation of 25 tenth grade students from Santa Clara school and myself as teacher- researcher and text developer. To gather the corresponding data, it was necessary to use three data gathering instruments: surveys, field notes and students’ artifacts. Following the purpose of this investigation, I developed two workshops characterized by being focused on students’ local problematic situations; that is to say, problems that they mainly face in their daily basis especially, at their school. Besides, all the activities planned for each workshop were totally framed within problem-based learning and the second language acquisition principles. The pedagogical intervention, because of its design, offers students a variety of engaging, relevant, and contextualized situations for them to enhance oralcommunication inside and outside the classroom. For the data analysis, a grounded approach was employed. In view of that, the data derived from the development of this intervention allowed me to understand and explain how problem-based learning principles included in the developed contextualized materials
The mastery of a foreign language is very helpful to college students. This paper aims to clarify the psychological cognition and its formation mechanism in English reading comprehension. First, a questionnaire survey was carried out in ten universities of both liberal arts and science in Zhejiang Province, China. The survey data were analysed systematically, in the light of the grade, gender and other factors of the respondents. The results show that college students of different grades differ greatly in psychological cognition of English reading comprehension; the cognition level gradually decreases from grade 1 to grade 3 and rebounds in grade 4 under the employment pressure; the English score of college students is positively correlated with the level of psychological cognition; during English reading comprehension, there are certain differences in psychological cognition between males and females, and the cognitive level of liberal art students is higher than that of science students. The research findings throw new lights on the relationship between foreign language learning and psychological cognition.
So what trends can be seen in retrospective? Globally speaking, a first trend to identify is that from optimism on student learning in the early studies towards a more realistic and nuanced view, the latter acknowledging the subtlety of the relationships between the use of digital technology, the student’s thinking, and his paper-and-pencil work. A second trend is the focus not only on learning but also on teaching. The importance of the teacher is widely recognized and models such as TPACK, instrumental orchestration and the pedagogical map help to un- derstand what is different in teaching with technology and to investigate how teachers can engage in a process of professional development. The third and final trend I would like to mention here concerns theoretical development. Whereas many early studies mainly use theoretical views that are specific for and dedicat- ed to the use of digital technology (e.g., Pea’s notions of amplifier and reorganiz- er in the Heid study), recent studies often include more general theories on math- ematics education or learning in general, and also combine different theoretical perspectives (e.g., see the work by Bakker, using Pierce, RME, and other theoret- ical views).
Two key elements of critique are intent and critical thinking. Intent has been previously clarified, and critical thinking can be a complicated concept. Critical thinking is defined as “the process of taking a statement and determining if it is true or false” (Connor and Irizarry, 2015, p. 8). This type of thinking leads into formulating a form of analysis, which results in this form of feedback, called Critique. Critical thinking in this context is the examination of what is being design against the objectives for its creation. And the “delivery” is how you present your critical thinking to others whom you are working. Critical thinking also plays a key role in self-evaluation. Analyzing one’s own work requires toggling between the two mental processes. Creative thinking, which deals with generating ideas and putting together: and analytical thinking, which entails deciphering whether what they are creating is meeting the goal of the design. Most experienced designers are able to master this, but it needs to be taught and provide opportunities to apply and practice these concepts in a group setting as well.
Two minutes and thirty four seconds was the time I took delivering this instruction. According to checklist 4, we can realize there is an improvement in comparison to the previous instruments. Even though one student asked me a question when finishing the instruction, I found the way to solve her doubt immediately by modeling the instruction. Besides, students did not ask questions about the task after receiving the instructions. In my opinion, this was because the steps were written on the board once I gave the instructions. I decided to do this because "learners have only a limited attention span" (Ur, 2007) so they could tend to remind easily the steps of the task by looking at the board. In addition,
progress for some time, because the social reality associated with community interpreting services is changing at a dramatic pace in many countries around the world. And the context of this discussion, the attempt to describe what ‘being a third participant’ consists of, is where the value of the metaphor of translation can be measured, combining the ideas of Round (2005:54) and D’Hulst (1992:38), not so much because of what it tells us about translation itself, but because of how it has helped to advance research in this field, by relating the ‘thème’ and the ‘phore’, by exploring the new horizons to which this comparison between translation and its metaphors leads us. The second statement, also related to this, is that research carried out during the last 15 or 20 years, thanks to the cooperation between academic and public institutions, seems to confirm some opinions and intuitions shared by many of the people who are in contact on a daily basis with community interpreting services: service providers, interpreters and users. In all of them, the terms used to describe the communicative interaction in which interpreters participate, to refer to the tasks performed by the interpreters and to establish or assess the abilities and skills they need in their professional lives, seem to be influenced by the metaphor of the mediator. And this is true in the three fields we consider in this paper: research, practise and training. In the first field, scholars have been trying to find the appropriate framework to describe the role inhabited by the interpreter, turning to sociology and psychology and using terms such as ‘cooperation’, ‘coparticipation’, ‘conciliator’, ‘gatekeeper’ or ‘advocacy’, which clearly reflect the assumption that interpreters are not mere machine translating machines but active and visible participants. In the second field, the perception that service providers, users and interpreters may have about the role of interpreters is related to tasks such as ‘explaining cultural differences’, ‘simplifying technical language’ or ‘omitting or summarizing utterances’, just to give a few examples of how they mediate in the interaction. Finally, training reflects also this perception of the interpreter as a mediator using terms such as ‘turn-taking abilities in conversation’, ‘interpersonal skills’ or in the importance given to the use of the first or the third person.
communication skills. The participants in this research were tenth graders, which presented difficulties with terminology, intonation, syntax, written, and oral production at a public school in Ciudad Bolívar, south Bogotá (social strata one). The researcher detected that the dictionary was the only instrument that the students had to learn and express their ideas in the Second language, hence they felt frustrated. The researcher supported her project using Task-based learning activities. During this study, the researcher collected the information through class recordings, field notes, and interviews for a period of three months. The analysis showed that the students enjoyed working in groups. Although they did not have clear ideas in terms of the role in the groups, this strategy encouraged students’ confidence and built trust among them; at the same time, cooperation resulted from the students’ interaction, which played an important part of the process of learning a foreign language. Besides, students felt motivated, comfortable and ready to do tasks that prepared them for the real world which allowed the development of micro speaking skills, which were adapted to the students’ context. This study was applicable to my research because it focused on materials development to improve oralcommunication and used cooperative learning as a strategy to stimulate students’ oralcommunication skills.
In order to present a possible solution to the most notorious difficulties of the agro-industrial sector in Colombia in terms of inputs issues, product sales, land market, financial education and improvement of quality services, ministries of ICT and agriculture from Colombia government call permanently to create useful applications in agriculture . In consideration of the above, the purpose of this project is to generate a mobile application to become a communication platform between producers and buyers of agricultural products without interme- diaries, which accelerate the commercialization process as a critical point in the chain agribusiness value.
complementarios, y no por su potencial como espacio de diálogo con los diferentes stakeholders. Según se desprende del European Communication Monitor (2014), esto sucede, entre otras razones, porque muchos profesionales de la comunicación no tienen adquiridas las habilidades digitales, sobre todo a la hora de incentivar la conversación en la comunidad online. Así lo reconocen los propios encuestados. Sólo un tercio afirma tener competencias de nivel avanzado en este ámbito, y a pesar del boom de los medios de comunicación social, esta cifra apenas ha crecido en los últimos tres años.
As a result, teams should be considered complex, dynamic and adaptable entities which embed themselves in multilevel systems and take into account the individual, the team and the wider organization. Hackman (1987) defi ned this ecological system as the INPUT-PROCESS-OUTPUT model of teamwork. This describes the essential components needed to increase the effectiveness of teamwork. It also explains its process and the cognitive, affective and behavioural aspects that mobilize it and the time that it requires (Cohen, & Bailey, 1997; González-Romá, 2008; Ilgen, Hollenbeck, Johnson, & Jundt, 2005; Kozlowski, & Ilgen, 2006, Rousseau, Aubé, Chiocchio, Boudrias, & Morin, 2008, Gil, Rico, & Sánchez-Manzanares, 2008). Working in a team is not easy; it requires certain knowledge and certain skills and attitudes that allow the individual to adapt to specifi c situations within a given context and to deal with a variety of different situations as effi ciently, independently and fl exibly as possible. If individuals do not posssess the required knowledge, they will fi nd it diffi cult to acquire the skills and abilities needed to be able to work with others in a cooperative and collaborative way. As a result, they will also probably fi nd diffi culties when working in organizations that employ this way of working or others based on this type of system.