Presenta Lapeyre (2006) en sus propuestas de Moodle la idea de que, para que construyan de manera correcta los objetos de conocimiento ha de existir un conjunto de orientaciones pedagógicas que permitan el aprendizaje colaborativo y la interacción entre los distintos participantes en el proceso. El profesor en su papel mediador ha de establecer las guías pedagógicas y mostrar al alumnado cuáles son los objetos de aprendizaje que se han de adquirir, así como las diferentes competencias que se trabajan en cada uno de estos.
Many industries are now global, some have manufacturing sections in one country, research and development, information technology and finance sections in others. With increasing fierce global competition and globalised workforces the need for effective methods for distributed cooperative work have never been greater and are bound to grow further in the 21 st century. The field of Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) has developed to underpin best practices through examining effective interactions in teams and develop better understandings of the design of effective computer tools and of their use. While the advantages of using ICTs to support distributed work groups include speed of communication, flexibility and adaptiveness, the disadvantages include lack of trust, coordination problems and lack of shared background knowledge among others . In a study of six engineering design teams, Huysman et al.  show the evolution of communication technology use through a protracted joint design project. The teams were made up of students from Michigan State University (USA) and Deft University of Technology (Netherlands) who were forced by distance to communicate by online means. The technologies included desktop video conferencing, email, chat, shared white boards, real-time integrated audio and video as well as application sharing, a shared file system, calendar and message board. In this qualitative study, the students were allowed to choose the type of tools with which they wanted to work.
3.6.2 Validation and piloting. This research study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. Since the effectiveness of research depends on the degree of reliability, quality, and validity of the instruments used, it was fundamental to ensure these met the following criteria; appropriate length, coherence, and absence of bias. Cohen, Manion, and Morrison (2007) explain that validity concerns the extent to which an instrument (test, questionnaire or rubric) measures what it is intended to measure. Moreover, Cohen et al. (2007), explain that a major source of reliability in instruments not only derives from their design, but also from the multiple ways in which participants have been prepared before they are exposed to those instruments. To address this issue, the teachers-researchers designed a protocol for students and teachers which provided a detailed description of the procedures involved before, during and after their implementation of each instrument. This protocol aimed at facilitating the instruction in which the instruments can be interpreted by learners and administered and scored by teachers. To ensure understanding of the procedures involved aspects such as the purpose of the instrument, time, material required, the monitoring process and some general directions were included, these were written in a clear and easy to follow manner. To guarantee the security of each instrument, the validity of results, and avoid bias; administrators were encouraged to follow the protocol structure and to avoid behaviors that might interfere with the students’ answers. For instance, giving examples during the test development or indicating whether the answers are correct or incorrect. The protocol designed considered some contextual limitations such as noise, time and place .
Finally, for further research it would be paramount to understand how to implement cooperative reading strategies without taking for granted the individual characteristics of students. That is due to the fact that the last finding in which students with a high proficiency level in the target language, mentioned their displeasure to work with lower proficiency students, while the latter liked to do it. It is a relevant outcome to be developed, since teaching should be a fair practice to ensure the individual development of students. In that sense, Kagan & Kegan (1998) proposed the use of different tasks to embrace a wide range of intelligences, since those students with lower proficiency level could be effective in other types of works. Having that in mind, the implementation ofcooperativelearning will be suitable for everyone in the classroom. Limitations of This Study
Speeding up the convergence has motivated an intense re- search activity. On the one hand, one active research line considers the design of an adaptive proposal density within MCMC techniques. Several schemes have been developed in order to tune online the parameters of the proposal den- sity, learning them from the previously generated samples [7, 8, 5, 6]. On the other hand, the use of several parallel chains instead of a single long chain has been studied for different reasons. First of all, employing parallel chains al- lows the use of different proposal pdfs. Moreover, another
Then, students need to put four chairs together. It is important to show or give them instructions by shifting their desks together to assemble their workspace. Each member of the group should cooperate. Guide one group to demonstrate what you mean. Practice at least three times. Now, ask students to sit and give them instructions regarding group behavior during the cooperativelearning activity. You can write and tell the participants the three responsibilities that all members have in the group: To be polite, to listen, to cooperate. Have them repeat orally the responsibilities in each group and post them on the board. For group management, draw a Quiet signal that signifies that whenever you wish the class to convene or to stop working in their groups; it could be a hand signal, a bell or a card with a symbol on it.
Although more research is needed to observe how rubrics may actually facilitate student performance and learning, so far no research has found negative effects while using them (Rezaei & Lovorn, 2010). On the contrary, the literature re- ﬂ ects a number of beneﬁ ts associated with the implementation of rubrics: increased transparency through reliability and validity (assessment becomes more objective and consistent both for teachers and for students and can be done faster); reduced anxiety and improved self-efﬁ cacy (rubrics represent a guide for students, who know exactly what needs to be done to perform well); student self-regulation sup- port (rubrics mean a useful tool towards planning and self-assessment once stu- dents internalise the criteria of the rubric). It seems that, when rubrics are com- bined with self-assessment, rubrics gain momentum (Barbero, 2012; Panadero & Jonsson, 2013).
These groups do not remain together for weeks as the formal ones do; in this case, students can be together for as much as one hour. The usage of this type of groups can be integrated in a master class in order to make students focus on materials; to let them practise and reach a cognitive learning, to create expectations about a topic, and it can also be used to finish a master class. It usually consists on make students speak for few minutes. The put in practice of this type of groups guarantees the same active participation as the formal one: students must organize, summarize and/or explain the contents given. (Johnson, Johnson & Holubec, 2006) Students retain information thanks to working with the materials given by the teacher and their dialogues with their peers. These ones do not require any previous organization on the hand of the teacher; groups are made on the fly.
One such example is the concluding part of the previously cited class (verb to be and personal information): after students finished writing their dialogues for the role- play, they had to pass in front of the class and act them out. Since this was one of the first times they had to speak in front of their classmates, some students were a little nervous or afraid of committing mistakes. In fact, there were some pronunciation or spelling inaccuracies, but as they had the support of their writings and the previous practice with the vocabulary input, they were able to complete the conversation and use the target words correctly. Again, group work helped them to feel more confident and in a non-threatening environment (See annex 5: fieldnotes).
35 form. Moreover, there is an image of the ending and they have to explain why it is so comical; the answer, of course, requires a reference to the last statement of one of the characters, so they have to use reported speech again. In this stage, it is probable that the learners need some help, so the teacher has to move around and provide them with some feedback and recommendations. However, it is highly important that the teacher does not give them the correct answer directly, since the main objective is that they think together and share their opinions to find it. Nonetheless, when this task was carried out for the present study, learners were given some examples of how to report before starting working with the worksheet. In this way, they were a bit prepared for it. This kind of reminder was necessary because their first answer had been that they did not know how to do that and they would not do it. Notwithstanding, when they were given some examples of how to report different statements, they started to work. Finally, the metalinguistic explanation or ‘focus on form’, has two parts: the correction of the activity and the explanation of the grammar point. To correct the task, students have to read their proposals aloud and, if any of them is correct, the teacher makes some suggestions to make them reformulate their sentences or, depending on the time, gives them the right option. The procedure is the same for each sentence and also to comment the image. In this study, learners found this part a bit difficult, however, it was crucial for them and facilitated the process to understand the grammar point. After that, the teacher explains that the different constructions used to refer to what other people have said is known as “reported speech” and starts the metalinguistic explanation. Nonetheless, students must participate in it, so the teacher has to ask them different questions, for example, “What have you eaten this morning?” or “Where did you go yesterday?” The next step is that students have to answer the questions with complete sentences and, after that, the teacher asks another student to report what their classmate said.
In this chapter the process of analysis of the results is described with the purpose of identifying the effects ofcooperativelearning, while implementing comic strips, in responsive listening. In this way, this procedure was done analysing the data from eighteen students and using a data analysis method called grounded theory. Grounded theory was originally developed by sociologists Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss. This theory provides, as a method, the possibility to identify categories, analyse them and create relationships among them. In this way, grounded theory provides different key strategies to gather and to analyse information. In this research was used constant comparative analysis. The main objective of this analysis is to link and integrate categories in such a way that the researcher does not merely build up them but also analyse the whole complexity and diversity of the data by contrasting and comparing it (Willing, 2013). Therefore, the triangulation of information was done by considering certain criteria in each variable of this investigation (comic strips, cooperative work and responsive listening). Thus, having clear of what aspects to analyse in each category, it was possible to contrast what it was found in each data collection instrument.
In the Digital Systems course, the program addresses several complex concepts that some students find difficult to grasp. For example, thinking in terms of binary numbers and variables, viewing digital design from a systematic approach, combinational and sequential concepts, feedback and memory systems are new or abstract concepts that some students are slow to grasp. The course readings and support lectures are selected to address these concepts; however, many of the students do not read the assigned materials because it is not their preferred approach to acquire knowledge. The laboratory component of the course tries to introduce the students to course concepts from an experimental perspective to address those students whose learning styles prefer a specific teaching style. A considerable number of students also demonstrate boredom or a lack of challenge with the laboratory assignments.
why different state and autonomous projects have focused on developing a digital competence training for these teachers in order to change this landscape. The purpose of this paper is to know the impact of the INNOVACOOP project on the teaching staff of a teaching cooperative in Ciudad Autónoma de Ceuta (Spain). The work method is experimental pretest and posttest, in which a blended learning plan on digital competence has been applied between both. The measurement of responses was carried out through the creation of an ad hoc questionnaire that dealt with the different dimensions that make up the digital competence, as well as personal and motivational factors. With the collected answers, a descriptive-correlative analysis was carried out, in which it was intended with the use of the t-student test to know significant differences between the means of both tests, as well as significant differences between the effect sizes through the d of Cohen and the biserial correlation. The results reflected a considerable improvement in the different dimensions of digital competence, as well as in the receptivity and motivation of teachers towards ICT and its use in the classroom, being clear the importance of continuing working in permanent training on technology in teachers in exercise.
CooperativeLearning could be an adequate strategy for the English learning in a large classroom with heterogeneous learners.- According to (Hall, 1994) “Cooperativelearning explores the benefits to work in large groups with heterogeneous learners. Larger groups are good because they provide more people for doing big tasks; they increase the variety of people in a group in terms of skill, personalities, background, and they reduce the number of groups for the teacher to monitor”. This point has its advantages and disadvantages, Shindler, J. 2009 for example claims that a study showed that in groups of mixed ability, low-achieving students become passive and do not focused on the task.
First, teacher divides the entire class into small groups of three to six students; depends on the number of students in the class and about the topic in this case a reading text. An important point is that each team should be conformed in gender, ethnicity, cultural background, and ability. Then, teacher assigns a student as the leader. The team leader’s duty is to call on other team members in a fair manner to make sure that each member participates. Moreover, teacher divides the reading text into several paragraphs, making sure they match the number of students, so teacher assigns each student on every team the responsibility for one paragraph. Teacher gives enough time to read his or her paragraph in order to become familiar with it. Each student on each jigsaw team is responsible for a specific paragraph. The group gets together as “expert groups,”
The purpose of this article is to present a study that considered the factors that university students have in the real use of e-learning systems to promote self-directed and collaborative learning in the context of their university courses. In addition, a theoretical research scheme based on the TAM model was proposed and an online questionnaire was constructed, which was distributed by e-mail to all students of the Finance and Audit career at the University of the Armed Forces. In total, 128 university students responded. An exploratory and confirmatory analysis was carried out using Partial Least Squares (PLS) to validate the research model. The relationships between experience, subjective norms, perceived entertainment, computer anxiety, computational self-efficiency, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, the learning attitude and the actual use of e-learning systems were made. As a result of the proposed model, an explained variance of 49.7% was obtained in the use of this system and it was found that most of the students were interested in learningwith the Moodle platform and considered it a useful learning tool.
Higgins (1983) has addressed Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) as Computer-assisted language learning (CALL), British, or Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI)/Computer-Aided Language Instruction (CALI). Levy (1997) defined it as the search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning. In this instructional method, multimedia, in the form of pictures, texts, video, or sound, can make the content and process of the language education more vivid and dynamic than that of the traditional classroom. In computer-assisted instruction, instructors usually design watching, listening and speaking as major components of the class. Thus, with the assistant of computer and internet technology, a large amount of information can be input and output in communicative language teaching. Computer Assisted Instruction consists of distance education (off campus) and internet-based language teaching on campus. The latter has become one of the popular methods in EFL and ESL contexts in China’s educational system. It is very popular especially as the focus of education has moved from elite education to mass education. Internet-based teaching is not limited to time and space, which offers options for students to learn anytime and anywhere.
Cooperativelearning method was defined by Smith (1996) as group studies where each group member takes individual responsibility in order to realise a common purpose which includes positive solidarity. The pattern of behaviour and knowledge expected from student is different in cooperativelearning (Arnavut and Ozdamli, 2016). From the point of students, classroom is the tool to understand and explore the world and what is in it (Prichard, Bizo and Stratford, 2006; Abdullah and Shariff 2008). This learning environment is based on creation of a new product by students and their sharing opinions about and when necessary discussing this product (Uzunboylu and Hursen, 2011). During group studies, students develop different ways from each other with the applied strategies and problem-solving methods through decision-making, defining and helping each other and thus learn considerable information (Şimşek, Doymuş and Şimşek, 2008; Gutierez, 2017).
The model introduced in this article attempts to obtain appropriate pedagogical decisions taking into consideration the information acquired by the system and traditional specific tests. The results of these tests will be analyzed and will serve as the decisions' support. Particularly, the diagnosis module design will be dealt with. Such module will process the information in order to inform the system properly. The proposal especially provides the capture of the uncertainty present in the student's behavior as well as the teacher's qualitative knowledge so that the treatment of all that information can be clearly interpreted by fuzzy logic.
Appropriate team organization, with specific instructions and links for the activity, task-listing, task-distribution between team members and task-timing is vital for successful collaborative organization. It is argued here that access to a Gantt chart tool would suffice. However, neither VLEs offers a comprehensive project management tool, they only provide a calendar tool for students to edit. Again teams have to use an offline or online spreadsheet on other platforms to create their own Gantt charts. Both VLEs do, however, allow the user to upload resources with instructions and links for the activity.