PDF superior From Power over to Power to: Power Relations of Women in Hansberry's A Raisin in the Sun

From Power over to Power to: Power Relations of Women in Hansberry's A Raisin in the Sun

From Power over to Power to: Power Relations of Women in Hansberry's A Raisin in the Sun

Feminism is deeply concerned with power. For a great number of feminist theoreticians, gender relations hold a deep connection with power structures in which, due to patriarchal influence, men become the ones in power while women, as second-class human beings, are oppressed and marginalized. This interpretation of power is deeply rooted in Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex, in which she claims that the woman “is defined and differentiated with reference to man and not he with reference to her; she is the incidental, the inessential as opposed to the essential. He is the Subject, he is the Absolute –she is the Other” (Beauvoir, 1974: xxii). Similarly, a number of feminists often refer to Michel Foucault's idea of structures and hierarchies when defining power. He claims: “if we speak of the structures or the mechanisms of power, it is only insofar as we suppose that certain persons exercise power over others” (Foucault, 1983: 217). From this perspective, feminists have traditionally perceived power as a structure in which some are above and others are below. The ones atop execute their power while the ones below are coerced and yield to the influence of the power upon them. This structure possesses a complexity and dynamism of its own: “the multiplicity of force relations immanent in the sphere in which they operate and which constitute their own organization; as the processes which, through ceaseless struggles and confrontations, transforms, strengthens, or reverses them; […] thus forming a chain or system” (Foucault, 1979: 92). Following Foucault's idea, feminists believe that this power organization may be transformed or reversed; hence, one of feminism's pillars is exposing them in all social levels, including literary texts.
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18 Lee mas

From Power-over to Power-to:  Power Relations of Women in  Hansberry's A Raisin in the Sun

From Power-over to Power-to: Power Relations of Women in Hansberry's A Raisin in the Sun

Feminism is deeply concerned with power. For a great number of feminist theoreticians, gender relations hold a deep connection with power structures in which, due to patriarchal influence, men become the ones in power while women, as second-class human beings, are oppressed and marginalized. This interpretation of power is deeply rooted in Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex, in which she claims that the woman “is defined and differentiated with reference to man and not he with reference to her; she is the incidental, the inessential as opposed to the essential. He is the Subject, he is the Absolute –she is the Other” (Beauvoir, 1974: xxii). Similarly, a number of feminists often refer to Michel Foucault's idea of structures and hierarchies when defining power. He claims: “if we speak of the structures or the mechanisms of power, it is only insofar as we suppose that certain persons exercise power over others” (Foucault, 1983: 217). From this perspective, feminists have traditionally perceived power as a structure in which some are above and others are below. The ones atop execute their power while the ones below are coerced and yield to the influence of the power upon them. This structure possesses a complexity and dynamism of its own: “the multiplicity of force relations immanent in the sphere in which they operate and which constitute their own organization; as the processes which, through ceaseless struggles and confrontations, transforms, strengthens, or reverses them; […] thus forming a chain or system” (Foucault, 1979: 92). Following Foucault's idea, feminists believe that this power organization may be transformed or reversed; hence, one of feminism's pillars is exposing them in all social levels, including literary texts.
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18 Lee mas

WAJCMAN, Judy (2009) Feminist theories of technology, Cambridge Political Economy Society, Oxford University Press

WAJCMAN, Judy (2009) Feminist theories of technology, Cambridge Political Economy Society, Oxford University Press

Within mainstream STS, the ways in which technological objects may shape and be shaped by the operation of gender interests or identities has not been a central focus. Whilst innovations are seen as sociotechnical networks, it has been largely incumbent on feminists to demonstrate that gender relations inform these networks. After all, if ‘technology is society made durable’ (Latour, 1991, p. 103), then gender power relations will influence the process of technological change, which in turn configures gender relations. Women’s systematic absence from the sites of observable conflict over the direction of technological developments is therefore as indicative of the mobilisation of gender interests as is the presence of other actors. Empirical research on everything from the microwave oven (Cockburn and Ormrod, 1993), the telephone (Martin, 1991) and the contraceptive pill (Oudshoorn, 1994) to robotics and software agents (Suchman, 2008) has clearly demonstrated that the marginalisation of women from the technological community has a profound influence on the design, technical content and use of artefacts.
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10 Lee mas

POWER TO THE PEOPLE

POWER TO THE PEOPLE

Advocates of participatory democracy envisage a role for civil society that rejects its traditional ‘self-limiting’ character in order to engage with political activity and move beyond the strict separation from the state that characterises the original Habermasian approach (Habermas 1986). These more radical visions define participation as shared decision-making with the state, thus departing from the idea that civil society should refrain from political power and limit its actions to influencing those already in authority. Tarso Genro, once Mayor of Porto Alegre and subsequently Brazil’s Federal Minister of Justice, has articulated the awkwardly-named notion of ‘non-state public spaces’ to describe these experiments (Genro 1995). For Genro, these spaces – simultaneously materialised in and inspi- red by the experience of participatory budgets in Porto Alegre – enable civil society to penetrate the state in order to make it more responsive to the public interest, thus breaking the state’s monopoly over decision- making. This model obviously requires a willing disposition on the part of the state to share some of its power, and relies on a strongly organised civil society. Such conditions are comparatively rare in Latin America, which is why the Brazilian experience has proven difficult to replicate in other contexts. Furthermore, the autonomy of both partners in this relationship is crucial. Santos (1998, p 491) sees citizens and community organisations, on the one hand, and the municipal government, on the other, as converging “with mutual autonomy. Such convergence occurs by means of a political contract through which this mutual autonomy becomes mutually relative autonomy.” Along the same lines, Oliveira (1993, p 6) calls this process “convergent antagonism”, emphasising that such relationships are not a zero-sum game. In spite of their sometimes convoluted formulations, these ideas are important attempts to deal with the reality of state-society relations, a question that is often ignored even by analysts of participatory democracy.
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258 Lee mas

Hybrid power filter to enhance power quality in a medium-voltage distribution network

Hybrid power filter to enhance power quality in a medium-voltage distribution network

Manuscript received July 4, 2007; revised January 16, 2009. First published February 6, 2009; current version published July 24, 2009. This work was sup- ported in part by the IITREE—Facultad de Ingeniería—Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), by the FONCyT-ANPCyT, and by the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET).

1 Lee mas

The politics of resource booms

The politics of resource booms

Sierra Leone is an example in which the presence of a natural resource (alluvial dia- monds) led to civil war. It should be emphasized that not all countries that possess this particular resource experience civil war, as was in fact the case of Sierra Leone for several decades. The military regime of Siaka Stevens hired private traders to outsource the resource exploitation. Gradually, however the traders became independent and secured the resource- rents for themselves. The successor of Stevens, General Momoh, inherited a weaken state and, in an attempt to restore the old order, the government forces tried to shift the mode of extraction from the hands of the trader middlemen to a more conventional form of industrial exploitation. The success of such an action would have ended the prospect of rebels while its failure would have dwindled the future of the government itself. Hence, neither side had any other options other than to resort to violence to try to control the resource.
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26 Lee mas

The first thermal analysis of an arch bridge: Thomas Young 1817

The first thermal analysis of an arch bridge: Thomas Young 1817

Then, Young defines the constant which relates the curvature κ with the bending moment (f y): A The radius of curvature of the neutral line is to the distance of the neutral point as the original length of the axis to the alteration of that length; or as a given certain quantity to the external force: and this quantity has been termed the Modulus of elasticity @ . For this he makes use of the concept of A Modulus of elasticity @ , which, in modern terms relates the stresses and strains. He considers that the reader is already familiar with the concept. In fact, Young = s definition of the modulus of elasticity, given in his Lectures [16] is anything but clear: A The modulus of elasticity of any substance is a column of the same substance, capable of producing a pressure on its base which is to the weight of causing a certain degree of compression, as the length of this substance is to the diminution of its length. @ Young sometimes speaks of the A weight of the modulus @ (which is EA, being E the modern definition of the modulus and A the area of the cross section) or of the A height of the modulus @ (which is E/γ, being γ the specific weight of the material; this last definition is independent of the cross section).
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12 Lee mas

Chapter 9 Hardware Design Techniques F

Chapter 9 Hardware Design Techniques F

Suppose, as shown in Figure 9.5, R1 and R2 are ¼W resistors with identical 25-ppm/ºC TCs. Even when the TCs are identical, there can still be significant errors! When the signal input is zero, the resistors dissipate no heat. But, if it is 100 mV, there is 9.9 V across R1, which then dissipates 9.9 mW. It will experience a temperature rise of 1.24ºC (due to a 125ºC/W, ¼W resistor thermal resistance). This 1.24ºC rise causes a resistance change of 31 ppm, and thus a corresponding gain change. But R2, with only 100 mV across it, is only heated a negligible 0.0125ºC. The resulting 31-ppm net gain error represents a fullscale error of ½ LSB at 14-bits, and is a disaster for a 16-bit system. Even worse, the effects of this resistor self-heating also create easily calculable nonlinearity errors. In the Figure 9.5 example, with ½ the voltage input, the resulting self-heating error is only 15 ppm. In other words, the stage gain is not constant at ½ and full-scale (nor is it so at other points), as long as uneven temperature shifts exist between the gain-determining resistors. This is by no means a worst-case example; physically smaller resistors would give worse results, due to higher associated thermal resistance. These, and similar errors, are avoided by selecting critical resistors that are accurately matched for both value and TC, are well derated for power, and have tight thermal coupling between those resistors were matching is important. This is best achieved by using a resistor network on a single substrate—such a network may either be within an IC, or it may be a separately packaged thin-film resistor network.
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216 Lee mas

The Atacama cosmology telescope: a measurement of the cosmic microwave background power spectrum at 148 and 218 ghz from the 2008 southern survey

The Atacama cosmology telescope: a measurement of the cosmic microwave background power spectrum at 148 and 218 ghz from the 2008 southern survey

0.01–20 mJy, we generate the number of point sources in that bin as a Poisson realization from the model flux distribution dN/dS (the upper limit is chosen to be the approximate 5σ detection threshold at 148 GHz). Once the number of sources in each bin is generated, their individual fluxes are dithered to redistribute the fluxes within each bin, and the sources are laid down at random positions in the map. For 218 GHz, we scale the radio and IR components by their appropriate spectral indices, based on the findings of Dunkley et al. (2010). With these settings, we closely reproduce the level of the Poisson point-source signal seen in the high multipole regime of the data power spectra. We estimate the Poisson contribution to the error bars on bandpowers from the scatter of 500 simulations of point-source-only maps and add that as a correction to the (signal+noise)-only error budget obtained from the signal. In these point-source simulations, we have neglected the contribution from the correlated IR compo- nent since that term is important only at < 2500 where the primary CMB and noise are several orders of magnitude larger. At the current level of noise in our maps, any point-source cor- rection, correlated or Poissonian, is largely negligible, and we ignore their contribution in the analytic error bar estimation and bandpower covariance.
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Realization of an inverter to supply power to a wireless power transmission system

Realization of an inverter to supply power to a wireless power transmission system

The power transferred increases with frequency and the mutual inductance between the coils, which depends on their geometry and the distance between them. A widely used measure of efficiency of the transmission of energy is the coupling coefficient. This dimensionless parameter is equal to the fraction of magnetic flux through L1 that passes through L2. If the two coils are on the same axis and close together, all the magnetic flux from L1 passes through L2, and efficiency approaches 100%. The greater the separation between the coils, the more of the magnetic field from the first coil misses the second, and the lower the efficiency is, approaching zero at large separations.
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73 Lee mas

Completing the Revolution?  The United States and Bolivia’s Long Revolution

Completing the Revolution? The United States and Bolivia’s Long Revolution

The security strategy of the United States was yet another hegemonic tool according to the Study. The battle against narcotics became a low-intensity war in which the United States and key US agencies like the DEA increasingly took the initiative while displaying a basic lack of trust in Bolivians and their own internal processes. A key bone of contention for Bolivians was Presidential Certification which allowed the US president each year to score their country on the basis of its compliance with US drug policies; a far from transparent process that often seemed more politically motivated than rooted in solid data. The US sugar daddy led Bolivia’s security forces to compete for favors, resources, and invitations to attend US military training facilities, all means by which the US subtly insinuated its influence into Bolivia’s security apparatus. All the while, the US seemed ever further from winning its war on drugs, leading the Study to charge that its purpose had always been to control Bolivia, not drugs. “US policy developed a dependency that was total and absolute; a systematic process that deinstitutionalized Bolivia’s Armed Forces and Police with all the implications that held for the construction of a viable, sovereign, popularly-supported democracy.” (Tellería Escobar 140. Background on pages 109-40. My translation)
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32 Lee mas

Frequency control of hybrid wind-hydro power plants with long conduits in isolated power systems

Frequency control of hybrid wind-hydro power plants with long conduits in isolated power systems

The wind energy penetration rate is being increased in majority of European countries. However, a high penetration rate could endanger the stability of power systems, particularly in small islands. Hydropower plays an important role in the regulation and control of isolated power systems with renewable sources, but it may not be able to maintain the frequency within grid requirements. This is the case of El Hierro power system (Canary archipelago), where a hybrid wind–pumped storage hydropower plant (PSHP) was committed to reduce the use of fossil fuels. Currently, frequency regulation is only provided by the PSHP and diesel generators. Therefore, it is proposed that variable-speed wind turbines (VSWTs) contribute to frequency regulation, thereby minimizing the need for fossil fuels. This study aims to conduct an analysis on the effect of the VSWT contribution to frequency regulation in the power system of El Hierro. It is based on classical control tools from a linearized mathematical model considering different VSWT regulation strategies. The eigenvalues, damping ratio, and participation factors of the state variables have been obtained. The more significant oscillation modes in the dynamic response of the system have been identified. According to this modal analysis, a methodology for the adjustment of the PSHP and VSWT controller gains is proposed. An improvement in the quality of frequency regulation while maintaining the El Hierro system frequency within grid requirements has been proved based on simulating different events related to wind speed or variations in the power demand, using a nonlinear model of the combined wind–hydro power plant.
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222 Lee mas

Man-pack antenna at X-band

Man-pack antenna at X-band

To distribute the signal among the subarrays two low losses power distribution networks are used (one for each polarization).. These power distribution networks are made in shielded s[r]

5 Lee mas

Feudal Powers in Japan

Feudal Powers in Japan

Cultural Borrowing from China Interest in Buddhist ideas at the Japanese court soon grew into an enthusiasm for all things Chinese. The most influential convert to Buddhism was Prince Shotoku (shoh•toh•ku), who served as regent for his aunt, the empress Suiko. (A regent is someone who rules when a monarch is absent, ill, or too young to rule.) In 607, Prince Shotoku sent the first of three missions to China. His people studied Chinese civilization firsthand. Over the next 200 years, the Japanese sent many such groups to learn about Chinese ways.
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Analysis of the contribution of wind power plants to damp power system oscillations

Analysis of the contribution of wind power plants to damp power system oscillations

To answer these questions, this thesis conducts research on proper selec- tion of input-output signal pairs to damp out electromechanical oscillations using wind power plants without drawing attention to a particular control design. This is necessary conclusions about the power system independently of a particular controller. The capability to damp is an intrinsic characteris- tic of the system and should not be affected by a particular controller (PSS). Firstly, different analysis techniques are compared, considering both control- lability and observability measures and input-output interactions. This en- ables recommendations to be drawn so as to the selection of the the best sig- nal pairs to damp power system oscillations considering different approaches, such as single-input single-output (SISO) and multivariable control (MIMO). Second, a new criterion to select the best input-output signals used by a PSS based on WPPs is presented, considering explicitly local and remote signals in the analysis. Taking into account fundamental design limitations and using controllability and observability concepts, the criterion is able to iden- tify the most suitable pair of input-output local signals without consider any particular controller.
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212 Lee mas

The Fluctuation of Power Relations among High School Students

The Fluctuation of Power Relations among High School Students

Apart from the different ways in which students struggle for power that I have identified and the different discourses they assume in order to get it, this research was a way to spot a type of students that do not aim at achieving any social control in the classroom, they tend to be indifferent about who the leader of the group is. However, they are affected by these tussles of power because those students that seek for power try to exert their authority in all the students that they can and over all those who do not oppose to them. The powerless students adopt a passiveness discourse and their powerless status is used by the other students to reaffirm their domination in their groups since it is easier to take control of the passive students’ will instead of trying to struggle against those subjects who are also looking for the benefits of power.
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186 Lee mas

Electrochemical Monitoring and Microbial Characterization of a Domestic Wastewater-Fed Microbial Fuel Cell Inoculated with Anaerobic Sludge

Electrochemical Monitoring and Microbial Characterization of a Domestic Wastewater-Fed Microbial Fuel Cell Inoculated with Anaerobic Sludge

The MFC was operated for 70 days and electrochemically monitored for 65 days from day five. During the first days of operation the MFC was fed with SW through five batches followed by a cycle of 1:1 SW:RW and ten cycles of RW, with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of four days. The cycle containing the 1:1 mixture served to diminish the impact of a sudden change in substrate that could negatively affect the biofilm deposition on the anode because of the presence of probable inhibitors of microbial growth in the RW. Figure 2(a) shows the consecutive power density curves taken daily derived from their respective polarization curves, the black ribbons showing curves taken when the cell was fed with SW and the red ribbons when RW was used. Figure 2(b) illustrates the evolution of the maximum power densities obtained in function of time. It can be seen that there is an overall increase in maximum power density in each anolyte replacement (red triangles) when using SW, which was consistent with the concomitant maturation of the biofilm on the anode. It should be pointed out that the decrease in the peak values reached by polarization curves in the measurements immediate to the anolyte replacement are due to substrate depletion by action of microbial metabolism, which was the indicator to make a new batch cycle. During this enrichment phase, SW allowed for a maximum power density of 1.10 µWcm -2 at day 27, while the mixture of SW and
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20 Lee mas

Development perspectives of Power to Gas (P2G) in Spain

Development perspectives of Power to Gas (P2G) in Spain

The accuracy of the ROM model is assessed simulating the 2014 scenario of the Mainland Spain power system [4]. Table I compares the actual and the simulated generation dispatch. Each technology share in the generation dispatch is highlighted. The maximum difference between actual and simulated technology share is 2%. Table II compares the actual and simulated average marginal prices. The difference is less than 5%. Table III compares the curtailments. The simulated wind generation curtailment is very close to the actual value. Hence, we can ensure the accuracy of the ROM model together with the considered input data set.
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6 Lee mas

Modulation and multiple access techniques for indoor broadband power-line communications

Modulation and multiple access techniques for indoor broadband power-line communications

The study performed up to now has assumed that the transmitter and the receiver were perfectly synchronized. This implies that symbols boundaries at the input of the DFT are correct and that the receiver sampling frequency and phase is synchronized with the incoming signal. Small symbol time misalignments cause ISI and ICI, while sampling (timing) errors cause rotation and attenuation of the constellation symbols, ICI and, if not corrected, may result in a severe drift of the symbol alignment. Main aspects concerning symbol boundary synchronization where presented in section 3.2.4. Hence, this chapter concentrates on sampling synchronization. Synchronization becomes an important concern when large spectral efficiencies are needed. Nowadays, the most common procedure to accomplish synchronization is by means of a fixed frequency sampling and a digital phase-locked loop (PLL) [111], [98], [101]. Synchronization issues in scenarios with high SNR carriers have been extensively studied in DSL applications [98], [112]. A detailed and well referenced work about most of these topics can be found in [63]. However, it has been shown that when the same strategies are employed in power-line channels, their performance can be seriously degraded. As shown in [91], this inferior performance has a twofold origin: the short-term variations of the channel response and the jitter of the sampling process. Uncompensated cyclic time variations of the channel, with harmonics at multiples of the mains signal frequency, mislead the estimation of the sampling error. The periodical bias in the phase error estimates can be reduced by narrowing the loop bandwidth, but this also reduces the loop’s capacity to track the sampling jitter. While the effect of random period instabilities has been extensively studied in the downconversion of OFDM signals [54], its influence on the analog-to-digital conversion has been always neglected. However, when sampling broadband signals, the relative magnitude of the jitter with respect to the sampling period increases and its effects can not be disregarded [91], [113].
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186 Lee mas

Techno-economic Assessment of Biomass Gasification of Spartina argentinensis

Techno-economic Assessment of Biomass Gasification of Spartina argentinensis

pectively. These figures are consistent with the range of BEPE reported by the International Energy Agency for biomass derived electricity, where an exhaustive data review of elec- tricity production costs of different generation alternatives has been presented (IEA, 2010). The NPV of the project resul- ted -4.4 and -1.6 million dollars for the BAUS and AS res- pectively. Hence, by only increasing the price of natural gas, a significant improvement of the economic results of this type of projects would be addressed. Pantaleo, Pellerano & Ca- rone (2009) reported that without feed in tariff (FIT) set by local legislation in Puglia (Italy), NPV of fiber sorghum pellet gasification would result negative and the internal rate of return would be circa 1 %. According to our results, S. argentinensis gasification for CHP will require initial stimuli by policy makers. FIT is widely recognized as the most efficient tool in order to incentive RE investments with nega- tive results considering that production costs should decrea- se as experience with this technology accumulates. Coutu- re & Gagnon (2010) reviewed different alternatives of FIT. Furthermore, CO 2 credits will soon become another tool to incentivize RE productions technologies such as gasifica- tion (IRENA, 2015).
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