ring to ∠E and ∠F] already add up to 360 so this is not possible. Our analysis suggests that the quadrilateral ABCD is initially a proto-pseudo ob- ject, and it becomes a pseudo object for the solvers once EFBD is perceived as “not possible” (Line 10). EFBD possesses two contradictory properties which the solvers perceive simultaneously as (a) a quadrilateral with 4 angles whose sum is 360 degrees (as all convex quadrilaterals), and (b) a quadrilateral in which the sum of only two angles is 360 degrees —statement in proof and Line 10. This pseudo object EFBD contains the contradiction necessary for a proof by contra- diction. The proof is completed by noticing that when EFBD is being dragged to degenerate (disappear) the two circles, C1 and C2 in Figure 1, coincide. In other words, the presence of the pseudo object implies the negation of the conclusion of the statement to prove. By arriving at the proof, the solvers are aware that their original quadrilateral ABCD also possess contradictory properties; that is, (a) its four vertices are on different circles and (b) the sum of two opposite angles is 180°. Hence the proto-pseudo object ABCD becomes a pseudo object.
Most applications for rational agents involve interacting with a dynamic world. To properly achieve this interaction, the agent must be continuously adapting to the changes in its environment. In this context, perception is a mandatory issue. We have tailored the DeLP system incorporating perceptions abilities into a new formalism called Observation based DeLP (ODeLP). The language of ODeLP is composed by a set of observations Ψ , encoding the knowledge the agent has about the world, and a set of defeasible rules ∆ , representing ways of extending the observations with tentative information (i.e., information that can be used if nothing is posed against it). The ODeLP program P structuring the knowledge of the agent is able to express the following doxastic attitudes with respect a query q:
Admittedly, Experiments 1 and 3 have many things in common. It could even be argued that Experiment 3 is an easier version of Experiment 1, because the two target corners are closer than in Experiment 1. If this reasoning is correct, then we should not be surprised by the absence of sex differences in Experiment 3 (for a demonstration showing that males and females learn to swim to the platform equally rapidly when a swimming problem is made easier, see Forcano, Santamaría, Mackintosh, & Chamizo, 2009). More research is certainly needed to understand geometry learning in rats. In the present study, did the animals relied on the global representation of the apparatus or alternatively, on local cues, like boundaries (Doeller & Burgess, 2008; Doeller, King, & Burgess, 2008)? Could females find difficult curved but not straight lines? Could our Experiments 2 and 3 be reflecting floor effects? Is the order of the three pools a critical variable in the present results? Future experiments will answer all the previous questions.
The goal of the framework is to provide a basis for the characterization of reason- ing influenced by emotions in an agent or synthetic actor in a virtual scenario. We are interested in a dynamic, continuous process of reasoning that provides a believable illusion of human thinking. Thus, a reasoning cycle is modelled. Al- though not shown in this paper, this cycle could be suspended or resumed when needed in the virtual simulation. It is sufficient by now to present the model of knowledge processing, which is sketched in Algorithm 1. An inference graph is dynamically constructed by selecting a highlighted rule of the knowledge base. Intensity of rules must be updated accordingly.
This action-as-conclusion, as Anscombe suggests, may be accompanied by statements such as ‘I’m f -ing’ in the case where the reasoning results in intentional action ‘straightaway’; or ‘I shall f ’ when the action is in the future. And thus we may think of these as some kind of propositional correlates of the inten- tional action. But there is something important to notice about these statements, namely that they are expressions of intention: the first of intention ‘in action’, and the second of intention for the future. They are not statements that report observations of what is going on now, or predictions of what will happen based on evidence. Although they are truth-evaluable, and may be falsified if what is said is not what is the case, they are peculiar because they are the kinds of statements where, as Anscombe puts it, ‘Theophrastus’ principle’ applies: if what is said is not what is the case, then the mistake is in the performance. In addition, both their justification and their contradiction are also special. The first is by reference to reasons for acting (as opposed to evidence or other reasons for believing that things are so). And the second requires a contradictory intention, rather than a report that things are not as the expression of intention says they are. That is what Anscombe means when she says that the con- tradiction of ‘I am going to bed at midnight’ is not ‘You won’t, for you never keep such resolutions’ (inductive evidence) but rather ‘You won’t, for I am going to stop you’ (contrary intention). 34
Clearly, the primary goal of geometric constraint solving is to define rigid shapes. However an interesting problem arises when we ask whether allowing parameter constraint values to change with time makes sense. The answer is in the positive. Assuming a contin- uous change in the variant parameters, the result of the geometric constraint solving with variant parameters would result in the generation of families of different shapes built on top of the same geometric elements but governed by a fixed set of constraints. Considering the problem where several parameters change simultaneously would be a great accomplish- ment. However the potential combinatorial complexity make us to consider problems with just one variant parameter. Elaborating on work from other authors, we develop a new algorithm based on a new tool we have called h-graphs that properly solves the geometric constraint solving problem with one variant parameter. We offer a complete proof for the soundness of the approach which was missing in the original work.
terms of a logical contradiction), an attack relationship between arguments can be defined. A criterion is usually defined to decide between two conflicting argu- ments. If the attacking argument is strictly preferred over the attacked one, then it is called a proper defeater. If no comparison is possible, or both arguments are equi-preferred, the attacking argument is called a blocking defeater. In order to determine whether a given argument A is ultimately undefeated (or warranted ), a dialectical process is recursively carried out, where defeaters for A, defeaters for these defeaters, and so on, are taken into account. Given a DeLP program P and a query H , the final answer to H w.r.t. P takes such dialectical analysis into account. The answer to a query can be: yes, no, undecided, or unknown.
of affairs. The issue is approached through a discussion of contem- porary epistemological reliabilism, which seeks to put appeals to reliable processes in place of more traditional appeals to inferential justiﬁcations—at least in epistemology, and perhaps also in under- standing the contents of knowledge claims. Three insights and two blindspots of reliabilism are identiﬁed. What I call the Found- ing Insight points out that reliably formed true beliefs can qualify as knowledge even where the candidate knower cannot justify them. Goldman’s Insight is that attributions of reliability must be relativized to reference classes. The Implicit Insight I discern in the examples used to motivate the ﬁrst two claims is that attribu- tions of reliability should be understood in terms of endorsements of a distinctive kind of inference. The Conceptual Blindspot results from overgeneralizing the founding insight from epistemology to semantics, taking it that because there can be knowledge even in cases where the knower cannot offer an inferential justiﬁcation, it is therefore possible to understand the content of (knowledge) claims without appeal to inference at all. The Naturalistic Blind- spot seeks in reliabilism the basis of a fully naturalized epistemol- ogy, one that need not appeal to norms or reasons at all. To avoid the Conceptual Blindspot, one must appreciate the signiﬁcance of speciﬁcally inferential articulation in distinguishing representa- tions that qualify as beliefs, and hence as candidates for knowl- edge. To avoid the Naturalistic Blindspot, one must appreciate that concern with reliability is concern with a distinctive kind of interpersonal inference. Appreciating the role of inference in these explanatory contexts is grasping the implicit insight of reliabilism. It is what is required to conserve and extend both the Founding Insight and Goldman’s Insight. Thus, reliability should be under- stood in terms of the goodness of inference rather than the other way around.
Observation of particular cases. As we can see in Table 3, seven students turned to particular cases in a spontaneous way, without any interviewer intervention. Finally (in the rest of the cases with the interviewer’s suggestion), all of them considered a number of particular cases higher than three, so their work was similar in this respect. This common fact is relevant because they considered (some of them, explicitly) that the more particular cases they considered, the eas- ier it would be to obtain a pattern. They had made a translation from verbal rep- resentation to the graphical one.
A large number of unique domain objects and unique actions are presented in RTS games. In the category of domain objects it can be mentioned different type of mobile units, different type of buildings with varying defensive and unit production capabilities, modification of buildings, and resources that must be managed to con- struct buildings and units. In the field of actions it can be mentioned different kind of building and unit construction orders, choosing upgrades and tech development for units, resource management, and the actions to employ unit capabilities during bat- tle. In an RTS game, actions can occur at multiple scale levels. High-level strategy decisions involve which type of buildings and units need to be produced, intermediate tactical decisions include how to deploy group of units across the map and low level micro-management decisions about individual unit actions. The complexity of RTS games grows for successful players that must engage in multiple, simultaneous, real- time tasks. It is typically that in the middle of a game, a player may be managing the defense and production capacities of several bases while being simultaneously engaged in one or more battles. Finally, incomplete information is enforced by RTS games in the form of “the fog of war” that hides most of the map. To actively gather information about enemy activities, the player who can only see areas of the map where he has unit, requires the deployment of scout units across the map [McCoy and Mateas, 2008].
In a sense the fundamental fermions resolve the point- like 3-graviton, 4-graviton, etc., interactions into extended form factors and this is the reason for the mitigation of the terrible ultraviolet behavior of quantum gravity. However this is only part of the story, because this could be equally achieved by using Dirac fermions coupled to gravity (or any other field for that matter). This would in fact be just a reproduction of the old program of induced gravity  and therefore not that interesting. The really novel point in this proposal is that the microscopic fermion action does not contain any metric tensor at all. Then not only is the metric and its fluctuations —the gravitons— spontane- ously generated, but the possible counterterms are severely limited in number.
Nevertheless, it is interesting to know not only if a set is contradictory, but also the extent to which this property holds; that is, it is neces- sary to measure somehow the degree of con- tradiction of any AIFS. In order to do this, in  some functions were proposed to measure both the degree of N -contradiction with re- spect to a strong negation N , and the degree of contradiction of an AIFS. And in , an axiomatic model to measure contradiction is given. In a similar way, this paper focuses on establishing an axiomatic model to measure N -contradiction.
One relevant aspect of the present work is that the mobility of AChR clusters could be followed at high particle densities, a situation which tends to mimic conditions met at developing synapses, not the fully developed neuromuscular junction. In recent work on a7 AChR in cultured hippocampal neurons, SPT analysis required labeling of only a small fraction of receptors with quantum dot-coupled a-BTX . Furthermore, we have employed streamed image acquisition of cell membrane-bound AChR nanoclusters, limited only by the speed of the CCD camera. The 2-D regions were analyzed in terms of trajectories of individual nanoclusters. The kinetics of translational mobility, speed, path lengths, etc., the lateral diffusion coefficient, D, the relative proportion of mobile and immobile fractions, and the trajectories themselves were analyzed under different experimental conditions. Analysis of the particle trajectories at high particle densities was made possible using the software U-track developed by Jaqaman et al. , an open code supporting the integration of personalized algorithms and able to handle relatively large amounts of data efficiently and within acceptably short times with standard personal computer power (see Material and Methods). U- track is a multiple-particle tracking Matlab software designed to follow trajectories in fields densely populated by particles, a condition often found with cell-surface receptors expressed at high densities in mammalian cells. Furthermore, U-track closes the gaps in particle trajectories resulting from detection failure, and captures particle merging and splitting events resulting from occlusion or genuine aggregation and dissociation events.
tasks included in the BPR can be considered part of the group of visuospatial abilities at which literature has found males to perform better (Voyer, Voyer, & Bryden, 1995) and with different effect sizes depending on the task. Meta-analytic studies on spatial visualization ability conclude that the greatest gender differences are concentrated in mental cube rotation tasks; however, although this is the type of task included in the spatial reasoning test, the effects found in our study were negligible. This result, together with the behavior of the mechanical reasoning test, turn the focus back to two points of interest: (a) a more in-depth intercultural analysis that enables us to explore the differences among populations where the BPR is used, (b) the possibility that, together with the spatial reasoning test, a factor associated with visual ability is created.
Abstract: In the context of the liberalization of electricity markets, forecasting prices is essential. With this aim, research has evolved to model the particularities of electricity prices. In particular, dynamic factor models have been quite successful in the task, both in the short and long run. However, specifying a single model for the unobserved factors is difficult, and it cannot be guaranteed that such a model exists. In this paper, model averaging is employed to overcome this difficulty, with the expectation that electricity prices would be better forecast by a combination of models for the factors than by a single model. Although our procedure is applicable in other markets, it is illustrated with an application to forecasting spot prices of the Iberian Market, MIBEL (The Iberian Electricity Market). Three combinations of forecasts are successful in providing improved results for alternative forecasting horizons.
First step the chip morphology and tool characterized by geometrical measurements used monitoring system. In this case, was monitored by using a Olympus Stylus SH-60 Digital Camera (ON LINE) and the dimensional of chip was measured by an optical microscope NIKON model Optiphot 280 serie 460774, Kappa Image Base camera model CF11 DSP (OFF LINE) for this step was necessary to using metallurgical processes. Chips obtained after cutting process were mounted with epoxy and following the next steps: a) selection of chip, b) mounting in epoxy resin, c) mechanical grinding, d) polished to reveal their sections and the last step was: d) etching with Kroll´s reagent (50 ml H 2 O + 2 ml HF + 5 ml HNO 3 ) for 20
switch operation. Optimising the center of the cavity by adding holes at the junction is a rational method to obtain efficient splitting in Y- junctions. By adding smaller holes, the optical volume is reduced, mode expansion is prevented and excitation of higher order modes is suspended. Two smaller size holes are placed at the junction and the radius values are optimised. In the optimization, the initial values and the lower and upper bounds of the two air holes are given as input parameters and an algebraic expression is defined which maximizes the total flux detected from the output sensors relative to the flux through the reference detector. The optimizations are performed automatically by changing the radii of the holes each time and outputting the flux value.