2. LARGE AMOUNT OFINFORMATION To understand how easy is to create information, it is necessary to analyse the social media, for example Twitter, which has more than 90 millions of tweets per day, which represents a total of 8 terabytes ofinformation everyday. The informationof web transactions has increased significantly, nowadays, Wal-Mart, the largest retailer in the world, administrates one million of transactions by hour which increases a data base valued on 2.5 petabytes. An example in the scientific area is the collider of particles CERN, which can eve create 40 terabytes ofinformation per second during the experiments. In networking, the information registered by a system of research and network management can reach terabytes in two days.
measurement points around the world. Satellite measurements have also been used for this purpose. Nowadays with the inclusion of active sensor as Radar and Lidar in satellite, these techniques become a strong tool for studying the profiles of atmospherics components such as clouds and aerosols. Lidar is able to profile a large fraction of the atmosphere being important for detecting multiple layers of clouds which contributes to study cloud radiative effects in depth [5-8].
Carpo shows how the evolutionary process of object manufacture began with artisanal elaboration, handmade process, with the implications of the difference and variety of each object. Then came machine manufacture, using patterns, molds, stamps or matrixes, with the resulting equality between all objects from the same matrix, inaugurating the era of mass production and standardization, which would become crucial to modernity. Digital technology, however, adopts another method because of the fact that the abstract processingofinformation allows each digitally made object to be really unique, moreover, possible variations do not pose any additional cost to the process.
The second suite of ToMoCoMD-CARDD consists in a collection of molecular descriptor calculating modules that is using relation frequency matrices, molecular fingerprints and a pool of the most relevant indices reported in the literature such as DIVATI (DIscrete DeriVAtive Type Indices), GT- STAF (Graph Theoretical Thermodynamic STAte Functions), FREMESSA (FREquency-type Matrices Extended claSSical Algorithms), FREMXALF (FREquency-type MatriX-based ALgebraic Forms), MOLFIP (MOLecular FIngerPrints), and DESPOOL (DEScriptor POOLs). For the handling of the chemical structures and the calculation of the atomic properties, Chemical Development Kit (CDK) library has been used. The framework contains a useful API library, that permits an easily integration with other software for chemo- informatics applications. ToMoCoMD demonstrated the capacity to offer solution for large spectra of problems. Some examples for small molecule are the prediction of tyrosinase inhibitors using the atom linear indices , prediction of aquatic toxicity , and predicting Caco-2 cell permeability . In the case of macromolecules, the tool has been used to predict the protein stability effects of a complete set of alanine substitutions in the Are repressor [59, 60], and to build the nucleic acid QSAR models .
In this case, the values of the parameters of the filter (Eq. 3.1) are not determined by looking at the stability of the recovered signal as we did in the previous chapter. Since now we are dealing with binary messages this give us a better way of choosing the parameters. First, the values of a are given by the requirements of the filtering procedure; for the first pass a has to be large enough to filter the fast frequencies of the chaos, and in the second pass it should give a diffraction length of the typical length of a bit. Since we are not trying to determine the exact length of every bit, but the sequence of bits, small variations of a in either of the steps will not change the final result significantly. Then, since the mean value of the message will be in general close to 0.5 we choose this value for r in the first step. Finally, the value of r for the second step is adjusted to maximize the Q factor. We also choose b = 1 since as was already stated in the previous chapter, changes of this value does not change significatively the results. In Fig. 4.3 we show the Quality factor as a function of the message modulation amplitude . We can see that, applying the GLE twice, performs much better that with a single pass with large diffusion (which is basically a linear filter). While the performance is not as good as the authorized receiver, it is still enough to decode the message if the value of is not too small. Performance decreases with , and approaching ∼ 0.02 (which is of the order of the chaos fluctuations of the bit mean) the nonlinear filtering method recovers only part of the message. However, it should be kept in mind, that reproducing part of the message is already a security threat. So, to prevent decoding using a nonlinear filter like the one considered here, the amplitude of the message should be of the order or smaller than the chaos fluctuations of the bit mean.
In Chapter 3 we studied the dynamics of a semiconductor laser under the influence of two optical delayed feedbacks. The delays were cho- sen at different scales, where the second delay time is orders of magni- tude larger than the first delay time. We studied the dynamics by us- ing a 2D pseudo-space representation of the evolution of the intensity emitted by the semiconductor laser, which allowed to differentiate dy- namical regimes and identify key features. We focused on two dynam- ical regimes, one characterized by Spiral Phase Defectss and another by Defect-mediated Turbulence. In our experiments we did not observe PD, and we discussed how this could be due to the very restricted conditions needed to observe them. DT was observed in a broad parameter range, which allowed for a more detailed analysis. The system exhibited spatio- temporal chaos over a large parameter range, and consecutive represen- tations allowed to see how the dynamical structures evolved over long periods of time. We also studied the DT dynamics using intensity distri- butions and spectral analysis. The spectral analysis showed the spectral components of the dynamics exhibit an exponential decay for low bias currents of the semiconductor laser. As bias current of the semiconductor laser was increased, the spectral components exhibited a double power law that merged into a single power law for higher bias currents. This research showed how the semiconductor laser can exhibit new dynamical regimes by simply adding an extra delay to the system. Furthermore, the research showed the connection between delay systems and spatially ex- tended systems, and that homogeneous spatial systems could be studied in the future thanks to delay systems with multiple delays.
Gemini IRAF package. The GMOS data was written as multi-extension FITS files with three data extensions, one for each of the three CCDs in the instrument. We performed the initial processing by extension (that is, by CCD), waiting until after nod and shuffle subtrac- tion to mosaic the extensions into a single array. First, an overscan value was subtracted and unused portions of the array were trimmed. As the CCD was dithered after each nod and shuffle observation in order to reduce the effects of charge traps, a separate flat field was ob- tained for each science observation. The flat field images were fit with a low-order spline for normalization and then each science frame was flattened with the appropri- ate normalized flat. Both “A” and “B” nods in a given frame were flattened with the same flat. The Gemini IRAF package gnscombine was used to combine all the observations of a given light echo while also performing the subtraction of the nod and shuffle components. The individual extensions were then mosaicked into a single array.
All elements for the reading and processingof all needed data (including Satellite, NWP model data and Cloudinformation for the AMV height assignment using NWC SAF/Cloud Type and Cloud Top Temperature and Height products), for the running of all parts of the algorithm, and for the definition of the AMV output in several formats (BUFR, HDF5 or McIDAS MD files) are included in SAFNWC/MSG software package or at NWC SAF website. The user does not need then any additional elements to calculate and use the AMVs provided by HRW product.
The student also had the opportunity to collaborate with the project “Análisis de Datos Basados en Aprendizaje Automático y Sistemas Inteligentes de Adquisición de Datos: Modelos Avanzados para Entornos de Fusion” (Data Analysis based on Machine Learning and Intelligent Data Acquisition Systems: Advanced Models for Fusion Environments) for the development of a disruption predictor and its integration in JET. Disruptions are one of the major problems in present tokamaks. This phenomenon is currently unavoidable, and it produces large thermal loads, strong electromagnetic forces, and runaway electrons that can severely damage the machine components. Disruption detrimental effects scale with the plasma stored energy, and this fact has to be carefully considered in the operation of current tokamaks (as JET, or KSTAR) as well as in the design and development of future tokamaks devices (ITER, DEMO). Therefore, disruption predictors are needed to apply the mitigation techniques in time. Several plasma disruption mitigation techniques have been developed and tested in current fusion devices, as massive gas injection, killer pellet injection, or Electron Synchrotron Resonance Heating injection. However, these techniques need to be triggered with enough time (> 10 ms in the JET case) prior to the disruption in order to be effective. This leads to the need of accurate and reliable disruptions predictors. Nevertheless, the physical phenomena leading to plasma
We have con ﬁ rmed from high-resolution spectra that the eclipsing binary system OGLE LMC 562.05.9009 contains a classical Cepheid pulsating with a period of 2.988 days in orbit with a stable secondary component. We performed the analysis of our extensive spectroscopic and photometric datasets in the same way as described in our previous analysis of the OGLE- LMC-CEP-0227 system by P13, and have derived very accurate masses ( to 0.8% ) and radii ( 0.7% ) for both the Cepheid and its non-pulsating companion star, which has a nearly identical mass and radius as the Cepheid. The orbit is highly eccentric with e = 0.61 and a very long period of 1550 days, or 4.2 years. Our solution de ﬁ nes the orbital radial velocity curves of both components, disentangled from the pulsational velocity variations of the Cepheid, extremely well, as well as the pulsational radial velocity curve of the Cepheid. Our analysis yields the second precise determination of the p-factor of a Cepheid in a binary so far in the literature, and was used to determine the radius variation of the Cepheid over its pulsation cycle. Our model reproduces the observed light curves extremely well, particularly the primary eclipse when the companion star transits in front of the Cepheid. We calculated evolutionary tracks for the two component stars in the system and ﬁ nd that a isochrone for an age of 205 Myr ﬁ ts the observed positions of both stars in the luminosity-effective temperature plane, arguing for the same age of the Cepheid and its red giant companion.
classification is a special case of function approximation where the function’s output y is restricted to one of M (M ≥ 2) discrete values (or classes). A neural network for solving classification problems typically has N input neurons and M output neurons. The kth output neuron (1 ≤ Κ ≤ Μ ) is trained to output one (while all the other output neurons are trained to output zero) for patterns belonging to the kth class. A single output neuron suffices in the case of problems that involve two category classifications. The multilayer perceptron facilitates the classification of nonlinear problems; the more hidden layers in a neural network, the simpler it will be to isolate the problem (Figure 4).
aerosols and haze, our algorithms overestimate significantly sky cover, due to whitening near the sun and the horizon (Fig. 5A, 5D). These whitening pixels have the same characteristics ofcloud pixels. For that reason, we need an extra information to feed our neural network, in order to distinguish this type of pixels. One solution for this problem is the following strategy. Taking three different images at the same time: original image (Fig. 5A), image with green gain x10 (Fig. 5B), and image with gamma factor x0.1 (Fig. 5C). CCD sensor uses twice as many green elements as red or blue to mimic the physiology of the human eye. Retina has more rod cells than cone cells and rod
A biorefinery can be a process, a plant, a facility or a cluster of facilities that integrates upstream, midstream and downstream processingof biomass into a range of valuable products (Jong and Jungmeier 2015). Different processes such as mechanical pretreatments (extraction, fractionation, separation) or chemical pretreatments (acid and alkaline hydrolysis, delignification) and thermochemical (steam explosion), and enzymatic and microbial conversions (enzymatic saccharification, fermentation, and anaerobic digestion) can be included (Sannigrahi et al. 2010; Jong and Jungmeier 2015). It is worth to mention that a well-developed biorefinery system must be economically driven based on innovative and cost-effective use of biomass to produce both biobased products and bioenergy. In addition, it should contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and minimize the generation of waste materials (Jong and Jungmeier 2015).
Bank of standards, parameters and norms of scientific and technological communication: the aim here is to gather in one search site the instruments that explain the best practices and regula- tions for the life cycle and editorial quality at an international level, as well as a tutorial service ac- companying the hypertextual markup of digital publications that meets international standards. It includes services of validation of technical regulations on bibliographic citations, among others. It also includes a Continuous Survey on Editorial Policies used to collect and disseminate es- sential information necessary to make decisions related to publication policies such as: the rights that authors have regarding an article, paper, chapter or book published by an Argentine editor. Semantic bank: it provides the infrastructure for the development of services of content description
The effects of signal filtering on the processing gain in acousto-optic correlators (AOC) in direct- sequence spread-spectrum receivers are considered. Different filters are considered. The results are given in terms of the code rate to the filter bandwidth. Analytical expressions are derived for ideal AOC’s. For real AOC’s results are obtained from numerical simulation.
Most of the previous approaches use vision algorithms or sophisticated sen- sors to detect road lanes. But in city environments nowadays, traffic and cars parked on both sides of the streets make it almost impossible to automatize this kind of approach, as is shown inn Figure 1.4. Furthermore, the streets are full of shadows produces by trees, buildings, and other city structures causing big variations in brightness in the images. These kinds of visual effects are usually detected as occlusions by visual algorithms. Public transports take the same path every hour and every day.
In the case of groups with smaller amountsofinformation about rivals, “no show groups”, the results show that for the total of periods played, t ∈ [ ] 1, T , the dynamics through which firms adjust their individual quantities is explained by both variables. That is to say, firms observe both the optimum quantity they should have produced in t − 1 and the mean quantity produced by their opponents. Here, two points must be made clear. First, in every case the sign of the estimated coefficients was the one expected, and estimated coefficients were significant at 1%. Second, the Wald test did not allow us to reject the hypothesis of equality of the coefficients for markets 1, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8. 33 Regarding the adjustment in 1 ,
The object (since then simply known as Sanduleak’s star) was included by Allen (1980) among the symbiotic star candidates in the LMC, in spite of some conflicting evidence that is still waiting for a suitable explanation, above all, the absence of any late-type stellar signatures in the optical spectra. IUE observations unveiled further peculiar spectral features, suggesting a possible similarity in the far-UV between Sanduleak’s star, η Carinae, and SN1987A (Michalitsianos et al. 1989). Earlier work found evidence of (1) episodic mass outflow, as indicated by the asymmetry of nitrogen line profiles; (2) extreme departures from normal cosmic values of nitrogen relative to carbon and oxygen (i.e., N/C ∼ 150, N/O ∼ 70); and (3) an electron temperature T e difficult to reconcile with pure
xml:lang is the preferable means of language identification. To ease the usage of xml:lang , a declaration for this attribute is part of the non-normative XML DTD and XML Schema document for ITS markup declarations. There is no declaration of xml:lang in the non- normative RELAX NG document for ITS, since in RELAX NG it is not necessary to declare attributes from the XML namespace. Applying the Language Information data category to xml:lang attributes using global rules is not necessary, since xml:lang is the standard way to specify language informationin XML. xml:lang is defined in terms of RFC 3066 or its successor ([BCP47] is the "Best Common Practice" for language identification and encompasses [RFC 3066] and its successors.)