InMexico there is a wide range of associations, organizations and travel agencies currently offering psychedelic experiences to national and international visitors, this offer generates a significant influx of individuals outside their usual environment, a social phenomenon known as tourism (WTO, 1995). Shamanic practices like psychedelic plant ingestion in indigenous religious contexts are part of an intangible cultural heritage spawning tourist flow inMexico and South America since the nineteen sixties. Even though shamanic religious practices were once an essential element of social life in many Mexican prehispanic communities (Hofmann, 1977; De La Garza; Ruiz, 2012) today, most universities, government authorities, and media outlets in the country are completely unfamiliar with such practices. This widespread unawareness currently merges with an expanding trend of psychedelic ‑tourism activities, which should be done properly; otherwise two main problems could be generated:
The Mexican State assumes the rectory of development, therefore the federal executive presents every six years a national development plan, which allows the development of sectoral, special, regional and institutional programs. Tourism is subsumed as a dynamic subsector of vital importance in planning for economic development, derived from its role as a foreign exchange provider and employment generator. The objective of this work is to identify and analyze the regulatory framework of tourism and its importance in the economic planning of Mexicoin the period 2000-2024. The methodology applied is documentary type with an exploratory- descriptive design that uses secondary sources of information; the presidential reports and national development plans of the reference period were consulted. Results and conclusions: the economic development process has required the establishment of conditions that ensure the dynamism of the services sector, as well as fully addressing its problems, which has implied a thematic and priority variety in planning, where the economic activity of tourism has become in growth axis. In the review of the legal framework of tourism, suitable additions are detected that support and guide the design of the planning, and envisage actions that were materialized in the medium term in six- year terms and there is no comprehensive future planning, rather, tourism it is dependent on the trend of urbanization, investment and growth of tourist activities located as a safe offer and other productive activities that generate greater impact on the economy.
InMexico there is a culture and tradition that turn out to be a great attraction for various types of travelers, including those seeking experiences linked to death, disasters or risks such as drug trafficking. The black tourism, also called dark, includes little known places due to the little diffusion they have, but which is currently growing due to the interest it arouses. The objective was to carry out a documentary investigation, in order to collect and publicize what is related to this worldwide trend that a new niche market means. The identification of this type of travel to these places and the tastes and preferences of visitors will produce a new tourist perception, in addition to understanding it, as well as the challenges and relevance that such exercise represents for the sector. Dark tourismin the country has not been commercialized due to certain cultural aspects and those related to the values that prevent the promotion of places where there were tragedies.
Although use of resampling approaches avoids the need to make distributional assumptions (e.g. that the data is normally distributed), it still requires some assumptions to hold. An important remaining assumption is that the data are independent. Frequently measured hydrological data (daily or hourly data in particular) are typically not independent: they show dependency from one value to the next (if flow is high today it is likely to be high tomorrow). This type of dependency is referred to as serial dependency, temporal dependency or autocorrelation. If it is present, but conveniently ignored, then it can result in inaccurate significance levels. A very simple technique to avoid problems of dependence is to average or aggregate (e.g. monthly data may often be treated as being independent whereas daily data cannot). However, data with serial dependency can instead be tested using resampling methods. In this case, the data is permuted or bootstrapped in blocks (e.g. all values within a year are kept together). With this approach the dependency structure within each block is built into the test and independence assumptions are thus no longer violated. Note that there are also alternative ways of tackling this problem (Section 5.5.2).
The increased similarity in our study was principally caused by 2544 naturalized alien species introduced to the islands. Extirpations (142 species) contributed weakly to changes in similarity. This ratio (18:1) differs ninefold from that reported for birds in oceanic islands (2:1; Cassey et al., 2007), but the greater importance of invasions over extinctions has been highlighted by other researchers (Rahel, 2000; Sax et al., 2002; Cassey et al., 2007; Castro et al., 2007; Sax & Gaines, 2008; Spear & Chown, 2008). Current floristic richness of the insular flora totalled 7749 taxa, 1791 more than the original condition. Because the islands share a high proportion of introduced species, richness has increased by 180% on average, i.e. nearly twofold the original richness (see Sax et al., 2002 for a similar finding), but at the expense of increased similarity. Our study focused on measuring homogenization contributed by all naturalized plants. In contrast, Kueffer et al. (2010) examined only dominant plant invaders of natural areas on islands around the world and found 3% similarity between island 12
estate space in mass retailer operations, typically located at or near the front-end of each store. In order for their operating partners to be successful, long-term partnership and agreements with the retailer must provide an opportunity for them to expand their presence in the market, minimize any negative impact on “sister" locations and provide a reasonable return on investment. (Twin Towers Trading, 2015) In the Asia Pacific region, Yum! Brands, the owner of KFC and Pizza Hut entered an agreement in 2011 with Chemical Corporation (SINOPEC) to open franchise outlets inside their gas stations in China. SINOPEC has been in a market share war with China Petroleum, and saw this opportunity to better position themselves as a one stop shop. Yum! Brands had already 4060 restaurants in 650 cities in China at the time. This opportunity opens a new market for Yum! Brands since SINOPEC operates 30,000 gas stations. But also, SINOPEC had a previous alliance with McDonald’s which had signed in 2007 and alliance for 20 years. Yum! Brands had a disadvantage of the latecomer including that frictions with McDonald’s came in regards of which locations they were going to be selecting. To complicate the SINOPEC/ Yum! Brands alliance, another regional Asian competitor “Dicos” also came into a similar alliance with SINOPEC (Peng , 2009). Such complex alliance structures could diminish the growth potential that initially attracted Yum! Brands into an alliance with SINOPEC.
While investment in women's human capital in the tourist industry has increased in recent years and it seems that discrimination in access to managerial positions has fallen, we can still find different situations of inequality. Women get a wage below men and there are new forms of occupational segregation between women and men and even women themselves: the division between part- and full-time jobs is a good example of this process. The hypothesis here is that this combination of paid work time (public domain) and unpaid (private, household) is an obstacle that causes the access of men to jobs so far, "female", likewise, quality of tourism employment will be seen from the perspective of gender.
The Ephesus area is considered to be one of the most important values of cultural tourism. It is one of the richest ancient cities in history formed by Greek and Roman cultures. Furthermore, it is one of the best examples of the ancient age, recognized by archaeologists and historians. The largest ancient theatre of Turkey and houses on the slopes with well -protected mosaics and frescoes, symbolizing the past, can be found in this area. In addition to this, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, “The Temple of Artemis” was built in Ephesus. Taking all these facts into consideration, the Ephesus area has been accepted as a symbol of history and culture (Eser, Dalgin and Ceken, 2013). One of the main ideas of sustainable tourism is based on the stance that tourism industry is responsible for the state of degradation of natural and cultural environments. Users of local resources are obliged to pay attention on conservation issues. In that respect, the potential of tour guides for minimizing negative impacts of tourism traffic is rarely perceived and used (Rabotic, 2010). Furthermore, even though tour guides are one of the most visible players intourism industry but, to date little scholarly attention was given to tour guides and guiding profession, not to speak of the links that tour guides may have with sustainability of tourism (Hu, 2007). Tour guides are - particularly in the eyes of tourists - representatives and “ambassadors” of tourism destinations but they are also their “protectors”. Hence, they should be treated as one of the destination stakeholders and due to their direct and often intense contact with tourists, actively involved in the implementation of sustainable tourism (Rabotic, 2010). In this context, this study addresses the gap by promoting an understanding of how tour guides can assist to moving tourismin a sustainable direction. Additionally, this study aims to question valorization process of Ephesus Ancient City as one of the cultural heritage sites of Turkey in relation with tour guiding practices. In doing so, several specific objectives are to be achieved: to understand sustainable tourism and the relation between sustainable tourism and tourism; to explore the roles and responsibilities of tour guides and their implications for the promotion of tourism sustainability and valorization process of cultural heritage sites such as Ephesus Ancient City; to examine to what extend tour guides exert their functions to support tourism development. By fulfilling these research objectives, it is expected to enhance the comprehension of the linkage between tour guides and sustainability, which is beneficial to both practical tour guide management and cultural site managers. In addition, this study will contribute to the literature on sustainable tourism development and cultural heritage site valorization process.
This paper aims to analyze the development of human resources in the Mexican tourism sector. This industry has contributed significantly in the progress of the economy. However, little development of human resources has been observed, many jobs are not well paid. Statistical data were analyzed in the period from 2008 to 2013. The information was taken from reports of the National Employment Service, Labor Observatory and the Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare bodies. The results show that the population employed in the tourism sector represents around three million people; most of them have primary and secondary education, while a minority with university studies. In the year 2008, most of the population had primary education, and a smaller amount with higher education. During 2009, the average monthly income was the smallest of the period studied. With respect to the employment position, in 2012 the lowest amount of population occupied in management positions was observed. In conclusion, the Mexican government needs to develop a set of public policies that allow the development of human capital in the Mexican tourism sector.
The Middle East and North Africa observed clear decline. The number of tourists has dropped sharply in the March 2011 in the Middle East as reported by the World Tourism Organization. In 2010 reached 54.8 million visitors after an increase of 14.9%. In North Africa, the percentage declined to 9.9% with 16.9% in 2011 after witnessed a 6.5% increase in the previous year. Tourism activities fell by 41% in Syria, 24% in Lebanon and 16% in Jordan in the first seven months of 2011. Considering, that tourism is major contributor to the GDP in most of these countries. Monarchies did better than the autocrats, but from Bahrain to Jordan and Morocco, all were forced to make cessions and are still dealing with the Arab Spring fallout. The absolute rulers of the Gulf States including Qatar, the UAE and Saudi Arabia put down what little dissent they faced. But revolts elsewhere worried leaders, pushing them into external clashes, particularly in Yemen, to protect their power. There is greater tension between them, particularly Qatar and Saudi Arabia, and the wars have
Therefore, the satisfaction of this need strives for well-being as long as the individual respects and values the environment in which he resides temporarily. In this regard, it can be said that accessible tourism is an opportunity to demonstrate that the state and private companies are committed to facilitating democratic processes and social inclusion, which are fundamental elements for promoting the principles of Equality and non-discrimination. Likewise, it is the right of all human beings to be equal in dignity, to be treated with respect and consideration and to participate on equal bases in any area of economic, social, political, cultural or civil life... The principles of equality reflect the moral consensus among professionals of equity and human rights. It is based on concepts and jurisprudence developed in international, regional and national contexts (COPRED, s/f). While Rodríguez (2017, p. 19) states that "the right to non-discrimination is the right of every person to be treated homogeneously, without arbitrary exclusion, distinction or restriction, so that he is able to take full advantage of the rest of his Fundamental rights and freedoms and free access to socially available opportunities. " In this case, there is a link between mutual and equal treatment, education, the procuring of justice, empathy and ethical behavior, without overlooking the moral and environmental conscience. In this way, equality is an inseparable assumption of morality, which recognizes equality as the very dynamics of morality; Since it would not be possible to raise universality, which is the particular characteristic of a moral judgment, if there is no provision to consider that others have such legitimate and secure desires and rights as ours; Morality is unthinkable without the notion of equality (Valcárcel 1994, p. 1).
; Coreil, 1984: Suarez-Orozco, Rhodes, & Milburn, 2009), the tendency for recent Latino/a im- migrants to the U.S. to have lower incidence of low birth weight than U.S. born people from the same country in subsequent generations (Bender & Castro, 2000) has been highlighted. Mexican immigrants have also been found to suffer from significantly fewer mental health disorders than U.S.- born Mexican-Americans (Escobar, Nervi, & Gara 2000), thus suggesting the possibility of a relationship between time in the U.S. and resilience. While resilience refers to coping in the face of ad- versity, thriving refers to a better-off state after the adversity. Inthriving, one does not merely return to pre-level functioning, but actually surpasses it (Carver, 1998). Thriving has been found related to the ability to find meaning in adversity (Parry & Chesler, 2005), and in adolescents, to relate to developmental assets, including caring for community, academic success, recognition of diversity, and healthy lifestyles (Benson
In this study an analytical course is established that starts from the emerging phenomenon of cultural tourism, recreates the concept of heritage interpretation and its principles, evolving from Freeman Tilden until today. This concept is seen as a method to find the essence and meaning of a territory, and the enhancement of cultural property in such a way that serves to achieve the genesis of new tourism products through adequate social planning. The report also presents distinctive strategies and proposals, like the cultural site and the museum territory, allowing the design, by multidisciplinary teams, of interesting processes of economic development focused on heritage and tourism.
These conflicts of access to private property in the Serra can be aggravated when a fire of great magnitude that occurred, like the one on July 26, 2013 where 2335 hectares of forest mass were calcined. After this devastating event most important thing was to carry out the recovery of the Serra de Tramuntana, but at that time a conflict arose, 93% of the burned area was private finques. 841 owners in this situation should give access to their finques to carry out the recovery plan is at these times that we must appeal to the collaboration and not create more conflict normativing to force entry to these farms. Moreover, the authorization of the owners allows public forces to help with work and economic aid.
The main goal of HiTab is neither not to eliminate the substitutes nor competitors. It is to create the best efficient environment for both the customers and competition. The competition will help HiTab to increase the quality of the services and the application; also will reinforce to be the best in its category. One of the HiTab’s main missions is to have happy and satisfied employees. With all the management by objective studies that has mentioned, HiTab targets to develop employees by giving what they deserve. Once the product is launched and the employees are hired, it will be really important to negotiate the objectives and also mention their other requests to get the best efficiency out of their abilities since this process has two-side perceptions.
oChoose Responsibly: Have you elected to support businesses that clearly and actively address the cultural and environmental concerns of the locale you are visiting? oSupport Local Enterprise: Have you made a commitment to contribute to the local economy by using businesses that economically support the community you are visiting, eating in local restaurants and buying locally made artisan crafts as remembrances of your trip?
Management of the DDBR is supported by the Danube Delta National Institute for Research and Development (DDNI), which has been set up to provide scientific support for decision makers both in the DDBRA and the Tulcea County Council. For its capacity to influence policies at local and central levels, DDNI was nominated as “National focal point” for fisheries and land cover. At European level, DDNI has been designated as a Centre of Excellence for Deltas and Wetlands. The DDBR’s natural and cultural features are major tourism resources. The delta offers an almost unspoilt landscape of river channels, lakes, reed beds, dunes and forests, beaches on the Black Sea coast and village settlements with traditional buildings and a rich culture.
The main objective of this research was to estimate and compare the Tourism Demand for Uruguay and Mexico from the main outbound tourism countries: Argentina for Uruguay and the USA for Mexico. Tourism is frequently viewed as an important engine for the economic growth and development of countries. InMexico, the domestic trips have become a notable feature but the main tourism exports are from internationals travelers for who Mexico was the 9th country more attractive in 2015 and 58.3% tourists came from the USA. For Uruguay, total yearly tourists represent about 90% of its population, Argentinean tourists being nearly 60% of this total and historically the main visitors.
Catalonia than the chemical, financial, property development and automobile industries. The multiplier effect of tourism on the eco- nomy of the city of Barcelona and the province is very significant: 25% of the impact affects sectors not directly considered as tourism. In terms of demand, the variety of profiles is very wide, which helps reduce seasonality in activity during the week and throughout the year. Tourismin Barcelona is characterised by a wide variety of departure origins and by its international market trends, which has not stopped growing: 80% of tourism demand comes from overseas markets (2013). In 2013, the most significant markets were France (8.4%), United Kingdom (8.3%), United States (8.3%), Germany (6.0%), and Italy (5.9%), followed by Russia (3.1%) and the Netherlands (2.8%). And tourists are beginning to arrive from emerging countries (a significant increase in the Russian market and the beginnings of a Chinese market). Another characteristic is the wide variety of reasons for coming: 50.6% of visitors come to Barcelona for holidays, 40.9% do so for professional reasons and 8.5% gave personal reasons (2013).