PDF superior Pleodendron costaricense (Canellaceae), a new species for Costa Rica

Pleodendron costaricense (Canellaceae), a new species for Costa Rica

Pleodendron costaricense (Canellaceae), a new species for Costa Rica

Why, one might now ask, did it take us so long, to figure out the family of this plant? First, it wasn’t really very long, by “Takhtajanian” standards; the first collection of Takhtajania perrieri remained without definite placement as to family, as well as undescribed, for 54 years (Schatz 2000). More to the point, however, is the tautological observation that we can’t know what we don’t know. Canellaceae had never been found in Costa Rica, are known from Mesoamerica - and there, essentially only from the Yucatan of Mexico - only by one species, Canella winterana (L.) Gaertn., none of us trying to figure out the mystery hardly remembered having heard of the family, let alone had ever had direct experience with it, and we hadn’t yet invited our “Internet” colleagues into the search. Thus, in retrospect, we came to a solution of our mystery as quickly as we did, in part because of experience, and in part, as is often the case with such matters, because of luck.
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8 Lee mas

A new species of anole lizard, genus Norops (Squarnata: Polychrotidae), from the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica

A new species of anole lizard, genus Norops (Squarnata: Polychrotidae), from the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica

Comparisons: N. pandoensis is a member of the fuscoauratus species group. Lizards of this group are small to moderate in size, have small head scales, small dorsal scales, mostIy smooth ventrals, long tails that are round to subcylindrical in cross-section. Members of this group usually have an inscriptional rib for­ mula of 3: 1 (Etheridge, 1965) as is the case with N. pandoensis.

5 Lee mas

Masdevallia luerorum (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae), a new species from Costa Rica

Masdevallia luerorum (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae), a new species from Costa Rica

expanded together, connate for about 6–10 mm to form a lamina, the free portion about 23–25 mm long, each basally subtriangular, gradually contracted into a slender, descending, apical tail to 8.5–13.5 mm long. Petals ovate, oblique, unguiculate, 4.5–5 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, the apex obtuse with a small apiculus, the labellar margin with a low, longitudinal callus ending in a short, pointed tooth between the iddle and lower third of the petal. Lip oblong, convex, 4 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, with marginal folds near the middle, the apex rounded, verrucose, the base subcordate, hinged beneath. Column semiterete, 4 mm long, 1 mm wide. Foot 2 mm long with a short, incurved extension. Pollinia two, ovoid. Anther cap cucullate.
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10 Lee mas

New species and records of Orchidaceae from Costa Rica

New species and records of Orchidaceae from Costa Rica

Although this species has not been yet analyzed by molecular phylogenetic techniques, morphological features suggest that it belongs to the genus Acianthera Scheidw. Luer (1978) stated that it vegetatively resembles to Pleurothallis circumplexa Lindl., P. pacayana Schltr., and P. pantasmi Rchb.f. (all now included in the genus Acianthera) because the inflorescence emerges from the blade of the leaf above the base. Also, he noted that the green, glabrous, gaping flowers in the short raceme resemble those of Pleurothallis cogniauxiana Schltr., P. decipiens Ames & C.Schweinf., and P. verecunda Schltr. (as well as many others), all of them also transferred to the genus Acianthera by several authors (Pridgeon & Chase 2001, Luer 2004). Its bicallose, truncate petals ending into a short apiculum, as well as the long claw of the lip, are unusual features of this species. Luer (2004, 2005) considered these floral details, together with the pair of pointed calli laying near the center of lip (rounded in our specimen) as critical features to segregate Pleurothallis aberrans into the monotypic genus Aberrantia Luer. We consider the monotypic genus Aberrantia, only defined by subtle floral features, congeneric with Acianthera. According to Luer (2003a), the voucher cited by Pupulin (2002a) is from Panama. Here, we cite a Costa Rican voucher for this species.
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22 Lee mas

A new species of Cyllopsis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from Costa Rica

A new species of Cyllopsis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from Costa Rica

plants recorded for the genus belong to the Poaceae family and especially to the genus Chusquea (DeVries 1987). The new species, Cyllopsis emilia Chacón and Nishida, possesses white wing coloration which is unique to the genus, i.e. all of the previously described species have brown and grayish brown wing coloration. The female is undiscovered. Here, we describe the male of this new species. The male genitalia is also illustrated.

5 Lee mas

New species and new records of Costa Rica freshwater fishes, with a tentative list of species

New species and new records of Costa Rica freshwater fishes, with a tentative list of species

the genus Odontostilbe using EIGENMANN' s key to the Cheirodontinae (4) Orig­ inal descriptions of the 1 1 nominal species of Odontostíibe were examined and specimens of O. fugitiva (SU 36606) , O. pulchra (IUM 1 5 126, property of CAS; ANSP 7018 1 ) ; O. paragllayensis (IUM 17202, property of CAS) and O. madeirae (ASNP 39194-209) were kindly loaned to me by Dr. James E. B5hlke for the purpose of closer examination. On the basis of these specimens and literature d�scriptions of others, P. terrabae differs from all known species of Odontostilbe in having more maxillary teeth ( 3-6, usually 5 vs. 1-3, usually 2 ) , more mandibular teeth (7-10, usually 9 vs. 4-8, usual1y 5-7) and a longer posterior lobe of the maxillary. With respect to characters other than the lateral line, the new species shows a stronger resemblance to the Panamanian pseudo­ cheirodon affinis than to memb::rs of the South American genus Odon/ostilbe. Dr. Horace G. Loftin (in li/t.), indicated that sorne specimens of P. affinis from previously uncollected western Panamá also had a complete lateral lineo Dr. Loftin kindly suggested that 1 borrow his specimens which had been donated to the U. S. National Museum. Two very similar species, Compsura gorgonae and P. affini!, both with variable pore counts, were found to make up this collection and will be the subject of a future publication. Specimens of P. affluÍ! from single collections exhibit an extreme variation of from 9 to 33 lateral line por::s. This wide variation is not characteristic of all popwations but occurs in popula­ tions throughout the range of the species.
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45 Lee mas

Chriolepis atrimelum (Gobiidae) a new species of gobiid fish from Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

Chriolepis atrimelum (Gobiidae) a new species of gobiid fish from Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

At the present time, thefe is liule to support the two genera Chriolepis and Varicus, but in view of the large number of undescribed species of both (Findley 1983),1 have decided to refrain from uniting the two or from creating yet anoth­ er genus for the new species. Further study is necessary to determine if the difference in anal pterygiophore position could justify a taxonomic separation of Atlantic members from the Pacific species of the complexo

6 Lee mas

Two new species of cichlid fishes, Cichlasoma sajica and C  diquis, from southeastern Costa Rica

Two new species of cichlid fishes, Cichlasoma sajica and C diquis, from southeastern Costa Rica

DIAGNOSIS : A small Cichlasomcl, forming part of the Cichlasoma ni­ grofasciatum complexo Thus, the new form presents general characteristics which situate it in the Archocentrtts section or species group of Cichiasoma, but exceeds the ranges of meristic variation indicated for the group by REGAN (8 ) . The new species is distinguished by the following combination of characters : 1 ) Dorsal spines 16-18, dorsal soft rays 9-1 1 ; anal spines 6-7, anal soft rays 7-9. 2 ) Six or seven dark vertical bars on body; third bar (opposite tip of pectoral fin) most prominent at aH ages; caudal spot faint or absent.
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Two new species of Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Costa Rica in the P. phyllocardia group

Two new species of Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Costa Rica in the P. phyllocardia group

Introduction. The species of Pleurothallis R.Br. close to Humboltia cordata Ruiz & Pavón (1978) [= Pleurothallis cordata (Ruiz & Pav.) Lindl.] represent one of the largest groups of taxa within the genus (Luer 2005). Phylogenetically, they are closely related to a group of species that includes the type of Pleurothallis, P. ruscifolia (Jacq.) R.Br. (Pridgeon et al. 2001, Pridgeon & Chase 2001). The affinities among the species of the group were first recognized by John Lindley (1859), who created Pleurothallis sect. Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae for the species with terete- angulate stems, cordate leaves and fasciculate flowers; these were later considered a subsection within sect. Pleurothallis Luer (Luer 1988). The section has been treated at the generic rank by Szlachetko and Margońska (2001), who created Zosterophyllanthos, and by Luer (2005), who included the species of Pleurothallis sect. Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae into a broadened concept of Acronia C.Presl (1827). Neither of these alternative treatments has gained general consensus in botanical works (Pridgeon 2005, Karremans 2016).
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12 Lee mas

A new species of tree frog, genus Phyllomedusa, from Costa Rica

A new species of tree frog, genus Phyllomedusa, from Costa Rica

OSTEOLO GY.- The skull of Phyllomedusa annae is typical for the genus (Fig. 3) . Maxillary forming a sharp angle with premaxillary; premaxillary having long nasal process; nasals large, in broad contact medially and sutured to ethmoid; cartilage covering frontoparietal fontanelle partially ossifield; definite fontanelle persisting in adults; frontoparietal broad and flat posteriorly; occipital condyles small, widely separated; foramen magnum twice as wide as high; prootics massive, in broad contact with squamosal; squamosal T-shaped, having broad and flat base; quadratojugal slender and strongly sutured to maxillary; vomers having long anterior processes and somewhat shorter lateral and posterolateral processes; vomerine elevations elliptical and situated close to mid-line; palatines slender medially, broader late rally, and in contact with maxillary; pterygoid rounded, in broad contact with maxillary, and strongly sutured to exoccipital. Maxillary and premaxillary teeth bluntly spatulate and bifid; 72-82 teeth on 'each maxillary, 10-12 on each premaxillary; vomerine teeth blunt and weakly bifid ; 4- 12 teeth on each vomerine process. Sanal diapophyses flattened and expanded, especially posteriorly.
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23 Lee mas

New species of Scolytodes (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) from Costa Rica and Panama

New species of Scolytodes (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) from Costa Rica and Panama

locality is unknown (Blackman 1943, Wood 1982). The records of specimens six and seven presented here, suggest that the distribution might be confined to the Atlantic slope and lowland of Costa Rica. 8. Scolytodes unipunctatus (Blandford): Kirkendall and Wood (in press) recorded this species for the first time since the Guatemalan type series by Blandford (1897) were collected, and was then the first record for Costa Rica (San José: Zurqui de moravia, 1300 m). Additional specimens were coBected from the same locality by Kirkendall (pers. comm.) in 1997, from Cecropia trunks. This is the 29th species of Scolytodes collected from this host planto
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13 Lee mas

New species and records of Orchidaceae from Costa Rica. III

New species and records of Orchidaceae from Costa Rica. III

that grows up to 2 cm including the inflorescence (vs. 6 cm tall), a denser and shorter inflorescence which is up to 1.3 cm long (vs. a stingy inflorescence up to 5 cm long), with 1.0-2.0 mm long pedicels (pedicels 2.5-7.0 mm long), with less than 5 mm between each one (distance between pedicels 2.0-5.0 mm long), and smaller flowers with sepals and petals up to 2.3 mm long (vs. up to 3.5 mm long), and the lip up to about 1.5 mm long (vs. 2.5 mm long). From the Guatemalan type material of P. oxyglossa, P. catiensis can be distinguished by the shorter (2.2-2.3 mm), shortly acuminate and marginally glandular sepals (vs. sepals 2.5 mm, long acuminate, glabrous), the petals and lip are longer, subequal to the sepals, the petal margin is glandular, while the lip is elliptic, and completely glandular-hirsute, especially near the apex (vs. sepals and lip 1.5 mm, much shorter than the sepals, and are glabrous, the lip is ovate- lanceolate). It might well turn out that none of the Costa Rican material can be referred to P. oxyglossa. In that case the larger species found in the Central Cordillera should be referred to as Platystele schulzeana (Schltr.) Garay, described from La Carpintera. For the time being we only segregate the easily distinguished and morphologically constant P. catiensis, and point out that the name P. oxyglossa has been applied to two different species in Costa Rica. A few Brazilian species have been placed under synonymy of P. oxyglossa, but from what we have seen they are most likely not the same species, and certainly are not the same as those found in Costa Rica. The recently described Platystele paraensis Campacci & da Silva has the typical general flower morphology of the P. oxyglossa complex, and is as tiny as P. catiensis. It can be distinguished by the single flowered inflorescence, the sepals that are long caudate, that have an orange mid-vein and are much longer than the lip, which is apically yellow-orange. Flower morphology and size is similar to Platystele psix Luer & Hirtz, however the Ecuadorian species has cellular-pubescent sepals and petals. Another similar species occurs in Panama and Ecuador, Platystele taylorii Luer can be however recognized by the lip that is long acuminate and exceeds the glabrous sepals. 6. Platystele sylvestrei Karremans & Bogarín, sp. nov. TYPE: Costa Rica. Cartago: Paraíso, Orosi, Tapantí,
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24 Lee mas

Life history and systematics of Albusambia elaphoglossumae (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): A new genus and species of musotimine with leaf mining biology from Costa Rica

Life history and systematics of Albusambia elaphoglossumae (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): A new genus and species of musotimine with leaf mining biology from Costa Rica

Abstract: Albusambia elaphoglossumae Solis & Davis, a new genus and species, is described. It was discov- ered mining the fronds of the fern Elaphoglossum conspersum in Costa Rica (San José and Cartago Provinces, at elevations of 2300-3100 m). The type series was obtained by rearing of the immature stages in laboratory. The adult is defined by unique genital characters, and the pupa with a medial depression on the vertex and with two anterolateral horn-like structures on the prothorax. The larva is a gregarious leaf miner with its body flat- tened dorsoventrally and head prognathous; morphological adaptations to its leaf-mining habit are new to the Musotiminae. Fern-feeding musotimines are important to the discovery of new biological control agents for invasive ferns. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4): 487-501. Epub 2005 Oct 3.
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16 Lee mas

A new species of hognose pitviper, genus Porthidium, from the southwestern Pacific of Costa Rica (Serpentes: Viperidae)

A new species of hognose pitviper, genus Porthidium, from the southwestern Pacific of Costa Rica (Serpentes: Viperidae)

5 to 6. Canthals are elongated and slightly pig- mented. One individual (UCR 3359) lacks a postcanthal, the others possess one. Intercanthal count differs among individuals, ranging from 6 to 9 scales. In all examined specimens, internasals are not separated total- ly, although one scale is usually inserted between them. Ventral scales are not different between males and females examined, as 138 and 144 were observed for both sexes. On the other hand, undivided subcaudals in males are 30 and 33, whereas in both females 26 sub- caudals were counted. Interrictals range from 25 to 29. Dorsal scales rows are consistently higher in the neck and midbody than at the vent: observed formulas are 25-25-20, 25-24- 19, 27-24-19, 25-25-19. Nasofrontals range from 23 to 29 scales. One or two oculabials were observed. The number of dorsal blotch- es in the body is 15 and 16, and in all speci- mens more than 70% of the blotches are not fragmented.
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8 Lee mas

A new plethodontid salamander (Bolitoglossa sooyorum) from Costa Rica

A new plethodontid salamander (Bolitoglossa sooyorum) from Costa Rica

does not exhibit that described for B. sooyorum. B. marmorea, obviously the species most closely related to the new salamander, is 'Similar in meristic char­ acters, but differs from B. sooyorum principally in color and stoutness. B. mar­ morea is a dark slate marbled with rusty buff or yellow but is not known to be lavender brown with distinctly cream flecking. The webbing of the hind feet of B. marmorea averages 1.3 mm from the the tip of the median toe at its deepest emargination (vs. 2 . 1 mm in B. sooyorum) and the body and appendages are conspicuously stouter.
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8 Lee mas

A new Lycaste (Maxillariinae: Orchidaceae) from Costa Rica

A new Lycaste (Maxillariinae: Orchidaceae) from Costa Rica

In spite of this generic separation, both genera have been recognized for their beauty and horticultural value. Species pertaining to groups of orchids popular in cultivation are often well known taxonomically, and it is not surprising that in his Essential Guide of Lycaste species, Oakeley (1993) opened his introduc- tion saying “if it is not in here it has not been described”. However, when a good taxonomic system is developed in countries rich in plants species, sup- ported by an efficient system of information, taxo- nomic novelties often appear also in previously monographed and botanically well-sampled genera (Pupulin & Bogarín 2005, Dressler & Pupulin 2006, Pupulin 2007).
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8 Lee mas

A new species and three hybrids in the ferns from Cocos Island, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

A new species and three hybrids in the ferns from Cocos Island, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

The first list exclusively for ferns from Cocos Island was presented by Gómez (1975a, 1975b) who registered 60 species of ferns and lycophytes and of them only six (10%) are endemic. After that, other authors as: Gómez (1976) described a new species of Thelypteris Schmidel and reported three species; Smith & Lellinger (1985) described other new species of Thelypteris; Adams (1992) described a new species of Asplenium L.; Rojas (1996) described a new species of Hymenophyllum Sm. and other in Terpsichore A.R. Sm.; Rojas (2001a) described a new species of Hypolepis Bernh.; Rojas (2003) described two new species of Elaphoglossum Sm.; Rojas (2004) a new variety of Trichomanes collariatum Bosch; Rojas & Trusty (2004) described two new varieties of Asplenium delicatum C. Presl and Saccoloma elegans Kaulf. respectively, also registered 80 infrageneric taxa and of them eighteen (22.5%) are endemic. Rojas (2009) described a new species of Elaphoglossum. Rojas (2011) described four new species and registered six other species. Rojas (2013a) described a new species of Stenogrammitis Labiak and Rojas (2013b) described a new species of Danaea Sm. Also Gómez (1976) registered three species and Rojas (2001b) validated the name of Cyathea alfonsiana L.D. Gómez published by Gómez (1971). In summary, 85 infrageneric taxa have been reported and of them twenty five (29.4%) are endemic.
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A review of the geographlcal distribution of the genus Anantheris Thorell (Scorpiones: Buthidae), with description of a new species

A review of the geographlcal distribution of the genus Anantheris Thorell (Scorpiones: Buthidae), with description of a new species

Abstract: A eheeklist of the species belonging to the genus Ananteris Thorell is proposed. Populations from Costa Rica and Panarna previously considered as Ananteris ashmolei Louren�o are placed as a new species Ananteris platnicki. Diagnoses: The new species differs from A. cU$sinii and A. by having a datker pigmentation. It differs from A. ashmolei by having a telson moderately granular whereas ashmolds telson presents a strong ventral keel with sorne spinoid teeth, both speeies also differ for almost all the morphometrie values. A map oC the geograprncal distribuLÍon of the genus is included.
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5 Lee mas

An extraordinary new toad (Bufo) from Costa Rica

An extraordinary new toad (Bufo) from Costa Rica

Superficially Bufo periglenes resembles the peculiar Costa Rican endemic genus CrePidophryne. This genus, erroneously called. Crepidius Cope, 1875 ( 3 ) , by SAVAGE and KLUGE (7 ) , a name preoccupied by Crepidius Candeze, 1 859 (2 ) , in Coleoptera, was given the available substitute name of Cre'pido_ phryne CO P E (4) . The single known species Crepidophr)'ne epioticus (Cope, 187 5 ) differs from periglenes by having a markedly expanded coccyx, the frontoparietal and prootic fused, a phalangeal formula of 1 -2-3-2 for the hand and 1 -2-2-4-2 for the foot; and in lacking adductor longus and adductor mandibulae posteriori subexternus muscles. Crepidophryne and the new toad are similar to one another in external cranial crest arrangement, the knoblike supra­ tympanic crest, the absence of a tympanum and the obsolescent tubercles on hands and feet. In Crepidophryne the bony cranial crests of the frontoparietal are greatly enlarged and heavily ornamented and the entire auditory apparatus has been lost, "{hile in B. periglenes the frontoparietal crests are without dermaI ornamentation and a reduced Eustachian tube and small ostia pharyngea are presento Thc skeleton of Crepidophryne is much more reminiscent of the valliceps group than of B. periglenes or B. haematiticus and the resemblances between periglenes and C. epiotiCtls are probably convergent. The relationship of Ct·epidophryne to Bufo and the status of other Costa Rican toads without a tympanum (B. S1mus O. Schmidt, B. fastidios!,S Cope, B. coerulescens Cope and B. holdridgei Taylor) will be covered in detail in a paper 1 have preparation.
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15 Lee mas

A new species of Costa Rica salamander, genus Bolitoglossa

A new species of Costa Rica salamander, genus Bolitoglossa

subtruncate; nostril small, labial protuberances of nasolabial groove very small; canthus rostralis indistinct, gently rounded. Standard length 6.6 times head width; standard length 4.6 times snout-gular fold length. Deep, distinct gro ove below eye extends full length of eye opening, does not communicate with lip. Eye of moderate size, not greatIy protuberant. Poorly defined postorbital groove extends posteriorly from eye as shallow, realtively broad depression for 1 . 7 mm, proceeds sharply ventrally from posterior terminus and extends across guIar area as well-marked groove parallel to and 3.5 mm anterior to guIar fold. Vomerine teeth 1 1 - 8, in curved series that extend to center of internal nares. Maxillary teeth 2 1 - 22, extending posteriorly to point equal to three-fourths distance through eyeball. Four premaxillary teeth, none piercing lip. Body relatively slender, slightly desiccated by preservation. Very slender tail 1 . 1 times standard length; lateral compression moderate; slight basal constriction. Post-iliac glands small, poorIy defined. Limbs moderately long, slender; when appressed to sides of trunk, two costal folds remain uncovered (limb interval 2 ) ; standard length 4.4 times right fore limb; standard length 3.9 times right hind limbo Digits of hands and feet easily distinguishable but extensively webbed; digital tips broad­ ly rounded; borders of adjacent digits slope proximally and meet at level of articulation of penultimate and terminal phalanges. Area of webbed pad rela­ tively large in relation to size of hands and feet, but digital tips remain free from web. Hands and feet flattened; digits flattened, not cylindrical. Subter­ minal pads distinct, moderate in size; partiallY obscured by flattening during preservation. F ingers in order of decreasing length: 3, 4, 2, 1 ; toes in order of decreasing length : 3, 4, 2, 5, 1 .
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